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Training and development


Manmohan Joshi

Training and Development

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Training and Development
1st edition
© 2015 Manmohan Joshi & bookboon.com
ISBN 978-87-403-1145-7

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Training and Development

Contents


Contents
1Need for training in organizations

7

1.1

Importance of Human Resource Department

7

1.2

Need for training in organizations

7

2Identifying specific areas in training

12

2.1

Methods of assessment of training needs

12

2.2

Training department

14

2.3

The role of training manager

17


2.4

Training budget

18

2.5

Wrong assumptions about training

19

2.6

Training programmes

20

2.7

Training for employees at different levels

23

3

Training methodology

24

3.1Introduction

24

3.2

Objectives of the training programme

24

3.3

Designing the training programme

25

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Training and Development

Contents

3.4

Methods of evaluation

26

3.5

Field related on-the-job training methodology

26

3.6

Simulating real life and role playing

26

3.7

Experiential or laboratory training

28

3.8

Real life related methodology

29

3.9

Individualized training or counselling

31

3.10

Discussion method

31

4

Instructional aids

32

4.1Introduction

32

4.2

Choice of aids

32

4.3

The use of visuals

32

4.4

Design and conduct of the training programme

34

5

Evaluation of training

5.1Introduction
5.2

Purpose of evaluation

5.3

Uses of evaluation

5.4

Evaluation forms

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39
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42

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Training and Development

Contents

5.5

Concurrent evaluation

43

5.6

Evaluation of entry and exit behaviour

44

5.7

Classroom and post-training evaluation

44

5.8

Trends in training

46

6Development

50

6.1Introduction

50

6.2

Areas of organization development

50

6.3

Integration of training and development areas

57

References

58



59

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Training and Development

Need for training in organization

1Need for training
in organizations
1.1

Importance of Human Resource Department

Human resources play a pivotal role in an organization. The growth of any organization has a direct
correlation with its human resources. These resources are highly perishable and critical in nature. So
they have to be monitored on an ongoing basis. There are various factors which contribute to the growth
of Human Resources Department.
They are:
• Selection, recruitment and placement
• Training and development
• Performance appraisal and counselling
• Reward – punishment (motivation)
• Career planning
• Management succession plan
• Quality of work life
• Organizational development
All these factors are quite essential, and specific exercises have to be undertaken to harness the effectiveness
of human resources. These exercises have to be planned, be specific, and done on a continuous basis. In
spite of the equal importance to all these factors, training and development may be considered as the
foundation on which the entire human resource development edifice is built up.

1.2

Need for training in organizations

Earlier it was a matter of conventional management thought that training is needed only for the employees
in supervisory positions and is irrelevant to other subordinate employees. Now there is a marked change
regarding the training scenario. It is now accepted categorically that training is very much needed for
all employees irrespective of cadre, rank, salary and designation.

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Training and Development

Need for training in organization

An organization without adequate exposure to training will have innumerable problems, conflicts and
clashes which may not be visible or understood at surface level. Moreover, there are tremendous all
round changes in the working atmosphere due to development of science and technology. In almost
all organizations the working methods and procedures, processing and storage of data, management
information systems, marketing, methods of transportation, wages etc. are being changed continuously. It
is imperative on the part of the employees to have the necessary skills, knowledge and attitude orientation
in order to adapt to the changing environment and for better performance. Figure 1.1 below depicts the
base block of the training and development form.

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Following are the specific needs for training in different organizations.
1.2.1

Improvement in productivity

In order to survive and also to develop further, the organizations have to produce certain optimum
quantity of products – manufactured or service oriented. So they strive hard to improve the productivity
to the maximum extent possible. To do so they undertake regular systematic training programmes for
their employees.

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Training and Development

1.2.2

Need for training in organization

Maintaining the quality of products

It is the product quality which creates extensive and intensive market, nationally and internationally.
Without the quality, whatever the exercises, like advertising, campaigning, canvassing etc., the existence
of the organization may prove to be useless. Quality is a relative and a moving concept. Improving
quality continuously is also necessary to compete with similar products of other organizations. In order
to enable this, Research and Development maneuvers should be launched. Training should be given to
all employees in the areas like creativity, innovation, quality circles and others.
1.2.3

Industrial climate

A congenial and conducive working environment has its own influence on the productivity of the
employees thus leading to healthy quality of work life. The following factors are extremely important
for the growth of the organization:
• Physical atmosphere: It includes ventilation, light, adequate space, canteen facilities etc.
• Behavioural climate: It includes interpersonal relations, industrial relations, and ways and
means for motivation.
Troublesome industrial climate leads to absenteeism, labour turnover, disputes, conflicts and other
negative factors which affect the growth of the organization. Adequate training in these areas contributes
to healthy industrial environment in all the areas and also in achieving the corporate goals.
1.2.4

Level of performance

The mismatch between the existing and the expected level of performance of employees necessitates the
formulation of training programmes both on emergency level as well as on regular basis.
The training formula can be depicted as:
Training need = Expected level of performance


- Existing level of performance

It has been observed in many organizations that the lack of training is one of the major contributing
factors resulting in the shortfall of quantity or quality of products. Moreover, there may also be discrepancy
between the actual job roles set out by the organization and the job roles perceived by the employees.
In such situation training plays a major role in setting right this role ambiguity.

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Training and Development

1.2.5

Need for training in organization

Attitudes, morale and motivation level

High morale and motivation along with favourable attitudes of the employees contribute significantly
to the growth of an organization. The three major goals of training are:
• Job knowledge
• Skills development
• Attitudinal changes
Attitude is the basic factor which has a direct connection with the organizational culture. The negative
attitudes of employees towards superiors, corporate goals, company products and others lead to
deterioration in the quality and the level of production. Individual and group conflicts, strikes, lockouts and violence may be the end result of such unfavourable factors. In order to avoid such harmful
effects, appropriate assessment of the situation is to be made and proper training programmes are to be
introduced to improve the environment.
1.2.6

Science and technology in work situation

The development of science and technology has made great strides since industrial revolution in the
1980s. Rapid technological changes have necessitated that the human resources in an organization have
to be trained and updated to cope up with these technological changes. The training system should be
alert and mature to grasp these changes and act as catalyst to induce the human resources in absorbing
the changes.
1.2.7

Self-development of staff

The modern day world lives under strain and stress. An organization is the collection of individuals who
live in society. The resources available are limited and the human needs are unlimited. Non-fulfilment
of needs leads to disappointments and frustrations. Factors like pollution, overcrowding, and prevailing
competition in all the areas lead to stress and tension in the minds of the workers. The higher the cadre,
more are the stress and strain. Executives and supervisory employees are very much susceptible to stress
factors. Certain values and belief systems are very much needed for harmonious family and organizational
life. It has been proved that the employees with trouble-free home and work environment contribute a
lot to the growth of organizations. So the self-development has become a part of the training system.
Many programmes on stress management, meditation, yoga, keep-fit, are designed and offered to the
employees irrespective of cadre and designations. Adequate training in these self-development areas
contributes to healthy industrial relations and also in achieving the corporate goals.

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Training and Development

1.2.8

Need for training in organization

Research and development

Launching of new products and improving the existing products enhances the company’s position.
Research and Development provides the necessary innovative and qualitative capabilities to the
organization. The Research and Development personnel require training to update their knowledge and
skills and also for futuristic vision about the new products. Since these are the workers in the factory who
deal with machinery, they also have to be given training to lend their supporting hand to the Research
and Development department by way of giving suggestions, ideas and designs in order to bring about
new as well as improved products.
1.2.9

Management succession

There are always vertical and horizontal movements in the form of promotions and job redesigns among
the line managers in the organization. Moreover, a number of managers at senior and/or junior levels
retire regularly. These retirements and promotions affect the effectiveness of the organization without
the proper successors for these positions. Since the nature of the functions of managers and supervisors
at different levels needs managerial skills and capabilities, it takes a long time for the organizations to
prepare junior people through proper management succession plans. Hence management succession
plan in Human Resource Development is nothing but preparing second line managers and executives
for the positions which may fall vacant in near future. This process involves planning and conducting a
lot of internal and external training programmes.

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Training and Development

Identifying specific areas in training

2Identifying specific areas
in training
2.1

Methods of assessment of training needs

There are innumerable ways available to the training executives to assess the training needs of the
employees in the organization. However, training should be need based and not organized without need
or aim. The following are some of the means to assess the training requirements of an organization.
2.1.1

Performance appraisal

Performance appraisal means the systematic evaluation of the performance of an employee by his/her
superiors. It is a tool for discovering, analyzing and classifying the differences among workers in relation
to job standards. It refers to the formal system of appraisal, in which the individual is compared with
others and ranked or rated. Generally, appraisal is done by the supervisor or manager once or twice a year.
Performance appraisal has been considered as the most significant tool for an organization. It provides
information which is highly useful in making decisions regarding various aspects such as promotions,
merit rating, and need for further training. While assessing the potentiality of an employee, the authorities
can recommend suitable training to unfold the hidden potentialities of the employee. Assessment of
training needs usually proves to be very effective through performance appraisal.

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Training and Development

2.1.2

Identifying specific areas in training

Observation by managers/supervisors

The employees work under a set of managers/supervisors. They are the right type of personnel to tell
about the efficiency of the employees in the job role, and they also come across the deficiencies and
shortcomings of the employees. Hence they easily locate the training needs of different employees. Such
observations facilitate the training process.
2.1.3

Incident method

Life in organizations is replete with incidents. Some of these are desirable while others may be critical
incidents related to any area of weakness of the employees at different levels. If the employees – including
managers/supervisors – possess the required skills and competency, they will solve the problems arising
out of these incidents. The absence of such skills and competence will result in further complications in
productivity and smooth functioning of the organization. By observing the behaviour of employees at
all levels training needs can be easily assessed.
2.1.4

By studying the customer grievances

An organization – whether a manufacturing unit or service oriented – deals with customers for its
products or services. If the customers come across any defects in the products or deficiency in service,
they are dissatisfied and bring out complaints and grievances. In order to rectify this situation and also
to improve the quality of products or services, the employees may be provided extensive training. Hence
this situation also helps in assessing the training needs of employees.
2.1.5

Suggestions of the employees

In many organizations employees are given opportunity to give suggestions and feedback. This process
helps the organization to assess the specific training needs of its employees.
2.1.6

Reports from co-workers

As a general rule, the employees work as a team. An employee doesn’t perform alone but does so with
other members of his/her team. His/her teammates are the immediate persons to watch their performance.
Quite often the performance of individual workers affects the effectiveness of the entire team. The
workers are frank enough to tell about their colleagues’ weaknesses and strengths. If these observations
are recorded properly, they can be used as a method for assessing the training needs.

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Training and Development

2.1.7

Identifying specific areas in training

Questionnaire method

It is the most simple and popular method of assessing the training needs among workers and managers/
supervisors. The questionnaires are circulated among the employees and collected back for processing.
The questions elicit from the employees the information regarding training needs such as the type of
training, duration, and course content. Questionnaires should be neither too long nor too short. Questions
requiring lengthy and descriptive type of answers should be avoided. A brief interview or discussion
may be conducted after the administration of the questionnaires in order to make this method reliable.
2.1.8

Assessment by external experts

Some organizations hire consultants, specialists, management experts and other outside agencies to assess
the training needs. They employ various methods such as tests, questionnaires, interviews, discussions,
brainstorming sessions, analysis of workers’ and customers’ grievances etc. to assess the training needs
of employees.
2.1.9

Interviews and discussions

This is one of the oldest methods in assessing the training needs of the employees. There are several
interview techniques like open-ended questions, structured questions, stress interviews, which help the
training department to assess the training needs. All cadres of employees are to be included in this exercise.
The discussions and interviews are to be conducted in a cordial atmosphere with trust and mutual faith.
2.1.10

Tests and examinations

This is another method for identifying the training needs adopted in some organizations. Tests and
examinations are not administered for locating the defects and to punish the employees. Their purpose
is to know the shortcomings of the employees, so that they can be improved through training. These
tests and examinations may be designed to know about the employees’ job knowledge, skills or aptitudes.
Such tests and examinations are usually followed by structured formal/informal interviews to assess the
training needs.
However, a single method or approach may not be adequate in finding out the training needs. A judicious
combination of some methods – and change of methods depending on the situation – is likely to yield
better results.

2.2

Training department

Organizations, in general, have HR department which also looks after training and development of
employees. Figure 2/1 below depicts the usual structure of HR department:

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Training and Development

Identifying specific areas in training


Fig. 2/1

The role of the training department in an organization may be detailed as given below.

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Training and Development

2.2.1

Identifying specific areas in training

Management of training data

The training department keeps the training record of the employees. The data stored contains experience,
educational qualifications, the number of training programmes attended by the employee, the duration
and venue of the training programme, expenditure incurred, post-training feedback etc. So when the
name of an employee is suggested for training, it is easy to verify whether he/she has attended a similar
programme earlier and not to nominate them again for similar type of programme. The data is also
used to know how many employees have not been trained since a particular period. If an employee has
not been given training for a long time, it is desirable to nominate him/her for the relevant programme.
2.2.2

Assessment of training needs of employees

The training department assesses the training needs of employees at frequent intervals and on an ongoing
basis. It uses various methods to do so. The training department also coordinates with other departments
in the organization in order to know the specific training requirements of each department. It helps in
organizing different training programmes in such a systematic manner so as not to disturb the normal
working of any department.
2.2.3

Preparation of training budgets

The training department prepares training budget for the organization taking into consideration the
manpower and expenditure involved in the training process during a particular financial year. In some
organizations the training department also prepares long-term training budgets covering a period of 3
to 5 years.
2.2.4

Planning for training

The training department plans about the exact type of training required by the employees for the
approval of top management. It decides whether the training programme is going to be internal or
external, duration, course content, infrastructure facilities, and venue. For external training programmes
it maintains contacts with external agencies which conduct such training programmes.
2.2.5

Assessment of usefulness of training

It is a fact that training must lead to changes towards improvement in the areas of job knowledge, skills
or attitude, individually or in all the areas simultaneously. Since training involves generally huge amounts,
the employers are particular in knowing about the return on investment in training. For this purpose, the
training department determines the procedure to evaluate the impact of a particular training programme
in the actual working field after the completion of the training programme.
The training department keeps in continuous touch with various departments to know the improvement
in the performance of employees in specific terms such as quality and quantity of products, attitudinal
and behavioural changes etc. The data elicited during evaluation is further processed and put into use
to bring effective changes in future training programmes.

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Training and Development

2.2.6

Identifying specific areas in training

Management of infrastructure facilities

In many organizations the training departments have their own staff colleges or training centres to train
their employees, for example, railways, banks, post & telegraph, insurance companies, hotels etc. In
such cases, the training department is responsible for recruiting training staff and arranging for various
facilities required.
2.2.7

Monitoring nominations

This is also one of the important functions of the training department. Having finalized the nominations,
the training department informs the respective employees about their nomination through a letter stating
the type of programme, duration, venue, reporting date etc.
2.2.8

Guest faculty arrangement

The training department sometimes engages the guest faculty for their internal programmes. They
maintain a list of competent guest faculty to facilitate this function. The list is updated regularly, and
the training department fixes the amount of honorarium to be paid to the guest faculty.

2.3

The role of training manager

The training manager is a leader, coordinator, motivator and catalyst in conducting training programmes.
He/she:
• Makes an assessment of training needs;
• Prepares training budget;
• Ensures that nominations are properly communicated to the trainees;
• Prepares lists of various training institutions/experts, and keeps in touch with them;
• Identifies guest faculty on an ongoing basis;
• Arranges for infrastructure facilities required;
• Contributes to the preparation and supply of course material;
• Prepares and stores data related to training;
• Introduces, conducts and supervises the suitable evaluation procedures and methods both at
classroom and post-training levels;
• Coordinates with other training colleges and systems;
• Devises methods and systems to keep up with the latest training methods and technology;
• Makes an effort to develop internal guest faculty;
• Coordinates among various departments of the organization, and organizes seminars and
conferences inside the organization to elicit the views of the line managers and other executives,
so that the functioning of the training system is made smoother.

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Training and Development

2.4

Identifying specific areas in training

Training budget

Training system is a sub-system of the total organizational system. The training department is not an
earning department but a spending department. Hence the training budget has to be prepared very
carefully keeping in mind the expected tangible results for investment in training. The responsibility of
evaluation of cost benefit analysis also lies with the training department. So it is essential to prepare a
training budget for approval by the top management.
Some organizations also follow the long term budgeting in the area of training in view of projected
future training programmes. The training department arrives at the figures of how many employees are
to be sent out for external training and how many are to be trained within the internal training system
of the organization.
The training budget involves expenditure and also investment of valuable manpower. It should be
meticulously followed and monitored continuously. Reviews should be conducted at frequent intervals
and improvements and adjustments have to be made whenever required.

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Training and Development

2.5

Identifying specific areas in training

Wrong assumptions about training

Quite often the following wrong assumptions are made about training programmes:
• Training is the panacea for all organizational problems: In several cases managers believe
that the shortcomings in the organization are only due to the lack of proper training. But on
analysis of facts and figures it might be proved that the shortcomings and deficiencies in the
organization existing in the various departments and at various levels are due to a number of
factors in individual way or a group of factors combined. The reasons could be all or some of
the following:
-- The organizational culture;
-- Promotion and other motivation policies;
-- Existing pattern of communication;
-- Modes of decision making by the superiors;
-- Attitude of top management towards the workers.
The top management must realize that training is a complimentary factor in harnessing the
potentiality of the workforce, only when the other factors existing in the organization are
conducive to a healthy work environment.
• Training is a paid holiday: Quite often some people have an impression that training
programme is a paid holiday and that training does not bring any change among the employees.
It is absolutely a wrong assumption. The workers live in a world of ever-changing technological
development. It is essential for them to update their knowledge and skills along with cultivating
favourable attitude, not only towards the organization but also towards community, country
and world. Training is a powerful tool towards achieving this objective.
• Training deals with unreal situations away from practical work area: This is a false
assumption. There is always a high degree of integration between theory and practice. The
real-life simulated methodology makes the trainees undergo training in the most practical
way. For example, pilots undergo training and re-training on simulated equipment in order to
further sharpen their skills.
• The return on investment on training is not certain as it cannot be measured: This assumption
is not correct. It is possible to measure the outcome of training in terms of behavioural change
or in improvement of other aspects in actual work field. However, the outcome of all training
may not be visible in the short term but the advantages are far-reaching in the long term.

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