Tải bản đầy đủ

A contrastive study on the meanings of the verb “run” in english and “chạy” in vietnamese from a cognitive semantic perspective

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY

M.A. THESIS

A CONTRASTIVE STUDY ON THE MEANINGS
OF THE VERB “RUN” IN ENGLISH AND “CHẠY” IN
VIETNAMESE FROM A COGNITIVE SEMANTIC
PERSPECTIVE
(NGHIÊN CỨU PHÂN TÍCH ĐỐI CHIẾU NHỮNG Ý NGHĨA CỦA ĐỘNG
TỪ “RUN” TRONG TIẾNG ANH VÀ “CHẠY” TRONG TIẾNG VIỆT
TRÊN QUAN ĐIỂM NGỮ NGHĨA HỌC TRI NHẬN)

NGÔ THU TRANG

Hanoi, 2016


Front hard cover
Back hard cover


NGÔ THU TRANG

ENGLISH LANGUAGE

2013 - 2015


MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY

M.A. THESIS

A CONTRASTIVE STUDY ON THE MEANINGS
OF THE VERB “RUN” IN ENGLISH AND “CHẠY” IN
VIETNAMESE FROM A COGNITIVE SEMANTIC
PERSPECTIVE
(NGHIÊN CỨU PHÂN TÍCH ĐỐI CHIẾU NHỮNG Ý NGHĨA CỦA
ĐỘNG TỪ “RUN” TRONG TIẾNG ANH VÀ “CHẠY” TRONG TIẾNG
VIỆT TRÊN QUAN ĐIỂM NGỮ NGHĨA HỌC TRI NHẬN)

NGÔ THU TRANG

Field: English Language
Code: 60220201

Supervisor: Do Kim Phuong, Ph.D.
Hanoi, 2016


CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
I, the undersigned, hereby certify my authority of the study project report
entitled A STUDY ON THE MEANINGS OF THE VERB “RUN” IN
ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE

FROM A COGNITIVE SEMANTIC

PERSPECTIVE A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in English
Language. Except where the reference is indicated, no other person‟s work
has been used without due acknowledgement in the text of the thesis.


Hanoi, 2016

Ngo Thu Trang

Approved by
SUPERVISOR

Date: 11/12/2016

i


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This thesis could not have been completed without the help and
support from a number of people.
First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to
Ms. Do Kim Phuong, my supervisor, who has patiently and constantly
supported me through the stages of the study, and whose stimulating ideas,
expertise, and suggestions have inspired me greatly through my growth as
an academic researcher.
A special word of thanks goes to my best friends and my colleagues,
without whose support and encouragement it would never have been
possible for me to have this thesis accomplished.
Last but not least, I am greatly indebted to my family, my husband.
for the sacrifice they have devoted to the fulfillment of this academic work.

ii


ABSTRACT
The study is aimed at the meanings of the verb “run” in English and
“chạy” in Vietnamese from a cognitive semantic perspective by using
Contrastive Analysis as the major method. The research is done to
investigate the semantic features of the English verb “run” in the light of
cognitive semantics and find out several the similarities and differences
between Vietnamese and

English verb” run”. In doing the research,

descriptive method and contrastive analysis are done either to describe the
meanings conveyed by the English verb “run” in the light of a cognitive
semantic perspective or to determine the differences and similarities
between verb “run” in English and its equivalents in Vietnamese . Data for
this study were collected from three novels, namely, the Vanity Fair by
Thackeray [58], A Game of Thrones by Martin [38], and Gone with the
wind by Mitchell [40] and all of their Vietnamese translational equivalents,
namely “Hội chợ phù hoa” translated by Trần Kiêm [63], “Trò chơi vương
quyền” translated by Hà Ly [65] and “Cuốn theo chiều gió” translated by Vũ
Kim Thư [67]. This study has been primarily carried out to answer two
questions, one is to investigate the possible meanings of the English verb
“run” and the other is to investigate its Vietnamese equivalents in the light
of cognitive semantics. The results provide some supports for learners to
have a good understanding in learning and translating English verb from a
cognitive semantic perspective

iii


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

A

Adverbial

C

Complement

O

Object

Od

Direct object

Po

Object predicative

S

Subject

V

Verb

iv


LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Table 4.1. Possible meanings of run and frequency of occurrences

43

Table 4.2.Vietnamese equivalents of run and frequency of occurrences

59

Figure 4.1. Radial network of run

42

v


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certificate of originality

i

Acknowledgements

ii

Abstract

iii

List of abbreviations

iv

List of tables and figures

v

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

1

1.1. Rationale for the research

1

1.2. Aims of the research

2

1.3. Objectives of the research

2

1.4. Scope of the research

3

1.5. Significance of the research

3

1.6. Organizational structure of thesis

4

Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

5

2.1.

Review of previous studies

5

2.2.

Review of theoretical background

5

2.2.1 A brief overview of cognitive linguistics

6

2.2.1.1 Definition of cognitive linguistics

6

2.2.1.2 Major principles of cognitive linguistics

6

2.2.2 A brief overview of cognitive semantics

8

2.2.2.1 Definition of cognitive semantics

8

2.2.2.2 Major principles of cognitive semantics

8

vi


2.2.3 Motion verbs

10

2.2.3.1 Definition of motion verbs

10

2.2.3.2 Classification of English motion verbs

10

2.2.3.3 Syntactic and semantic features of English motion verbs

12

2.2.3.4 Syntactic and semantic features of the verb “run”

15

2.2.4 Cognitive semantic approach to motion verbs

16

2.2.4.1 Experiential realism, image schemas

17

2.2.4.2 Metaphor

19

2.2.4.3 Prototype, radial category

20

2.2.4.4 Polysemy

22

2.3 Summary

23

Chapter 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

24

3.1.

24

Research orientations

3.1.1 Research questions

24

3.1.2 Research setting

24

3.1.3 Research approaches

25

3.1.4 Principles/criteria for intended date collection and data analysis

25

3.1.4.1. Data types

25

3.1.4.2. Sources of data

26

3.1.4.3. Reliability and authenticity of data

26

3.2.

27

Research methods

3.2.1 Major methods and supporting methods

27

3.2.2 Data collection techniques

27

vii


3.2.3 Data analysis techniques

28

3.3.

28

Summary

Chapter 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

29

4.1.

29

Findings

4.1.1 Meanings of the English verb “run”

29

4.1.1.1. Prototypical schema for English verb “run”

29

4.1.1.2. Non-prototypical meanings of the verb “run”

30

4.1.1.3. Radial category of “run”

41

4.1.2. The English verb “run” and its Vietnamese equivalents

44

4.1.2.1 “Run” in English corresponds to “chạy” in Vietnamese

44

4.1.2.2. “Run” in English corresponds to “chạy trốn/ trốn” in Vietnamese

47

4.1.2.3. “Run” in English corresponds to “chạy dọc” in Vietnamese

48

4.1.2.4. “Run” in English corresponds to “trải dài” in Vietnamese

49

4.1.2.5. “Run” in English corresponds to “chạy đua” in Vietnamese

50

4.1.2.6. “Run” in English corresponds to “lan khắp” in Vietnamese

50

4.1.2.7. “Run” in English corresponds to “chảy” in Vietnamese

50

4.1.2.8. “Run” in English corresponds to “tràn” in Vietnamese

51

4.1.2.9. “Run” in English corresponds to “quản lý” in Vietnamese

52

4.1.2.10. “Run” in English corresponds to “vận hành” in Vietnamese

52

4.1.2.11. “Run” in English corresponds to “nhìn” in Vietnamese

53

4.1.2.12. “Run” in English corresponds to “gặp” in Vietnamese

53

4.1.2.13. “Run” in English corresponds to “trở nên” in Vietnamese

54

4.1.2.14. “Run” in English corresponds to “lướt/ lùa” in Vietnamese

55

viii


4.1.2.15. “Run” in English corresponds to “hết” in Vietnamese

55

4.1.2.16. “Run” in English corresponds to “kéo dài” in Vietnamese

56

4.1.2.17. “Run” in English corresponds to “tăng lên” in Vietnamese

56

4.1.2.18. “Run” in English corresponds to “hoạt động” in Vietnamese

57

4.1.2.19. “Run” in English corresponds to “phát hành” in Vietnamese

57

4.1.2.20. “Run” in English corresponds to “có hiệu lực” in Vietnamese

57

4.1.2.21. “Run” in English corresponds to “kiểm tra” in Vietnamese

58

4.1.2.22. “Run” in English is translated as a copular verb in Vietnamese

58

4.2.

60

Discussion

4.2.1 The similarities between the English verb “run” and its
Vietnamese equivalents
4.2.2 The differences between the English verb “run” and its
Vietnamese equivalents

60

60

4.3.

Implications for learning and translating English

61

4.4.

Summary

62

Chapter 5: CONCLUSION

64

5.1.

64

Recapitulation

5.2 Conclusions on each of the thesis objectives

64

5.3 Limitations of the research

65

5.4 Suggestions for further research

66

REFERENCES

67

ix


1


Chapter I: Introduction
1.1.

Rationale

As Palmer [44] points out, learning a language is to a great extent learning
how to operate the verbal forms, the patterns and the structures of the verbs
in that language. Undoubtedly, verbs are most widely used and as a result
which plays a key role in any language system. A verb is the backbone of
the sentence as it is the verb that provides the central meaning for a
sentence. However, there is a well-established fact that learners of English
as a foreign language tend to consider verbs as one of the most complex
classes of words for their great complexity of the internal semantic and
syntactic structure.
Actually, many studies have been done on the verbal characteristics,
especially the systematic relationships between the different senses of
English verbs. They have paid much attention to polysemy. Unlike other
approaches, cognitive linguistics, especially cognitive semantics has made
use of image-schema to visualize the sense networks of various polysemous
words.
As far as motion verbs are concerned, many experimental studies have
confirmed the differences in encoding motion across different languages
[41] [45] [53]. Thus, native speakers of different languages express
movement according to the specific language they speak. Verb “run” is one
of the verb belongs to motion verbs. Vietnamese learners almost don‟t know
when and how it is used and how to translate this verb from English to
Vietnamese in collocations in different respects. They tend to apply its
straightforward correspondence in their mother tongue, such as run means
chạy in Vietnamese. Moreover, although there has been a vast amount of

1


research on the verbal characteristics in English, in Vietnam, there isn‟t an
in-depth analysis of meanings of a particular English verb from a cognitive
semantic perspective.
For all the above-mentioned reasons, it is strongly desirable for the author to
carry out the thesis titled: A contrastive study on the meanings of the verb
“run” in English and “chạy” in Vietnamese from a cognitive semantic
perspective.
1.2.

Aims of research

The research is done to investigate the semantic features of the English verb
“run” in the light of cognitive semantics and find out several the similarities
and differences between Vietnamese and English verb” run”. The research
results will enable learners to have a good understanding in learning and
translating English verb from a cognitive semantic perspective.
1.3.

Objectives of research

In order to achieve the aims mentioned above, a number of objectives will
be carried out, including:
(i) Describing the semantic features of the English verb “run” in the light
of cognitive semantics;
(ii) Finding out the similarities and differences between Vietnamese and
English verb “run”;
(iii) Suggesting implications for learning and translating English verb
from a cognitive semantic perspective.

2


1.4.

Scope of research

Academic scope:
The study is an attempt to explain the meanings conveyed by the English
verb “run” and its Vietnamese equivalents within cognitive semantic
theoretical framework. The prototypical sense, derived meanings, and
metaphorical extensions of the verb are taken into account. This
investigation is based on the author‟s manual corpus of run-examples in
form of S + run and S + run + O, where run functions as a verb, to the
exclusion of others where run functions as a noun.
The data were collected from three sources, namely, the English
versions of Vanity Fair by Thackeray [58], A Game of Thrones by Martin
[38], and Gone with the Wind by Mitchell [40]. Vietnamese equivalents to
those run-occurrences were also identified and grouped in terms of
frequency and percentage.

1.5.

Significance of research
(i) Theoretical significance

Thanks to the research and findings, the writer can get more knowledge of
cognitive semantics and cognitive semantic studies on verbs from a crosslinguistic perspective.
(ii) Practical significance
Hopefully, the results of the research will help learners be able to make
gorgeous improvements in their English language learning in general and
English-Vietnamese translation in particular.

3


1.6.

Organizational structure of thesis

The thesis starts out with Introduction where background for the research
should be established, that is, why it was done. It is vital to state clearly the
reasons for doing the research and the objectives of the thesis as well as the
scope and the significance of the research.
The Literature Review summarizes the results of others who worked on the
problem or on a similar problem. It is important to uncover all important
literature

and

summarize

the

theoretical

background/preliminaries

employable as tools for conducting the research.
The Methodology describes all the research-governing orientations and
research methods applied for implementing this research.
The Finding and Discussions describes and discusses about investigate the
semantic features of the English verb “run” in the light of cognitive
semantics as well as some similarities and differences between Vietnamese
and English verb “run” and sets out some possible implications for learning
and translating English verb from a cognitive semantic perspective.

4


Chapter II: Literature review
This section presents the thorough and in-depth studies which are done by
previous researchers. This will also present the synthesis of the theoretical
and conceptual framework to fully understand the research. A new research
based on previous studies and theoretical background will be studied.
2.1.

Review of previous studies

The following is previous research work related to the theme studied in the
research.
Nguyen Hung Tien. (2010). A Contrastive Analysis between the Verb „Run‟
in English and the Verb „Chạy‟ in Vietnamese, University of Language and
International Studies.
The research aimed at finding the similarities and differences between the
verb „run‟ in English and the verb „chạy‟ in Vietnamese mainly in terms of
MiCA and briefly in term of MaCA and providing recommendations for the
teaching and learning as well as some tips when translating „run‟ and „chạy‟
into the target language.
2.2.

Review of theoretical background

In this chapter, the cognitive semantic framework of the study is presented.
Particularly, the theories of cognitive linguistics, cognitive semantics and
motion verbs are demonstrated. Several primary notions in cognitive
semantics employed to investigate the meanings of motion verbs are
explicitly put forward.

5


2.2.1 A brief overview of cognitive linguistics
2.2.1.1 Definition of cognitive linguistics
Cognitive linguistics, a modern and innovative approach to the study of
language and mind, has been of special interest since it emerged in the late
seventies and early eighties. It concerns the relationship between the way
people communicate with each other and the way people think [25]. Or, as
Fauconnier [13] states it is the study of language, conceptual systems,
human cognition, and general meaning construction. Cognitive linguistics
argues that the language peope use and their ability to learn and use it is
accounted for by general cognitive abilities, their visual and human
categorization strategies, together with their cultural, contextual, and
functional parameters [1]. To put it in another way, cognitive linguistics
views linguistic knowledge as a part of human general thinking and
cognition; people‟s linguistic performance is not separated from other
general cognitive abilities which allow mental processes of reasoning,
memory, attention or learning, but understood as an integral part of it [26].
In short, cognitive linguistics is the scientific study of human languages in
relation to human cognition. It is concerned with investigating the
relationship between human language, human mind and human sociophysical experiences.
2.2.1.2 Major principles of cognitive linguistics
There are two fundamental principles of cognitive linguistics. The first
fundamental principle is embodiment. This means that language is not an
abstract cognitive faculty, independent from other human cognitive
processes; on the contrary, human language is created from human daily and
real experience. “We construct and understand our categories on the basis of
6


concrete experiences, and under the constraints imposed, first and foremost
our bodies” [1, p.9]. According to Barcelona [1], human conceptual
categories, the meaning of words and sentences, the meaning of linguistic
structures at any level are not just a set of universal abstract features, or of
uninterpreted symbols; quite the opposite: they are activated and motivated
directly in human daily experience in human life: in human bodily, social,
physical, or social experiences [21] [24]. To put it in another way, people
experience the real world and examine what they perceive, then it is their
perception that filters the experience. And it is a fact that no one is alike;
thus, their perception about the world differs, resulting in the difference in
their description of what they experience.

The second main principle of cognitive linguistics is the theory of linguistic
meaning. Cognitive linguists clarify that language is symbolic in nature as it
“makes available to the speaker an open-ended set of linguistic signs or
expressions, each of which associates a semantic representation of some
kinds with a phonological representation” [32, p.11]. Linguistic expressions
come into being under an inventory of form-meaning parings which are
called symbolic units. A symbolic unit consists of a phonological unit at one
pole and a semantic unit at the other pole. Therefore, form and meaning are
always accompanying, not independent of one another. As a result, language
is used as a tool to encode and to transmit ideas, which are carried out via
means of symbols.

7


2.2.2 A brief overview of cognitive semantics
2.2.2.1 Definition of cognitive semantics
Cognitive semantics is a branch of cognitive linguistics. Unlike traditional
semantics that attributed linguistics to phonology, syntax, pragmatics, etc.
and that meaning is independent from syntax, cognitive semantics states that
meanings come from human mind; or rather, meanings are in the head[15]..
Cognitive semantics also sees linguistic meaning as a manifestation of
conceptual structure: “the nature and organization of mental representation
in all its richness and diversity, and this is what makes it a distinctive
approach to linguistic meaning” [11, p.156]. Talmy [54, p.4] describes
cognitive semantics as follows: “Research on cognitive semantics is
research on conceptual content and its organization in language”.

In short, cognitive semantics is concerned with investigating the relationship
between experience, the conceptual system, and the semantic structure
encoded by language [26] [29] [31] [32] [34] [35] [50]. In other words,
cognitive semantics investigates knowledge representation (conceptual
structure), and meaning construction (conceptualization).

2.2.2.2 Major principles of cognitive semantics
Talmy [54], Lakoff & Johnson [31], and Geeraerts [17] identify four guiding
principles that collectively characterize the collection of approaches that fall
within cognitive semantics in their books, namely: i) Conceptual structure is
embodied; ii) Semantic structure is conceptual structure; iii) Meaning
representation is encyclopaedic; iv) Meaning construction is conceptualization.

8


The first principle - conceptual structure is embodied - means that people
perceive the world based on what they experience. In other words, their
construe of the world is intervened by the nature of their embodiment. The
experience people have of the world is significant to the way they
understand it. What they understand from the world through their perception
becomes their knowledge of it. This position holds that conceptual structure
is a consequence of the nature of human embodiment and thus is embodied.
The second guiding principle - semantic structure is conceptual structure asserts that the meanings conventionally associated with words and other
linguistics units (bound morphemes, constructions, etc.) can be equated with
concepts. This is not to say that semantic structure and conceptual structure
are identical: linguistic concepts are only a subset of the possible concepts
in the mind of the speaker.
The third guiding principle holds that semantic structure is encyclopaedic in
nature. This means that words do not represent “neatly packaged bundles of
meanings but serve as points of access to vast repositories of knowledge”
[55, p.160]. In order to understand the meaning of a given utterance, people
draw on their encyclopaedic knowledge relating to the specific situation
depicted by the utterance to construct its meaning.
The fourth guiding principle - meaning construction is conceptualization means that language itself does not encode meaning. Instead, words are only
„prompts‟ for the construction of meaning [17]. Accordingly, meaning is
constructed at the conceptual level. Meaning construction is equated with
conceptualization, a process whereby linguistic units serve as prompts for an
array of conceptual operations and the recruitment of background knowledge.
Meaning is a process rather than a discrete thing that can be packaged by
language.

9


2.2.3 Motion verbs
2.2.3.1 Definition of motion verbs
Motion verbs have been the subject of several studies by linguists as they
present particularly interesting semantic and syntactic characteristics. A
motion verb, as its name suggests, is simply a verb that expresses a kind of
motion such as go, walk, run, hurry, and so on [49, p.53]. To describe this
terminology more clearly, Valin [62, p.109] argues that “for motion verbs,
we need to present the motion plus the change of location over the time”.
The English verbs of motion tend to incorporate certain specific kinds of
semantic features or components such as manner, cause, or path.
2.2.3.2 Classification of English motion verbs
There are different classifications of English motion verbs from the
different points of view. The author is especially interested in the
contributions of Levin [36] for the classification of English motion verbs
with regard to transitive and intransitive motion verbs. Levin proposes the
following seven verb classes:
i) Inherently directed motion
The meanings of these verbs include a specification of the direction of
motion (i.e., path). The meanings of these verbs include a specification of
the direction of motion, example: advance, arrive, ascend, come, depart,
descend, enter, escape, exit, fall, flee, go, leave, plunge, recede, return, rise,
tumble.
ii) Leave verbs

10


These verbs do not specify the manner of motion; they just indicate that
motion away from a location has taken place. The direct object of these
verbs is understood to be the location that has been left. The location cannot
be expressed in a prepositional phrase. For instance: abandon, desert, leave,
etc.
iii) Manner of motion
These verbs include roll verbs and run verbs. Roll verbs specify manners of
motion characteristic of inanimate entities, that is, the figure does not
necessarily control its motion. This verb class includes the verbs such as:
bounce, drift, drop, float, glide, move, roll, slide, swing, etc. plus verbs
describing motion around an axis: coil, revolve, rotate, spin, turn, twirl,
twist, whirl, wind, etc. Run verbs describe manners in which animate entities
can move, although some of them may also be used to describe the
movement of inanimate entities. Furthermore, no specific direction of
motion is implied unless they occur with an explicit directional phrase.
Example: float, fly, jump, march, race, run, walk and so forth.
iv) Manner of motion using a vehicle
They are vehicle name verbs (bike, cycle, etc.), and verbs not associated
with vehicle names (fly, row, etc.). Verbs that are vehicle names mean
roughly “go using the vehicle named by the noun” [36, p.268]. Verbs that
are not vehicle names denote motion using a vehicle but the vehicle name
does not coincide with the verb.
v) Waltz verbs
Example: boogie, bop, cancan, clog, conga, dance, foxtrot, tango,
tapdance, waltz, etc. These verbs mean roughly “perform the dance”. No

11


specific direction of motion is implied unless there is an explicit directional
phrase present. Like vehicle nouns, it appears that any dance noun can be
used as a motion verb.
vi) Accompany verbs
These verbs relate to one person taking another from one place to another.
According to Levin [36], these verbs are differentiated semantically by the
nature of the relationship between the two participants. For example:
accompany, conduct, escort, guide, lead, shepherd, etc.
vii) Chase verbs
They are chase, follow, pursue, shadow, tail, track, trail, etc. These verbs
are typically transitive, with the chaser as the subject and the person being
chased as the object. Some of them allow an intransitive use, with the chaser
as the subject and a prepositional phrase headed by after expressing what is
being chased.
2.2.3.3 Syntactic and semantic features of English motion verbs
Syntactic features of English motion verbs
According to Biber et al. [2], every verb can occur with specific patterns of
clause elements which contain a subject and can also include adverbials. He
proposes five valency patterns for a single-word lexical verb, namely:
intransitive, monotransitive, ditransitive, complex transitive and copular.
Generally speaking, motion verbs should be grouped into intransitive,
transitive verbs.
The first type of motion verbs, intransitive motion verbs, occurs in the SV
pattern with no object or predicative complement. Example:

12


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×