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New american rogets college thesaurus in dictionary form



THE

NEW AMERICAN
ROGET’S
COLLEGE
THESAURUS
IN DICTIONARY FORM
Third Revised Edition Prepared by

Philip D. Morehead

Previously published as
The Penguin Roget’s College Thesaurus
in Dictionary Form

A SIGNET BOOK


Originally prepared and edited by

The National Lexicographic Board
Albert H. Morehead, Chairman and General Editor
Waldemar Von Zedtwitz, President
Loy C. Morehead, Vice President; Donald D. Wolf,
William C. Campbell, George H. Copeland, Jack Luzzatto.
Staff for
The New American Roget’s College Thesaurus
Jack Luzzatto and Loy Morehead, Editors
William C. Campbell, William T. Atwood,
Betty Brinkerhoff, Elizabeth MacLean, Associate Editors.
SIGNET
Published by New American Library, a division of
Penguin Putnam Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A.
Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England
Penguin Books Australia Ltd, Ringwood, Victoria, Australia
Penguin Books Canada Ltd, 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2
Penguin Books (N.Z.) Ltd, 182–190 Wairau Road, Auckland 10, New Zealand
Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices:
Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England
Published by Signet, an imprint of New American Library,
a division of Penguin Putnam Inc. Third revised edition previously published as
The Penguin Roget’s College Thesaurus in Dictionary Form.
ISBN: 1-4295-1376-4
Copyright © Albert H. Morehead, 1958, 1962
Copyright © Andrew T. Morehead and Philip D. Morehead, 1978
Copyright © Philip D. Morehead and Andrew T. Morehead, 1985
Copyright © Philip D. Morehead, 2001
All rights reserved
REGISTERED TRADEMARK—MARCA REGISTRADA
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number for the Penguin Reference hardcover edition of this title: 2001036039
Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,
or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and
the above publisher of this book.


To my father



The editor would like to give special thanks to Hugh Rawson,


my former editor at New American Library for almost twenty
years, who initiated this project and guided me through many
others over the years. Thanks are also due to Sarah Manges,
who ably picked up this project from Hugh and has been of
great help to me in its completion. Thanks to my long-suffering
wife, Patricia Morehead, composer and oboist, who put up
with my endless hours at the computer. And finally, I would
like to acknowledge the hard work of my late father and
mother, Albert H. Morehead and Loy Morehead, who together
were responsible for the original work on which this volume is
based.



how to use this thesaurus
PETER MARK ROGET was an English physician who was born in 1779
and who died in 1869. As a hobby he liked to make lists of words and group
them together when they were related to one another. Some were related because they were synonyms, such as illegal and unlawful; some because they
were antonyms, such as peaceful and warlike; some because they were reminders of one another, such as father and mother. Altogether Mr. Roget
made a thousand different groups, or categories, of related words. Every
word he knew or could find in the dictionaries he had was classified in one
or more of these categories. In 1852, Mr. Roget’s list of words was published. He called the book a thesaurus, or treasury, of words. There were not
many words in the first Roget’s Thesaurus compared to the number in a volume like this, but his book was the first collection of synonyms, antonyms,
and other related words. Not only writers, but also many others found it invaluable. Dozens of editors, beginning with Mr. Roget’s son, have revised
the original Thesaurus, added to it, and brought it up to date (for many of
the words in the original Roget list are now obsolete and many common
words of today were unknown in his time); but virtually every edition is still
called Roget’s Thesaurus in honor of the man who first had the idea.
This edition of Roget’s Thesaurus is both a dictionary of synonyms and
a thesaurus, or “treasury,” of related words. It combines in one easy-to-use
alphabetical list categories (very much like those in Roget’s original thesaurus) and a list of words with their close synonyms. For clarity, each category is printed the full width of the page and set off in a box while the synonym listings are printed at half-page width.
To find synonyms for a word, first look up the word in the alphabetical
list. In most cases, you will find what you are looking for immediately under that word. Reference to more synonyms is indicated by words printed in
small capitals. If you look up the word or words referred to, you will find
additional synonyms and other words related to the word you were looking
up. Most references are to categories, where you will also find words of related meaning but different parts of speech. Antonyms are listed for many
synonym entries, and at the end of each category entry you will find references to sources for antonyms.
A special feature of this edition is the inclusion of many phrases and quotations, both contemporary and historical, appropriate to a certain category.
Frequently only one form of a word is entered in the alphabetical word
list. You will find synonyms for the other forms by referring to the entries
printed in small capitals under the listed word. For example, to find synonyms for proximate, look under proximity in the alphabetical word list and
refer to the category nearness, where you find adjacent, adjoining and
other related adjectives.


How to Use This Thesaurus
A word or phrase in parentheses—( )—is explanatory or shows how the
preceding word is to be used in a sentence. Brackets—[ ]—indicate that the
bracketed letters, word, or phrase might or might not be used with the adjoining word, depending on the preference of the writer.
In the listings, synonyms for different senses of the listed word are separated by semicolons (;). Informal and slang senses of the entry word are labeled informal or slang at the beginning of each sense; informal and slang
synonyms for all senses of the entry word are listed separately, headed by Informal or Slang, respectively. Moreover, entry words or individual synonyms
might be labeled to indicates special or substandard usage. The most commonly used labels—in addition to informal and slang—are dial. (dialectal),
Brit. (British), poetic, and archaic.
In the category entries, numbered senses are often preceded by a contextual gist label in parentheses and italics that indicates the meaning being covered in that paragraph. These labels can help you find the right word more
quickly.
Familiar dictionary abbreviations are used for parts of speech: n., noun;
v., verb; v.i., intransitive verb; v.t., transitive verb; adj., adjective; adv., adverb; pron., pronoun; prep., preposition; conj., conjunction; interj., interjection.
This is not a dictionary. It does not define words except to the extent that
they are defined in their synonyms. A word that has no natural synonyms is
not entered merely to define it. Moreover, alternate spellings for a word are
generally not given. The publishers of this thesaurus also publish a companion volume, The New American Webster Handy College Dictionary, which
was the authority for the preferred spellings used herein and in which may
be found definitions of most of the words in this book.
Antonyms formed by simply adding un-, in-, dis-, etc., are generally not
given, nor are words listed when they are simple negatives of other words.
For example, such a word as unloved is not entered because one may merely
look up the positive term, but unbearable is entered because the positive
term has various dissimilar meanings.
The editor appreciates readers’ suggestions for additions to the word list,
phrases, and quotations, and any other comments. Comments and suggestions can be sent to the editor by e-mail at pmorehead@philsbooks.com.

[ viii ]


aback

[1]

A
aback, adv. rearward, behind. See
rear,
difficulty.
—taken
aback, disconcerted (see discontent).
abaft, adv. aft, astern, behind. See
rear.
abandon, v.t. relinquish, resign, give
up, forgo, surrender, discontinue,
waive, abdicate; leave, quit, evacuate, withdraw (from); desert, forsake, maroon, discard, drop; let
go, throw up, pull out of, have
done with, turn one’s back on,
wash one’s hands of; pull out on.
See relinquishment, resignation, disuse. —n. rashness,
recklessness, impetuosity, impulsiveness, audacity. Ant., retain;
continue; restraint.
abandoned, adj. dissipated, immoral, reprobate, dissolute, depraved; lost; unbridled. See
impurity, rashness, relinquishment, disuse.
abase, v.t. humble (see abash); demean, degrade; dishonor; cast
down. See humility, servility.
Ant., uplift, exalt.
abash, v.t. humiliate, humble,
shame; embarrass, disconcert;
mortify, crush, take down a peg.
See humility. Ant., hearten, rally.
abate, v. decrease, lessen, moderate, diminish, subside; allay,
slake, slacken, subdue; curtail, remit; let down (on), take off the
edge (of). Ant., increase.
abattoir, n. slaughterhouse (see
killing).
abbé, abbess, abbot, n. See
clergy.
abbey, n. See temple.
abbreviate, v. abridge, condense,
contract, shorten, curtail, digest,
truncate, prune. See shortness, deduction. Ant., expand,
lengthen.
ABCs, n. alphabet; basics, rudiments. See intrinsic, writing.

abnormal

abdicate, v. relinquish, resign, renounce, abandon, quit, surrender.
See relinquishment, resignation. Ant., retain, maintain.
abdomen, n. belly, paunch, epigastrium, venter; midriff; corporation, solar plexus, guts (all inf.).
See interior, body.
abduct, v.t. kidnap, carry off, steal,
spirit away, shanghai, snatch. See
stealing.
abeam, adv. sideways (see side).
aberration, n. deviation, variation,
distortion, disorientation; aberrance, insanity; error.
abet, v.t. aid, assist, support; encourage. Ant., impede, discourage.
abeyance, n. suspension. See end,
latency. Ant., renewal, operation.
abhor, v.t. hate. Ant., love.
abide, v. dwell, reside, live, stay; tolerate, endure, submit (to); remain,
stay. See abode, durability,
feeling. Ant., proceed, depart.
ability, n. power, skill, competency, capacity, capability, aptitude, faculty, talent (inf.), knowhow; what it takes (sl.). Ant.,
inability, incompetency.
ab initio, Lat., from the beginning.
abject, adj. servile, contemptible;
miserable, wretched, hangdog;
base. See servility, improbity,
contempt. Ant., exalted, noble.
abjure, v. forswear, renounce, repudiate. See negation, nullification. Ant., maintain.
ablaze, adj. afire, burning; aglow.
See heat, light, resentment.
able, adj. capable, competent, skillful, talented. See power, skill.
Ant., incompetent; weak.
able-bodied, adj. fit, robust. See
strength, health.
abloom, adj. blossoming; in blossom or flower. See prosperity.
ablution, n. cleansing, washing. See
cleanness. Ant., pollution.
abnegate, v. See negation.
abnormal, adj. unusual, aberrant, eccentric, irregular, anomalous; in-


aboard

[2]

sane; monstrous. See unconformity, insanity. Ant., normal.
aboard, adv. & prep. on, on board.

abode
Informal, astride. See presence,
ship.

ABODE
Place of residence
Nouns—1, (living place) abode, dwelling, residence, accommodations,
domicile, address, habitation, berth, nest, seat, lodging[s], lodging place,
roof over one’s head, quarters, headquarters, base, depot, housing, place;
habitat; open housing; barracks, dormitory; harem; stigmatized house;
time-share. Informal, place to hang one’s hat. Slang, dump, joint, digs,
[crash]pad, [laid] crib, pilch, shebang. See location.
2, (home) home, homeplace, homestead, hearth, hearthstone, fireside, inglenook, ingleside, household, ménage, roof, lares et penates; ancestral
hall[s], fatherland, native land or soil, country. Informal, roost; repent pad.
3, (refuge) retreat, asylum, cloister, hermitage, hideaway, hiding-place,
sanctuary, arbor, sanctum sanctorum, cave, nest, den, cell, dugout, hive,
hole, lair, haunt. Slang, hangout, hideout, stamping ground or place. See
seclusion.
4, (outdoor camp) camp, barrack[s], bivouac, encampment, casemate;
stopover; tourist camp, trailer camp; caravan, mobile home; cave, cliff
dwelling; houseboat (see navigation). Slang, [hobo] jungle, squats.
5, (structure) house, dwelling[-place], building; hall; chalet, bungalow,
maisonette, manor-house; brownstone [house], semidetached, flat, apartment [house], two-(etc.)family house, farmhouse, ranch house, split- or
bi-level, duplex, triplex, townhouse, pied-à-terre, condominium, cooperative, time-share; penthouse, tenement, loft; ark; temple; rectory; [residential] hotel; skyscraper; [housing] development, [building] project; trailer;
cliff dwelling; outbuilding; pueblo. Informal, diggings, digs; condo,
co-op. Slang, pad, cheesebox, go-up, jam house, repent pad. See architecture, building.
6, (modest structure) hut, adobe, bunkhouse, cabin, cottage, hovel, igloo,
tupek, lean-to, log cabin, Quonset or Nissen hut, rancho, shack, shanty,
tent, tepee, hogan, earth lodge, wickiup, wigwam, balok, sweat lodge,
kiosk, jacal. Slang, rathole.
7, (commercial dwelling) inn, caravansary, club, hospice, pension, posada,
roadhouse, hostel, hostelry, hotel, motel, motor hotel, motor court, motor
inn, rooming house, bread and breakfast, boardinghouse; resort, spa.
Slang, scratch-crib; cherry orchard.
8, (animal dwelling) barn, cowshed, doghouse, kennel, pound, henhouse,
hutch, warren, pen, [pig]sty, apiary, shed, stable, stall, booth, coop, dovecote, aviary, birdcage, birdhouse, roost, beehive.
9, (palatial dwelling) casa, mansion, manor, manse, palace, château, villa,
alcázar, dacha, lodge, castle (see defense), hall, estate, hacienda, palazzo,
ranch, plantation, farm, domain, country seat.
10, (town) community; village, hamlet, burg, dorp, thorp, town, pueblo,
shtetl, kampong, kraal; municipality, metropolis, conurbation, dynapolis,
megalopolis, city, suburb, purlieu, satellite, exurb (see region); inner city,
ghetto, slum, quarter; colony; commune, kolkhoz; shantytown. Informal,
one-horse town, whistle stop, Podunk. Slang, duckburg; Hooverville, projects.


abolish

[3]

abridge

11, (dwelling for the ill, etc.) sanatorium, sanitarium, asylum, [health] resort, [convalescent, nursing, or rest] home. Informal, old folks’ home. See
remedy.
12, dweller (see inhabitant).
13, (domestic arts) domestic arts, homemaking, home economics, human
ecology. See environment.
Verbs—1, (live in) inhabit, domesticate, colonize, naturalize; take root, sit
down, settle [down], take up one’s abode, establish oneself, squat, perch,
pitch one’s tent, put up at, keep or set up house; bivouac, stop over, encamp, rough it.
2, (make one’s home) abide, occupy, people, dwell, reside, stay, sojourn,
live, put up, tenant, lodge, nestle, board, live in, camp out. Informal, roost.
Slang, shack up, cohabit. See inhabitant.
3, (provide dwelling for) accommodate, lodge, put up, board.
Adjectives—1, (making one’s residence) dwelling, residing, in residence, at
home.
2, (of dwelling centers) urban, suburban, provincial; metropolitan, cosmopolitan; domestic, foreign.
3, downhome.
Phrases—home is where the heart is; East, West, home’s best; there’s no
place like home.
Quotations—A man’s house is his castle ( James Otis); There’s no place like
home ( John Howard Paine); A house is a machine for living in (Le Corbusier), The city is not a concrete jungle, it is a human zoo (Desmond
Morris), Slums may be the breeding-grounds of crime, but middle-class
suburbs are incubators of apathy and delirium (Cyril Connolly), Home is
the girl’s prison and the woman’s workhouse (G. B. Shaw), Home is where
you come to when you have nothing better to do (Margaret Thatcher).
abolish, v.t. annul, cancel, abrogate;
exterminate, wipe out. See nullification, destruction. Ant., establish, reinstate.
abolitionist, n. & adj. emancipator,
freer (see nullification, liberation).
abominable, adj. detestable. See
hate, uncleanness. Ant., likable. —Abominable Snowman,
yeti.
aboriginal, adj. primitive, primeval;
indigenous. See oldness, inhabitant.
abortion, n. miscarriage; premature
delivery or birth; failure, fiasco;
monstrosity, freak. See end.
abound, v.i. teem, swarm, be plentiful; be filled (with). See sufficiency. Ant., be short of, lack.
about, adv. around, round, on all
sides; approximately; nearly, al-

most. —prep. concerning, regarding, anent, respecting. See relation, nearness.
about-face, n. turnabout, reversal,
volte-face. See inversion.
above, adv. aloft, overhead, up; earlier, before. See height. —prep.
over, beyond; surpassing; more
than, exceeding.
aboveboard, adj. candid (see probity).
abracadabra, n. mumbo-jumbo
(see sorcery).
abrade, v.t. wear (away), grind. See
friction.
abrasive, adj. & n. —adj. rough,
frictional; unpleasant. —n. grinder;
sandpaper, corundum, etc. See
discourtesy, friction.
abreast, adv. side by side; to the
same degree. See side, equality.
abridge, v. condense, shorten,


abroad

[4]

compress, contract. See shortness. Ant., expand, extend.
abroad, adv. overseas, away, outside; roaming, wandering, at large.
See travel, absence, distance.
abrogate, v.t. repeal, annul, retract.
See rejection, nullification.
abrupt, adj. sudden, precipitate,

absolve

short, curt; steep, precipitous,
sheer; sudden or sharp (turn, etc.);
jerky. See instantaneity. Ant.,
gradual.
abscess, n. ulcer, boil. See disease.
abscond, v.i. decamp, bolt, run away,
flee, fly, take off. See avoidance,
escape. Ant., abide, stay.

ABSENCE
State of being away
Nouns—1, (not being here) absence, nonresidence, noninhabitance, nonpresence, nonattendance, absenteeism, truancy, hooky, family leave;
French leave; nonexistence.
2, (lack of contents) emptiness, void, vacuum, vacuity, vacancy; blank,
clean slate; aching void. See space, insubstantiality.
3, (one who is not present) absentee, truant; missing person, MIA; absentee landlord or owner. Informal, no-show.
4, (phrases) nobody present, not a soul, nary a soul, nobody under the sun,
nary a one, no one, no man, never a one.
5, lack (see insufficiency).
Verbs—be absent, absent oneself, stay or keep away, keep out of the way,
play truant, play hooky, take French leave, go AWOL, absent oneself without [official] leave; slip away (see escape); keep or hold aloof; withdraw,
vacate (see departure). Informal, not show up, make oneself scarce.
Slang, cut [out].
Adjectives—1, (not present) absent, nonattendant, not present, away, nonresident, missing, missing in action, lost, wanting, omitted, nowhere to be
found, out of sight, gone, lacking, away from home, truant, absent without [official] leave, AWOL; abroad, oversea[s], on vacation; gone with the
wind. Informal, minus.
2, (having no contents) empty, vacant, void, vacuous, untenanted, unoccupied, uninhabited, tenantless; devoid, bare, hollow, blank.
Adverbs—nowhere; elsewhere; neither here nor there, neither hide nor hair;
somewhere else, not here. Dial., nowheres.
Prepositions—in absentia, without, less, minus, sans; wanting (see insufficiency).
Phrases—absence makes the heart grow fonder; out of sight, out of mind;
when the cat’s away, the mice will play; absence is the mother of disillusion; a little absence does much good; nature abhors a vacuum.
Antonyms, see presence.
absentminded, adj. preoccupied,
forgetful. See inattention.
absolute, adj. complete, perfect,
thorough; sheer; fixed, positive;
unrestricted, unbounded, full, plenary; despotic, autocratic, supreme. See completion, greatness, certainty. Ant., relative;
qualified.

absolution, n. cleansing, forgiveness, shrift, dispensation; discharge. See acquittal, exemption.
absolutism, n. despotism, autocracy; dogmatism. See authority, certainty.
absolve, v.t. forgive, cleanse, shrive,
pardon, discharge. See forgive-


absorb

[5]

ness, acquittal, exemption.
Ant., accuse, blame.
absorb, v. assimilate, take in, suck
up; incorporate, integrate; engross,
preoccupy, obsess. See thought,
receiving, attention, use,
combination, learning.
abstain, v.i. forbear, refrain. See
avoidance, moderation, asceticism, disuse. Ant., indulge.
abstemious, adj. abstaining, abstinent; temperate, sober. See moderation, asceticism.
abstract, adj. theoretical, metaphysical; abstruse, recondite. —v. ex-

abyss

cerpt (from); remove, steal. —n.
compendium, summary, epitome,
précis, abridgment. See supposition, stealing, shortness.
Ant., restore; combine; concrete.
abstracted, adj. absentminded, inattentive. See inattention. Ant.,
alert.
abstraction, n. preoccupation;
abridgment. See inattention,
shortness, thought.
abstruse, adj. profound, recondite,
esoteric, subtle, deep; obscure,
enigmatical. See unintelligibility, obscurity.

ABSURDITY
Quality of being absurd
Nouns—1, (nonsensical quality) absurdity, absurdness, nonsense; paradox,
inconsistency; inanity (see folly); ludicrousness, ridiculousness, comicality; koan, oxymoron, doublethink.
2, (ridiculous quality) muddle, [Irish] bull; bathos; song and dance; travesty (see ridicule).
3, (nonsensical talk) jargon, doubletalk, twaddle, gibberish, fustian, empty
talk, galimatias. Informal, poppycock, stuff and nonsense. Slang, hot air,
crapola, doodly-squat, horse feathers, crock, bull[shit], bushwah, flummadiddle, blarney, blather, jive, moonshine, piffle. See unmeaningness.
4, (one who talks nonsense) Slang, blowhard, bullshit artist.
5, (art of nonsense) theater of the absurd; dada[ism].
Verbs—1, (act foolishly) play the fool, talk nonsense, talk through one’s hat,
go from the sublime to the ridiculous.
2, (make to look absurd) make a fool of, make absurd, burlesque (see
ridicule).
Adjectives—absurd, nonsensical, preposterous, senseless, inconsistent, illogical, paradoxical, ridiculous, extravagant, fantastic, silly, funny,
comic[al], unmeaning, without rhyme or reason, fatuous, ludicrous,
laughable. Slang, screwy, cockamamie, cock-and-bull.
Quotations—The intolerable absurdities of life (Michael Wreszin), There is
nothing so absurd but some philosopher has said it (Cicero), No matter
how you slice it, it’s still baloney (Al Smith).
Antonyms, see meaning.
abundance, n. plenty, sufficiency,
profusion, luxuriance, fullness;
affluence, opulence, wealth. Ant.,
scarcity.
abuse, v.t. misuse, misapply; mistreat, injure, damage; malign,
scold, berate, vilify, curse; flay. —
n. injury, desecration; insult. See
disapprobation, badness, de-

ception, impurity, wrong. Ant.,
praise, flattery.
abut, v. touch, border (on). See contact.
abysmal, adj. abyssal; deficient, below par, miserable. See depth,
inferiority.
abyss, n. abysm, deep, depth[s],
gulf, chasm, [bottomless] pit,


academe

[6]

chaos, hell. See interval.
academe, n. academia, school;
pedant, academician. See learning, affectation.
academic, adj. scholastic, collegiate; educational; scholarly, erudite; theoretical. See teaching,
learning, supposition.
academy, n. school, college,
preparatory or finishing school;
[learned] society.
a cappella, adj. unaccompanied;
solo. See music, unity.
accede, v.i. agree, assent, consent,
acquiesce, yield, comply; attain.
See submission, acquisition.
Ant., protest, deny.
accelerate, v. hasten, expedite, anticipate, speed (up), quicken. See
earliness, haste. Ant., decelerate, retard.
accelerator, n. gas pedal, throttle.
See vehicle, velocity.
accent, v. accentuate, emphasize,
stress. —n. emphasis, stress, tone;
dialect, pronunciation; diacritic[al
mark]. See speech, sound, indication, importance.
accept, v. assent; take; adopt, believe; honor, admit. See receiving, belief, consent, inclusion. Ant., reject, refuse.
acceptable, adj. tolerable, adequate,
OK. See mediocrity, sufficiency. Ant., unwelcome, repugnant.
acceptation, n. sense, meaning.
access, n. approach, avenue, way;

accompaniment

admittance, entrée. Informal, (an)
in; a line (to). See passage,
ingress, possibility. —v.t. contact; locate, find. See acquisition.
accession, n. acceding, assent; increase, addition, acquisition;
attainment. See transfer.
accessory, adj. contributory; helping; auxiliary, incident (to). —
n. accomplice, assistant, confederate; jewelry, etc. See aid,
accompaniment,
ornament,
clothing.
accident, n. mishap, injury, casualty; chance, fortuity. See adversity, occurrence. Ant.,
plan, design.
acclaim, v.t. applaud; praise, hail,
salute. —n. praise. See approbation.
acclamation, n. acclaim, applause;
unanimity. See approbation,
unity.
acclimate, acclimatize, v.t. accustom, inure, habituate. See habit.
acclivity, n. ascent, rise, incline,
pitch, slope, grade.
accolade, n. honors, laurels, tribute,
reward; decoration, embrace, kiss;
brace, bracket. See approbation,
music.
accommodate, v. adapt, adjust, conform, fit, suit; oblige, help out;
lend money (to); put up; lend (to).
See aid, agreement, debt, pacification, abode. Ant., inconvenience, impede.

ACCOMPANIMENT
Subordinate addition
Nouns—1, (something that accompanies) accompaniment, concomitance,
company, association, companionship, [co]partnership, fellowship, coefficiency; sidebar. See synchronism, sequence, music, effect.
2, (related idea) concomitant, accessory, adjunct, corollary, coefficient.
3, (person who accompanies) companion, attendant, fellow, associate,
consort, spouse, colleague, comrade, compadre; accompanist; [co]partner,
satellite, hanger-on, shadow; convoy, cortege, escort, bodyguard, chaperon (see safety); retainer[s], retinue, entourage, court, following (see
servant); cavalier, squire; fellow traveler, camp follower. Slang, pard,
sidekick. See friend, marriage.


accomplice

[7]

accounting

Verbs—accompany, attend, hang on, wait on, go along with, go hand in hand
with, keep company, row in the same boat, associate or consort with, take
up with, hang around; string along; escort, usher, chaperon, conduct, convoy, squire, see out. Informal, take out. See effect.
Adjectives—accompanying, attendant, concomitant, fellow, associated, coupled, accessory, peripheral.
Adverbs—hand in hand, arm in arm, side by side, cheek to cheek, hand in
glove, together, at one’s side; in tow; on one’s coattails; in a body, in company. Informal, cheek by jowl.
Prepositions—with, together with, along with, in company with.
Conjunctions—and, both, also.
Phrases—a man is known by the company he keeps.
Antonyms, see disjunction.
accomplice, n. accessory, abettor,
confederate, associate, crony;
partner, colleague, sidekick (inf.).
See auxiliary.
accomplish, v.t. do, complete, fulfill, perform, effect, execute,
achieve, consummate. See completion. Ant., fail, disappoint.
accomplished, adj. proficient,
versed; talented. See skill.
accord, v.i. harmonize, conform,
agree. See agreement, assent.
—v.t. grant, bestow; concede. See
giving. —n. agreement. Ant.,
discord; withhold, deny.
accordingly, adv. hence, so, therefore, thus. See circumstance.
according to, adv. consistent with,
in keeping with; based on. See
conformity, evidence.

according to Hoyle, adj. & adv. by
the book, comme il faut, kosher.
See rightness, conformity.
accordion, n. concertina, bandonion, squeeze box (inf.). See music.
accost, v.t. greet, hail, address. See
courtesy. Ant., scorn.
account, v.i. report, relate, narrate.
See description. —v.t. attribute.
See cause. —n. report, recital,
narrative, description, story, tale,
history, chronicle, statement; accounting. —on account, see
payment. —on account of, because (see cause, attribution).
accountable, adj. liable; responsible; explicable. See cause, attribution. Ant., blameless, innocent.

ACCOUNTING
Keeping of financial records
Nouns—1, (act of accounting) accounting, accountance, accountancy, bookkeeping, audit, calculation (see numeration), commercial or business
arithmetic; cost or managerial accounting; horizontal or vertical analysis.
See money, sale, purchase.
2, (accounting tools) accounts, books, finances, budget, money matters,
figures.
3, ledger, journal, daybook, cashbook, petty-cash book, bank book, pass
book, checkbook, invoice, balance sheet, general or subsidiary ledger,
profit-and-loss statement, accounts-payable or -receivable ledger, sales
ledger, spreadsheet, worksheet; numbered account; statement, invoice,
bill, manifest.
4, (accounting terms) asset, liability, limited liability; equity, liquidity;
credit, debit, deficit; negative or positive cash flow; expenditure (see payment); bill, invoice, statement [of account]; double-entry accounting,


accouter

[8]

accusation

rolling or continuous budget; [pencil] footing; fixed costs; balance, [adjusted] trial balance, account, A/C, suspense or T account; credit, debit
(see debt); accrual or cash basis method, zero base accounting; net worth;
calendar or fiscal year; reconciliation; bottom line; entry, compound entry;
debit card; salaried worker, freelance, independent contractor.
5, accountant, bookkeeper, actuary, certified public accountant, CPA,
chartered accountant (Brit.); controller, comptroller; auditor, bank examiner; clerk. Informal, number cruncher, bean counter. See inquiry.
Verbs—1, (do accounting) keep accounts, keep the books, journalize, enter,
log, post [up], book, credit, debit, carry over, balance [accounts or the
books]; bill, invoice, dun, settle accounts; take stock, take inventory; audit, examine the books; open or close an account or the books; cost out.
2, (steal) falsify or doctor accounts; embezzle (see stealing). Slang,
cook the books.
Adjectives—accounting, budgetary; in the black or red.
Quotations—Accountants are the witch-doctors of the modern world (Lord
Justice Harman).
accouter, v.t. outfit, attire, equip.
See clothing, provision.
accredit, v. authorize, license, certify; believe; attribute. See belief,
commission, attribution.
accretion, n. See increase.
accrue, v. accumulate, grow; result
from, grow out of. See increase,
receiving, debt, effect. Ant.,
dissipate, decrease.
acculturation, n. See conformity.
accumulate, v. amass, gather; aggre-

gate, collect, hoard, bank; pile up.
See acquisition, assemblage,
store. Ant., dissipate, squander.
accurate, adj. correct, exact; precise, truthful, on the button or
nose (inf.), to the penny (inf.). See
truth, rightness. Ant., erroneous, false, wrong.
accursed, adj. damned, execrable.
See badness, imprecation. Ant.,
blessed.

ACCUSATION
Act of accusing
Nouns—1, (charge) accusation, charge, incrimination, inculpation; condemnation, denunciation, invective, implication, imputation, blame, reproach, recrimination; censure. Informal, finger-pointing; frame[-up],
trumped-up charge. See disapprobation.
2, (legal charge) lawsuit, plaint, complaint, citation, allegation; indictment, arraignment, impeachment, true bill; libel, slander (see detraction).
3, (one who charges) accuser, accusant, complainant, plaintiff, complainant; prosecutor, the prosecution, district attorney, attorney general.
Informal, DA.
4, (one charged) accused, defendant, respondent, co-respondent, libelee.
Verbs—1, (make a charge) accuse, charge; press, prefer, lay or bring
charges, tax (with), incriminate; allege, impute; inculpate, blame, complain against or of, reproach, indict, arraign, impeach, implicate, cite; have
something on. Informal, throw the book at. See lawsuit.
2, (tell on) denounce, inform (against), take to task, call to account, lay at
one’s door, give the lie (to); trump up a charge, bring false charges; tell on,
tattle (on); cast the first stone. Slang, finger, put the finger on, point the


accustom

[9]

acquisition

finger (at), rat (on), squawk, redbait, frame.
Adjectives—accusing, accusatory; incriminatory, recriminatory, reproachful;
imputative; incriminating, inculpatory.
Phrases—a bad workman blames his tools; it’s the poor wot gets the blame;
it’s not how you win or lose, it’s how you place the blame.
Quotations—J’accuse (Émile Zola), He that is without sin among you, let
him first cast a stone at her (Bible).
Antonyms, see approbation, vindication.
accustom, v. habituate, familiarize,
inure. See habit.
ace, n. expert, adept; particle, iota.
See skill, littleness, aviation.
—adj. excellent, first-rate. See superiority. —v.t. see success.
acerbic, adj. bitter; harsh, severe.
See pungency, severity.
ache, n. pain. —v.i. hurt, smart,
throb, pain; yearn (see desire).
achieve, v.t. accomplish, attain,
reach. See completion. Ant., fail.
Achilles’ heel, n. weak point, chink
in one’s armor. See weakness.
acid, adj. sour, bitter, tart, vinegary;
acrimonious, cutting, caustic. See
sourness, discourtesy. Ant.,
sweet, bland; basic.
acid test, n. litmus test (see ex-

periment).
acknowledge, v. admit, confess, allow, own up to; answer, receipt.
See disclosure, evidence, gratitude. Ant., deny, disavow.
acme, n. summit, pinnacle (see
height).
acolyte, n. altar boy or girl; attendant, assistant; novice. See religion, auxiliary, beginning.
acoustic, n. See sound.
acquaint, v.t. inform, notify, tell; familiarize, teach. See information, friend, learning.
acquaintance, n. familiarity, experience, knowledge, ken; friend.
acquiesce, v.i. agree, accede, assent, concur, consent. See obedience, submission.

ACQUISITION
Act of obtaining
Nouns—1, (something acquired) acquisition, acquirement, accession, obtainment, procurement; collection, accumulation, amassing, gathering,
reaping, gleaning, picking (up); trover. See receiving, possession, assemblage, store, addition.
2, (something acquired by force) seizure, confiscation, commandeering,
attachment, appropriation, apprehension, expropriation, dispossession;
abduction, kidnaping; annexation; stealing, theft.
3, (something stolen) haul, catch; windfall; spoils, plunder, loot, booty,
payoff, split. Informal, pickings. Slang, the take, gravy, velvet.
4, (one who acquires) acquirer, obtainer, etc.; buyer, purchaser, vendee;
inheritor, legatee; good bargainer or trader; winner, captor, thief. Informal,
horsetrader.
5, (urge to acquire) acquisitiveness, ambition, hunger; covetousness,
avarice; greed, voracity. See desire.
6, (tool for acquiring) claw, talon, pincer, tongs, pliers.
Verbs—1, acquire, get, find, gain, obtain, come by, dig up or out; secure,
win, earn, pull down, realize, receive, take; collect, amass, reap, crop,
gather, glean, scare or scrape up, scrape together; inherit, come in for,
come by honestly; purchase. Informal, step into; get hold of, pick up,
rake in. Slang, clean up, help oneself (to), line one’s pockets or purse,


acquit

[ 10 ]

action

score, rack up.
2, (acquire by force) appropriate, take over, assume, take possession of,
commandeer, confiscate, expropriate, arrogate; annex, attach; preempt,
usurp; catch, nab, bag, pocket; capture, seize; take away; grasp, clinch,
clutch, grip, grab, snatch, seize, cop, snap up, lay hold of, lay one’s hands
on; beg, borrow, or steal. Slang, latch or glom on to, hook, snag, collar,
corral, drum up, scare or scrape up.
Adjectives—acquisitive, avaricious, greedy, grasping, covetous; accessible,
obtainable, to be had. Slang, on the make, grabby.
Phrases—you cannot get blood from a stone; if you don’t speculate, you
can’t accumulate.
Antonyms, see giving, relinquishment, loss, possession.
acquit, v.t. exonerate; discharge,
pay. See acquittal, payment.
Ant., convict.
acquit oneself, v. behave; conduct,

comport, or bear oneself; pay off,
settle, square. See conduct, payment.

ACQUITTAL
Exoneration
Nouns—acquittal, quittance, exculpation, absolution, exoneration, clearing,
vindication; discharge, release, dismissal, grace, quietus, reprieve,
respite, absolution, remission; amnesty, exemption. See forgiveness,
liberation.
Verbs—acquit, exculpate, exonerate, clear, absolve, vindicate; pardon, grant
remission or amnesty, reprieve, discharge, release, [set] free; exempt. Informal, whitewash; let off.
Adjectives—acquitted, vindicated, etc.; quit, free, clear; in the clear.
Quotations—History will absolve me (Fidel Castro).
Antonyms, see condemnation.
acrid, adj. pungent, biting, acid;
corrosive, caustic. See sourness,
pungency.
acrimony, n. bitterness, rancor,
acerbity, asperity, resentment,
discourtesy, pungency. Ant.,
civility; goodwill, amiability.
acrobat, n. gymnast, tumbler, contortionist. See drama, exertion,
elasticity.
acronym, n. acrostic. See shortness.
acrophobia, n. See fear.

across, adv. crosswise, athwart. —
prep. on, over, athwart. See crossing.
across-the-board, adj. all-inclusive,
comprehensive (see inclusion).
acrostic, n. acronym; double acrostic. See word, shortness.
act, n. & v. See action, drama,
conduct, affectation, representation, rule.
acting, adj. substitute, representative, deputy. See substitution.

ACTION
Performance
Nouns—1, (act of doing) action, performance, operation, execution, enactment, production; process, procedure, proceeding, transaction; behavior,
conduct; work, exertion. See activity.
2, (result of acting) act, affair, effort, job, deed, business, work; stunt; ex-


activity

[ 11 ]

activity

ploit, feat, enterprise; transaction, operation, step, move[ment]; lawsuit,
job action; battle (see warfare, contention). Informal, stunt.
3, (one who acts) doer, hack (see agent).
Verbs—act, do, execute, perform, function; operate, work, practice, exercise,
commit, perpetrate; raise or lift a finger or a hand; militate; take care of,
bring off, carry out, put into effect, translate into action; take effect; take
action, proceed, go ahead, do something; progress (see progression); labor, toil, drudge, ply; have many irons in the fire. Informal, run with it or
the ball, put one’s money where one’s mouth is, get with the program.
Adjectives—acting, active, operative, in operation, in action, at work, on
duty; functional, effective, efficient; hands on; actionable (see lawsuit).
Informal, in harness.
Adverbs—in the act, conspicuously, flagrantly, in flagrante delicto, redhanded.
Phrases—actions speak louder than words; it is better to light one candle
than to curse the darkness; action without thought is like shooting without
aim; we do as we are; we become as we do.
Quotations—Action is eloquence (Shakespeare), If it were done when ’tis
done, then ’twere well it were done quickly (Shakespeare), Action is consolatory ( Joseph Conrad), I am a verb (Ulysses S. Grant).
Antonyms, see inactivity, neglect, repose.
ACTIVITY
State of being active
Nouns—1, (state of being active) activity, activeness, business, energy,
liveliness, animation; briskness, quickness, alertness; wakefulness, vigil;
alacrity, zeal, dash, fervor, eagerness, vivacity, vigor, spirit; activism. See
action.
2, (result of activity) movement, fuss, ado, bustle (see agitation); threering circus; high gear; industry, diligence, assiduity, assiduousness; activities, comings and goings, goings-on.
3, (one who acts) activist, new broom; fan, devotee, addict. Informal, hustler, go-getter, ball of fire. Slang, live wire; freak, eager beaver.
4, (that which awakens) alarm clock; reveille. Informal, wake-up call.
Verbs—1, (act) be active, busy, etc., have one’s hands full, have other fish to
fry, have many irons in the fire; bestir oneself, come to life, come alive,
get up, go about or at, look alive, get into the swing of things, bustle, fuss,
stir one’s stumps, blow away the cobwebs; feel one’s oats. Informal, come
alive, stir. Slang, get on the stick. See haste.
2, (make active) activate, actuate, animate; wake [up], awaken, [a]rouse,
build a fire under. See attention.
Adjectives—1, (in action) active, busy, astir, at it, in the swim; brisk, alert,
spry, smart, quick, spanking; energetic, lively, alive, vivacious, keen, eager; frisky, feisty, forward, spirited; up and doing, quick on the trigger, on
the jump, on the go, on the job, on one’s toes, in high gear, in full swing,
on the fly or the job. Informal, snappy, psyched up.
2, (active at work) working, on duty, at work; in commission, in circulation; in effect, in force; industrious, diligent, assiduous. Informal, in harness.
3, awake, up, conscious; wakeful, sleepless, insomniac.


actor, actress

[ 12 ]

addition

Adverbs—actively, etc. See haste.
Phrases—a rolling stone gathers no moss; no peace for the wicked.
Quotations—It is wonderful how much may be done if we are always doing
(Thomas Jefferson), Let us, then, be up and doing (Longfellow).
Antonyms, see inactivity, repose.
actor, actress, n. performer, player;
tragedian, comedian, Thespian;
playactor; doer, worker. See
agent, drama.
actual, adj. real, veritable, true, genuine; concrete, factual. See existence, present, truth. Ant., fictitious, spurious.
actuary, n. clerk, registrar; statistician. See numeration.
actuate, v.t. move, induce, compel,
persuade; start, get under way. See
cause, beginning.
acumen, n. discernment, shrewdness, penetration; intelligence.
Ant., dullness, obtuseness.
acute, adj. shrewd, discerning,
astute; sharp, poignant, keen,
pointed, severe. See intelligence, cunning, sharpness.

Ant., dull, chronic.
ad, n. See advertisement.
adage, n. proverb, saw, saying,
aphorism, motto, maxim.
adamant, adj. adamantine, hard; inflexible, immovable, firm. See
hardness, obstinacy. Ant., easygoing; yielding.
adapt, v. suit, conform, regulate, fit;
adjust, convert, reconcile. See
agreement.
add, v. See addition, numeration.
Ant., subtract, withdraw.
addendum, n. addition; appendix.
adder, n. puff adder, viper.
addict, n. devotee, fan, enthusiast;
user, slave (to). Slang, head,
junkie, freak, mainliner. See
habit, activity.

ADDITION
Process of adding
Nouns—1, (act of adding) addition, increase, expansion, annexation, accession; corollary, concomitant (see accompaniment). See sequence,
junction, auxiliary.
2, (something added) adjunct; affix, prefix, suffix; appendix, insertion,
postscript, epilogue, addendum, supplement, attachment, appendage; extension, annex, wing, add-on; rider, codicil; flap, tab, tag; bonus; grace period; bells and whistles; additive.
3, (mathematics) plus [sign], addend, sum, total, subtotal; adding machine, calculator, abacus. See numeration, computers.
Verbs—add, affix, annex, superimpose, append, subjoin, figure in; tack on;
compute, sum, foot, total, tot(e) up. Informal, hitch on.
Adjectives—added, etc.; additive, cumulative; supplementary, additional,
another, further, extra, more; auxiliary, ancillary; surplus.
Adverbs—in addition, again, more, plus, extra, besides, also, too, at that, and
then some, et cetera, etc., to boot, as well, into the bargain, for good measure, over and above, and so forth, and so on, moreover, furthermore; by
the way, by the bye, on the side, in passing. Informal, and what not, and
what have you, and all that jazz.
Prepositions—apart from, aside from; together with, let alone, not to mention, much less, not to speak of, to say nothing of, as well as.
Conjunctions—and, also, in addition to being.
Antonyms, see deduction.


addle

[ 13 ]

addle, v. confuse, muddle, befuddle.
See disorder.
address, v.t. direct; court, woo; accost, greet, approach, speak to. —
n. street and number; residence,
home; speech, discourse, oration;
cleverness, dexterity. See direction, indication, abode, courtesy, skill. Ant., overlook, shun;
adroitness.
adduce, v.t. present, bring forward,
cite, mention. See evidence.
adept, adj. skillful, dexterous, apt;
practiced, expert, proficient. —n.
expert, master. See skill. Ant.,
clumsy; faker.
adequate, adj. enough, sufficient;
serviceable; satisfactory, ample.
See sufficiency, utility. Ant.,
inadequate, unfit.
adhere, v.i. cling (to), stick; hold
closely to. See coherence, duty.
adherent, n. follower, believer; partisan, disciple. See learning,
auxiliary.
adhesive, adj. sticky, gluey, tenacious. —n. adherent; glue, cement, etc. See coherence.
ad hoc, n. expedient (see expedience). —adj. provisional; stopgap, expedient. See expedience,
unpreparedness.
adieu, n. farewell (see departure).
ad infinitum, Lat., to infinity; without end. See infinity, perpetuity, space.
adjacent, adj. adjoining, near, close
by, next to; touching, bordering,
contiguous, neighboring. See
contact. Ant., distant, remote,
detached.
adjoin, v. touch, abut, border, meet,
neighbor. See contact.
adjourn, v. defer, postpone; discontinue; end. See lateness. Ant.,
convene, prolong.
adjudge, adjudicate, v. judge (see
judgment).
adjunct, n. addition, appendix, appendage, annex; accessory, extension, postscript; complement, in-

adopt

sertion; accompaniment.
adjure, v.t. charge, bind, command.
See request.
adjust, v.t. fix, adapt, true, regulate,
straighten; settle, compensate;
equalize, rate. See agreement,
equality.
adjutant, n. assistant; aide-de-camp
(see auxiliary).
ad-lib, v., informal, extemporize,
improvise. See unpreparedness.
ad libitum, Lat., at [one’s] pleasure.
See will.
administer, v.t. govern, rule, manage, control; give, dose, dispense.
See authority, giving, apportionment, conduct.
administration, n. conduct; government, regime, authority;
giving; apportionment.
admirable, adj. commendable, exemplary; lovable, likable. See respect, approbation. Ant., repulsive, disreputable.
admire, v.t. esteem, idolize, venerate, respect; regard; wonder,
marvel. Ant., despise, dislike.
admission, n. confession, disclosure; entry, admittance, ingress;
cover [charge], charge, minimum;
consent. See inclusion. Ant.,
denial, refusal.
admit, v.t. let in; induct, matriculate;
concede, acknowledge; receive,
allow, ’fess or own up (inf.). See
disclosure, receiving, permission. Ant., deny, refuse, repel.
admonition, n. reproof (see disapprobation); caution, warning.
ad nauseam, Lat. to the point of nausea; boringly. See weariness.
ado, n. bustle, activity; fuss, commotion, disorder.
adobe, n. See abode.
adolescence, n. youth, minority,
juvenility; teens, teenage, nonage;
puberty.
adopt, v.t. embrace, take to oneself,
assume; foster, give a home to,
provide a home for, accept as
one’s own. See choice.


adore

[ 14 ]

adore, v.t. love, worship, idolize.
Ant., hate, condemn.
adorn, v.t. ornament, embellish,
deck, garnish, beautify. Ant., mar,
deface.
ad rem, Lat. relevant, to the point.
See relation.
adrift, adj. afloat; drifting, loose.
See disjunction, dispersion,
changeableness.
adroit, adj. dexterous, deft, skillful.
See skill. Ant., clumsy, awkward.
adulate, v. flatter (see flattery).
adult, adj. grown[-up], full-grown,
mature, ripe. —n. grown-up, big
person; major, senior. See age,
male, female.
adulterate, v.t. mix, water down,
weaken, dilute; debase, corrupt.
See deterioration, mixture,
weakness. Ant., purify, clarify.
adultery, n. infidelity, fornication,
licentiousness. See impurity.
adumbrate, v.t. foreshadow (see
prediction).
ad valorem, Lat. according to value.
See relation, price.

adversity

advance, v. progress, go forward,
proceed; further, second, aid. —n.
progress, rise; success, gain; prepayment. See progression, debt,
offer. Ant., retard; recede, withdraw.
advantage, n. superiority, upper
hand, leverage, the better (of); gain,
profit, benefit, odds, favor, ace in
the hole (inf.). See chance, success. Ant., drawback, handicap.
advent, n. arrival; coming. See approach.
adventitious, adj. foreign, extrinsic.
adventure, n. enterprise, undertaking; happening, event; risk,
hazard, venture. See chance. —v.
embark upon; dare. See danger.
adventurer, n. voyager, traveler,
wanderer, roamer; gambler, fortune hunter, freelance, soldier of
fortune; adventuress (derog.). See
travel, chance.
adversary, n. opponent, enemy, foe
(see opposition). Ant., ally,
friend.

ADVERSITY
Ill fortune
Nouns—1, (difficulty) adversity, affliction; bad, ill, adverse, or hard luck or
fortune, Weltschmerz; evil lot; force majeur, frowns of fortune; evil star or
genius; ups and downs of life, vicissitude; hard case or lines; peck or sea
of troubles, hell upon earth, gall and wormwood; slough of despond; Pandora’s box. Informal, downside. See evil, failure, pain, difficulty.
2, (hardship) trouble, hardship, bother, curse, poverty, tough sledding, a
hard row to hoe; hot seat, thorn in one’s side, bête noire; midlife crisis.
Slang, crunch.
3, (bad luck) evil day; time out of joint; hard times, a dog’s life; rainy day;
gathering clouds, ill wind; visitation, infliction, distress; bitter pill; trial,
ordeal. Slang, hard knocks, rough going, tough titty, raw deal, bad break.
4, (accident) mishap, mischance, misadventure, misfortune; disaster,
calamity, fatality, catastrophe; accident, casualty, wreck, collision, crash;
cross, reverse, check, contretemps, anomaly, rub; reversal, setback, comedown (see deterioration); losing game; friendly fire; ecocatastrophe,
nuclear winter, oil spill. Slang, fender-bender, meltdown.
5, (victim of adversity) victim, unfortunate; downtrodden, dispossessed,
homeless, etc. Informal, loser.
Verbs—1, go hard or ill with, weigh on; fall on evil days; go downhill; go to
rack and ruin; go to the dogs, touch or hit bottom; fall from high estate;
be badly off, have seen better days, have two strikes against one; come to


advert

[ 15 ]

advice

grief. Slang, draw a blank; lose one’s shirt; take one’s lumps; have one’s
ass in a sling.
2, be unlucky, have bad luck. Slang, get the short end of the stick.
3, (cause adversity) curse, bring bad luck, cast an evil eye on. Informal,
jinx, hex.
Adjectives—1, (being cursed) unfortunate, unhappy; in adverse circumstances, unprosperous, luckless, hapless, out of luck, down on one’s luck;
in trouble, in a bad way, in an evil plight, in Dutch; under a cloud; bleak,
clouded; ill or badly off; poor, down in the world, down at heel, hard put
[to it], down and out, undone, under the harrow, up against it or the wall;
underprivileged. Slang, on the ropes, in a jam, out on a limb, up a tree, up
shit creek [without a paddle], between the Devil and the deep blue sea, between Scylla and Charybdis, between a rock and a hard place, behind the
eight ball.
2, unlucky, unblest, ill-fated, ill-starred, star-crossed, born under an evil
star; out of luck, down on one’s luck.
3, (causing distress) adverse, untoward; disastrous, calamitous, ruinous,
dire, grievous.
Adverbs—adversely, unfavorably; disastrously, grievously; if worst comes to
worst; from bad to worse; out of the frying pan into the fire.
Interjections—tough luck! Slang, tough shit! hard cheese!
Phrases—adversity makes strange bedfellows; when the going gets tough,
the tough get going; misfortunes never come singly; a dose of adversity is
often as needful as a dose of medicine.
Quotations—The whips and scorns of time (Shakespeare), Through thick
and thin (Chaucer), Sweet are the uses of adversity (Shakespeare), By trying we can easily learn to endure adversity. Another man’s, I mean (Mark
Twain), These are the times that try men’s souls (Thomas Paine), Adversity is the first path to truth (Lord Byron), Man is born unto trouble, as the
sparks fly upward (Bible).
Antonyms, see prosperity.
advert, v.i. refer (to), direct or turn
attention (to).
advertisement, n. announcement,
[public] notice; commercial,

[want, classified, personal, etc.]
ad; advert, advertorial, plug, blurb
(all inf.); publicity. See publication.

ADVICE
Counsel
Nouns—1, (help given) advice, counsel, suggestion, recommendation; exhortation, expostulation; consultation, counseling, guidance; hint; admonition (see warning); sermon; guidance, instruction, pointer, word to the
wise, whisper, word in the ear; charge. Informal, flea in the ear, two cents’
worth, tip.
2, (one who advises) adviser, prompter, counselor, Nestor, Polonius, monitor, Dutch uncle; sherpa; mentor (see teaching). Informal, maven, kibitzer, backseat driver, Monday-morning quarterback.
3, (something that advises) guide; consultation, council, conference; information, news.
Verbs—1, (give advice) advise, [give] counsel, have a word with; suggest,
recommend, prescribe, exhort; instruct, guide, coach; expostulate, dis-


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