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Conceptual metaphors of love in the capenters’love songs

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HANOI OPEN UNIVERSITY

M.A. THESIS

CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS OF LOVE
IN THE CARPENTERS’ LOVE SONGS
(ẨN DỤ Ý NIỆM VỀ TÌNH YÊU TRONG
NHỮNG TÌNH KHÚC CỦA THE CARPENTERS)

NGUYỄN THU HÀ
Field: English Language
Code: 60220201

Supervisor: Dang Nguyen Giang, Ph. D.

Hanoi, 2016


CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
Except where reference has been made in the text, this thesis contains no

material previously published or written by another person.
I, Nguyen Thu Ha, hereby state that this thesis is the result of my own
research and the substance of the thesis has not, wholly or in part, been
submitted for any degrees to any other universities or institutions.
Hanoi, 2016

Nguyen Thu Ha
Approved by

Dang Nguyen Giang, Ph. D.
Date:……………………


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
For the accomplishment of this study, I have been fortunate to receive
help and support from many people.
First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Mr. Dang
Nguyen Giang, my supervisor, who has provided me with inspiration to do
this research. His experienced guidance, comments, corrections and useful
materials during the course of my writing to fulfillment of this study.
Also, my special thanks go to all the lectures of the M.A course at Hanoi
Open University for their useful lessons from which I have benefited a lot for
the accomplishment of this study.
Finally, my warmest thanks are due to my parents for their support and
spiritual encouragement in the process of study.


ABSTRACT
It is not quite hard to learn and understand how to use metaphor in
writing. However, it is quite delicate to decode the meaning of these cognitive
metaphors in particular works, especially the metaphor of love. Since love is
the-all-time favorite topic, the muse of every writer, poets, composers, etc.
Metaphor of Love is the great topic to study on, though it is not interested by
many people. It does not take much effort to see metaphor in love stories, love
poetries, and love songs. Particularly, music is considered as bridge to
connect people together, and is the best way to communicate. There is nobody
saying no to love songs. That is why studying metaphors of love through love
songs is a great idea. With the hope of creating a new direction of love’s
values and highlighting the profound philosophy of human life in songs, this
thesis would focus on the conceptual metaphors in the lyrics of The


Carpenters’ love songs.
In this thesis, the concept which is drawn out again is ‘love is a
journey’. Furthermore, there are structural metaphors such as up-down, herethere repeatedly appearing in The Carpenters’ songs. There are also some of
the metaphoric expressions such as ‘love is music’, ‘love is movement’, ‘love
is religion’, etc. The metaphoric expressions in the songs are enticing, even
seductive, in their witty suggestiveness. There are three types of conceptual
metaphors investigated in the present study: orientational metaphors,
structural metaphors and ontological metaphors. Normally, more than one
type of love appears in lyrics and this is logical only when one needs to take
many roles in a relationship.
Due to the fact that there is few researches on pop song lyrics, this
thesis can be one of the leading head to take the lead and to open a new issue
for further discussing and researching. If anyone is interested in studying the
topic of conceptual metaphors of love could find this thesis as useful material.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 1
1.1. Rationale ................................................................................................ 1
1.2. Aims of the Research ............................................................................. 2
1.3. Objectives of the Research .................................................................... 2
1.4. Research Questions ............................................................................... 2
1.5. Scope of the Research ............................................................................ 3
1.6. Significance of the Research ................................................................. 3
1.7. Structure of the Research ..................................................................... 4
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................... 5
2.1. Review of Previous Research ................................................................ 5
2.2. Review of the Theoretical Background ................................................ 6
2.2.1. Metaphors from Traditional View ................................................. 6
2.2.2. Metaphors from Cognitive View .................................................... 8
2.2.3. Conceptual Metaphors ................................................................... 9
2.2.4. Love and Conceptual Metaphors of Love .................................... 11
2.3. Summary .............................................................................................. 15
CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY ............................................................. 16
3.1. Research Orientations ......................................................................... 16
3.1.1. Research Questions ..................................................................... 16
3.1.3. Research Approaches .................................................................. 16
3.1.4. Data Collection ............................................................................ 16
3.2. Research Methods ............................................................................... 16
3.2.1. Major Methods............................................................................. 17


3.2.2. Supporting Methods..................................................................... 18
3.2.3. Data Collection Techniques......................................................... 18
3.2.4. Data Analysis Technique ............................................................. 19
3.3. Summary .............................................................................................. 19
CHAPTER 4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS ...................................... 20
4.1. Orientational Metaphors..................................................................... 20
4.1.1. Up - Down .................................................................................... 20
4.1.2. Here - There................................................................................. 22
4.2. Structural Metaphors .................................................................... 24
4.2.1. Love is a Journey ......................................................................... 24
4.2.2. Love is Flying/Floating ............................................................... 29
4.2.3. Love is Movement ........................................................................ 31
4.2.4. Loveis Music ................................................................................ 32
4.2.5. Love is a Rapture/High ................................................................ 35
4.2.6. Love is Madness/Insanity ............................................................ 37
4.2.7. Love is Magic ............................................................................... 39
4.2.8. Love is Religion ........................................................................... 40
4.2.9. Love is Closeness ......................................................................... 43
4.2.10. Love is a Unity of (Two complementary) Parts.......................... 46
4.2.11. Love is (Sun)Light ..................................................................... 47
4.2.12. Love is Chromaticity .................................................................. 49
4.3. Ontological Metaphors ........................................................................ 51
4.3.1. Love is a Nutrient ........................................................................ 52
4.3.2. Love is a Plant ............................................................................. 53
4.3.3. Love is a Fluid (In a container) ................................................... 54
4.3.4. Love is a building/Construct ........................................................ 57
4.3.5. Love is a game (To play) .............................................................. 60
4.3.6. Love is a Sourceof Warmth ......................................................... 62
4.3.7. Love is an Astronomical Object/Phenomenon ............................ 63


4.4. Summary .............................................................................................. 65
CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSION ................................................................... 66
5.1. Recapitulation ...................................................................................... 66
5.2. Concluding Remarks ........................................................................... 66
5.3. Limitations and Suggestions for Further Studies .............................. 68


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Rationale
Metaphor is regarded as an issue of language including some figurative
features understood due to the literal words and expressions. In fact,
metaphor, from the rhetorical perspective, is the method of changing the name
which is based on the implicit comparison between two similar things.
Recently, the definition of metaphor has considerably changed when
the cognitive linguists suppose that metaphor is a powerful cognitive tool for
human to give discrete concepts. Metaphor is not only a dialect as the
structuralists refers to but also a form of human thinking about the world.
Besides, metaphorical thinking depends on concepts. In “Oxford Dictionary
of Psychology”, it is considered as "an expression of the spirit, an idea, or a
thought that corresponds to a separate entity or a class entity, or that is the
definition or the typical attributes of the entity types or classes of that entity,
which may be specific or abstract”.
Conceptual metaphors are also known as cognitive ones. These are not
only the chemical forms of the ideas but also a process of cognitive and
functional manifestations forming new ideas. The cognitive metaphors are
exploited and decoded due to the background knowledge, cultural patterns,
psychological characteristics, ethnic thinking, etc. about the human spirit.
Thus, approaching language towards cognitive linguistics is a new direction
in which more current linguists and supporters are interested.
Love is the all-time-favorite story, and it is love to be told not only by
the romantic poets but by everyone. So far, there have been several authors
giving research works on love in different levels. However, the studies of love
in terms of conceptual metaphors are not interested by many people. Each of
musical compositions contains its own emotion, feeling and inspiration.
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Various rhetoric devices are used to describe love, and metaphors appear to
be an effective way to do this among them.
The study on the conceptual metaphors in the lyrics of The Carpenters’
love songs will contribute a new direction of love values as well as highlight
the profound philosophy of human life in the songs. For these reasons, the
author has made a decision to choose the topic: "Conceptual metaphors of love
in The Carpenters’ love songs". Hopefully, the analysis of conceptual
metaphors can help people have a better understanding of the implicit ideas
employed in the lyrics of the songs.
1.2. Aims of the Research
The study attempts to find out the conceptual metaphor patterns of love
in The Carpenters’ love songs.
1.3. Objectives of the Research
In order to achieve the aim, the study is expected to reach the following
objectives:
- To describe the orientational metaphors in The Carpenters’ Love songs;
- To find out the structural metaphors of love in The Carpenters’ Love songs;
- To analyze the ontological metaphors of love in the lyrics of The
Carpenters’ Love songs.
1.4. Research Questions
The objectives of the study can be elaborated into the following
research questions:
- How are the orientational metaphors organized in The Carpenters’ Love
songs?
- What are the structural metaphors of love in The Carpenters’ Love songs?
- How are the ontological metaphors of love manifested in the lyrics of
The Carpenters’ Love songs?

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1.5. Scope of the Research
The thesis is limited to the conceptual metaphors in the lyrics of The
Carpenters’ Love songs, and the other issues related to cognitive linguistics
are mentioned as a more convenient way to clarify the conceptual metaphor
models within the scope of the subject. Indeed, the research is about love
between men and women throughout The Carpenter’s Love songs.
In order to select the song lyrics with the exact metaphors needed to be
analyzed, we focus on the songs belonging to some key words such as “love
together”, “love with you”, “love separate”, “love something between” and
“love bond”. All the key words are believed to be conventionally used in the
metaphors of love with different focused meanings. In this study, love simply
means love between male and female people. Due to the limitation of time
and the author’s ability, there are twenty songs investigated and analyzed in
the present study.
1.6. Significance of the Research
Theoretically, the research results will confirm the theory of cognitive
linguistics as a believable approach to analyze the language in general and
clarify several issues about the conceptual metaphors through the lyrics of
The Carpenters’ Love songs in particular. Indeed, conceptual metaphor,
which is not just a figure of speech but also a matter of thinking, is an
extremely important mechanism for people to perceive the world.
Practically, the findings of the research, to some extent, are applied to
analyze, evaluate and translate English songs. They help the readers and the
listeners uncover the implicit thinking of The Carpenters through the lyrics
they use in their Love songs. By this, we mean that knowledge from this sort
of work will be of great benefit to translators, who should be able to find the
possible equivalents in the target language, and the teachers, who would apply
these kinds of patterns to their semantic teaching periods.
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1.7. Structure of the Research
The present study consists of five chapters, in addition to the
appendices and the references:
Chapter 1 is begin with the introduction, which gives the reason for
choosing the subjects and sets up the aims, the objectives, the scope and the
significance of the study.
Chapter 2 is aimed at exploring the theoretical background for the thesis,
the chapter presents the results of previous researchers about metaphor,
conceptual metaphors, love, conceptual metaphors of love.
Chapter 3 gives a brief account of the purpose, the participants, and
research methods. This chapter focus on the background information of the
subjects of the study, the instruments used to collect the data, and the
procedure of data collection.
Chapter 4 is devoted to a detailed description of data analysis and a
thorough discussion of the findings of the study. In this chapter some
explanations and interpretations of the findings are explored.
Chapter 5, the conclusion of the thesis, presents the summary of the
findings, some limitations and some recommendations for further research.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Review of Previous Research
There have been several studies of conceptual metaphors, in which
LOVE has been focused on. Xiaowei Fu (2010) supposed that LOVE IS A
UNITY metaphor, and the analyst referred to one particular conceptual domain
which describes LOVE. In Fu’s research (2010), the occurrences of LOVE IS
A UNITY metaphors were investigated, and this research illustrated various
instances of the subcategories of the LOVE IS A UNITY metaphor; LOVE
described as A UNITY OF TWO COMPLEMENTARY PARTS, PHYSICAL
CLOSENESS, or PHYSICAL STABILITY. Fu (2010) chose to analyze these
subcategories through analyzing various love songs, and the qualitative study
showed that LOVE was often described in those songs as a bond between two
people which can be irreplaceable, unbreakable or rather fragile.
Conceptual metaphors have also been studied by Tissari (2001), and
while Fu did not include the diachronic perspective in the study of LOVE IS
A UNITY Tissari did consider this particular phenomenon. Unlike Fu (2010),
Tissari (2001) did not use lyrics as the focus of her study, instead she used
corpora with texts from the Early Modern and Present-Day English period.
Tissari's (2001) analysis revealed that there is a change in the metaphors of
LOVE, but there exists a stability as well. Tissari (2001) wrote “People keep
fetching their metaphors from the spatial, temporal and sensory domains”,
showing that metaphors have been, and are still, reflecting what people
experience. Moreover, she also found that metaphors connected to agriculture
used in Present-Day English are not as clear as in Early Modern English,
indicating that people's usage of conceptual metaphors can indeed change
over time.
In 2011, Tran Thi Thanh Thao gave a comparison between English and
Vietnamese songs in terms of the semantics of metaphors of love in her MA
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thesis. Indeed, the findings of the study reveal some typical metaphorical
images of love used in English and Vietnamese love songs, and the value of
traditional and contemporary views on metaphors of love.
2.2. Review of the Theoretical Background
2.2.1. Metaphors from Traditional View
A metaphor is a figure of speech that refers, for rhetorical effect, to one
thing by mentioning another thing. It may provide clarity or identify hidden
similarities between two ideas. Where a simile compares two items, a metaphor
directly equates them, and does not use "like" or "as" as does a simile.
Metaphors have been studied extensively and there are many different
theories concerning them. The traditional view on metaphor originates from
Aristotle who discussed it in his texts, for example in Poetics. According to
Aristotle, metaphor is “the application of an alien name by transference either
from genus to species or from species to species, or by analogy, that is,
proportion”. Aristotle agrees that metaphoric use of language gives language
distinction, but then again he refers to it by a means of making language more
beautiful and less ordinary. Some figures of speech Aristotle considers as
metaphors do not actually fit in the definition anymore; instead, as for
example Rapp (2002/2010) writes, some of them are seen as cases of
metonymy or synecdoche. Rapp considers Aristotle’s view on metaphor to be
actually slightly closer to the modern approach as he says that the later
tradition to interpret metaphors sees them as instruments of decoration to
delight the hearer.
Metaphors are part of figurative language use. Some authors defined
metaphors as figurative expressions in which words were used in deviating
from their literal meaning and common context of use. According to
Kovecses (2002/2010), most people like to understand metaphors as figures
of speech comparing one thing with another by saying that one is another; for
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example she is a tigress. The traditional concept of metaphors gave them the
following five figures (Kovecses, 2002/2010):
Metaphors are properties of words and they are linguistic phenomena.
Metaphors are used in order to add some artistic and rhetorical purpose.
Metaphors are based on a resemblance between the entities compared
and identified by them.
Metaphors are used consciously and deliberately and using them
requires certain talent.
Metaphors are by no means an inevitable feature of language; instead,
they are used for special effects.
When talking about metaphors in the traditional sense, we need to be
able to grasp three concepts that are actually the elements of metaphor:
‘tenor’, ‘vehicle’ and ‘ground’. Through these concepts, it will be easier to
understand the corresponding concepts in Lakoff and Johnson’s theory.
Montgomery et al. (2007) stated that the vehicle was the word or phrase in a
sentence that cannot be taken literally in the context whereas the tenor was the
implied meaning of, or the meaning that was referred to, by the vehicle. The
ground can be understood when we identify what tenor and vehicle have in
common - their ‘common ground’, that is and filter the aspects of the vehicle
not related to tenor, they continue. They also make a distinction between two
groups of metaphors: explicit and implicit metaphors; when a metaphor is
explicit, both vehicle and tenor are clearly specified and also present in the
text. This can be seen in the example love is a roller coaster ride, for instance.
In this metaphoric expression, love is the tenor, a roller coaster ride is the
vehicle and the ground is the similarity between the two. Similarly to a roller
coaster ride, love has its ups and downs, for example; going uphill is usually
slower and less exhilarating compared to the ride down, but the anticipation
and the memories of excitement and thrill carries through the tough times.
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2.2.2. Metaphors from Cognitive View
The cognitive metaphor theory takes a completely different approach to
metaphors. It does not see them as unnecessarily flamboyant language use of
poetry but rather as an integral part of our being human beings. Kövecses
(2002/2010) sketched the idea by giving examples of metaphoric language use:
He’s without direction in life.
I’m where I want to be in life.
I’m at a crossroads in my life.
She’ll go places in life.
He’s never let anyone get in his way.
She’s gone through a lot in life.
All these examples speak about life and use expressions to do with
journeys. Kövecses (2002/2010) explained that the domain of journey was used
extensively when referring to the sometimes very abstract concept of life.
According to cognitive linguists, we do this in order to grasp the abstract
concept that is of life in terms of the more concrete and tangible concept of
journey, he continues. According to him, in order for us to try to fully
understand an abstract concept, it was actually better to use a concept more
concrete, physical or tangible than the abstract target concept we was trying to
grasp the idea of. He saw only natural and logical beings to rely on our
experiences with the physical world as a foundation in this process.
Lakoff and Johnson introduced their groundbreaking and at the time
even radical theory on metaphors in their book Metaphors We Live By
(1980/2003). They did not consider metaphor as simply “a device of the
poetic imagination and the rhetorical flourish” and a mere tool of
extraordinary language use with little or no connection to our thought and
action as understood according to the prevalent theories of metaphor. Instead,
they claimed that metaphors was in fact present in our everyday life and not
only in language use, but in thought and action as well. This pervasive nature
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of metaphors arises from the fact that the very nature of our ordinary
conceptual system was fundamentally metaphoric, they continued, and the
concepts governing our thought were not only matters of the intellect but they
also governed our everyday functioning. It is our concepts that structure what
we perceive and even how we relate to other people and this means our
conceptual system indeed plays a crucial part in defining our everyday
realities, Lakoff and Johnson wrote. Bearing in mind the metaphoric nature of
our conceptual system, the metaphor indeed is omnipresent in the way we
think, what we experience and what we do every day. Language is where our
conceptual system can be studied as we are typically not aware of how this
system works.
2.2.3. Conceptual Metaphors
Conceptual metaphors are seen in language in our everyday lives.
Conceptual metaphors shape not just our communication, but also shape the way
we think and act. In Lakoff and Johnson's work, Metaphors We Live By (1980),
we see how everyday language is filled with metaphors we may not always
notice. An example of one of the commonly used conceptual metaphors is
"argument is war". This metaphor shapes our language in the way we view
argument as war or as a battle to be won. It is not uncommon to hear someone
say "He won that argument" or "I attacked every weak point in his argument".
The very way argument is thought of is shaped by this metaphor of arguments
being war and battles that must be won. Argument can be seen in other ways
than a battle, but we use this concept to shape the way we think of argument and
the way we go about arguing. Conceptual metaphors are used very often to
understand theories and models. A conceptual metaphor uses one idea and links
it to another to better understand something. For example, the conceptual
metaphor of viewing communication as a conduit is one large theory explained
with a metaphor. So not only is our everyday communication shaped by the
language of conceptual metaphors, but so is the very way we understand
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scholarly theories. These metaphors are prevalent in communication and we do
not just use them in language; we actually perceive and act in accordance with
the metaphors.
A primary tenet of this theory is that metaphors are matter of thought
and not merely of language: hence, the term conceptual metaphor. The
metaphor may seem to consist of words or other linguistic expressions that
come from the terminology of the more concrete conceptual domain, but
conceptual metaphors underlie a system of related metaphorical expressions
that appear on the linguistic surface. Similarly, the mappings of a conceptual
metaphor are themselves motivated by image schemas which pre-linguistic
schemas are concerning space, time, moving, controlling, and other core
elements of embodied human experience.
Conceptual metaphors typically employ a more abstract concept as
target and a more concrete or physical concept as their source. For instance,
metaphors such as 'the days [the more abstract or target concept] ahead' or
'giving my time' rely on more concrete concepts, thus expressing time as a
path into physical space, or as a substance that can be handled and offered as
a gift. Different conceptual metaphors tend to be invoked when the speaker is
trying to make a case for a certain point of view or course of action. For
instance, one might associate "the days ahead" with leadership, whereas the
phrase "giving my time" carries stronger connotations of bargaining.
Selection of such metaphors tends to be directed by a subconscious or implicit
habit in the mind of the person employing them.
The principle of unidirectionality states that the metaphorical process
typically goes from the more concrete to the more abstract, and not the other
way around. Accordingly, abstract concepts are understood in terms of
prototype concrete processes. The term "concrete," in this theory, has been
further specified by Lakoff and Johnson as more closely related to the
developmental, physical neural, and interactive body (see embodied
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philosophy). One manifestation of this view is found in the cognitive
science of mathematics, where it is proposed that mathematics itself, the
most widely accepted means of abstraction in the human community, is
largely metaphorically constructed, and thereby reflects a cognitive bias
unique to humans that uses embodied prototypical processes (e.g.
counting, moving along a path) that are understood by all human beings
through their experiences.
2.2.4. Love and Conceptual Metaphors of Love
As this thesis deals with metaphors of love, I considered it necessary to
try to define love or at least how love is generally understood in the Western
world and cultures. Of course, in the confines of this study it is impossible to
include an exhaustive description and definition but this section will shed at
least some light on how our conception of love has become what it is today.
2.2.4.1. Love?
Love carries different kinds of meaning and in fact one can define
different types of love. In The Four Loves, Lewis (1960) gives affection,
friendship, erotic love, and the love of God as four archetypes of love. These
have been studied and define further and for example Tissari (2001)
mentioned five varieties of love: ‘eros’ (romantic and sexual love), ‘storge’
(family love), ‘philia’ (friendship love), ‘agape’ (religious love) and ‘khreia’
(love of things). She suggested that of different types of love, eros was the
most frequent in different text categories.
Ketonen (1984) considered love the most written theme in world literature
and continues by writing that the meaning of love is ancient indeed and it seems
to have had an essential role in making human beings human beings (cited in
Harpela 2015). In addition, Protasi (2008) agreed that it was indeed eros, the
romantic love, which we usually thought of when thinking of love. She defined
eros as “the passionate attachment we feel for one special individual, who is seen
as beautiful, desirable and valuable” (cited in Harpela 2015).
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Love is one of our basic emotions, along with happiness, sadness, anger
and fear, for example, as Kövecses (1995/2007) states. Although the same
general basic emotion categories can be found possibly in all languages and
cultures, there seems to be at least minor differences between them. Despite
these possible differences, we can safely assume that at least some of these
basic emotion categories are something that people from different cultures or
language background have in common.
Why then do we write and sing about love? Rauhala (1984) claims that
the possibility of being or falling in love is actually one of the most profound
characteristics of the very concept of human being and that love has a strong
influence on balancing and enriching our worldview (cited in Harpela 2015).
Salo (2008) considered love as a theme timeless, universal, omnipresent
and, at least to some degree, part of everyone’s life (cited in Harpela 2015). In
this light, it was only logical that love was also one of the most common song
themes, although Salo warned that within this air of commonness lies a
danger: creating new figures of speech on love can be very difficult (cited in
Harpela 2015).
2.2.4.2. Conceptual Metaphors of Love
To approach the subject, we need to take a look the role of (conceptual)
metaphors on basic emotion concepts, to which love as well belongs. Again, I
refer to Lakoff and Johnson’s and Kövecses’study on the matter. In their
work, they mention some common conceptual metaphors, according to which
the metaphoric linguistic expressions in the data will be categorize in the
analysis in section 4. To complete the categorizing, some conceptual
metaphors have been adopted from other sources as well.
Conceptual metaphors and their role in emotion concepts can be culture
specific, as Kövecses (1995/2007) wrote, also posing the question of whether
the conceptual metaphors are constitutive of the cultural models associated to
emotions, or whether they only reflect them. He referred to Quinn, who
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considered the latter to be true (cited in Kövecses, 1995/2007). Kövecses
himself disagreed and, basing his point of view on the study on the prevalent
container metaphor for anger, states to a probability of conceptual metaphors
with other factors actually contributing to how emotion concepts are
constitute. Still, Kövecses said that such a black-and-white approach to the
matter might not be the best one, agreeing that some metaphors indeed can
create reality but some cannot.
As mentioned earlier, source domains that are easier to fathom are
utilized to define more complicated ones. Lakoff and Johnson (1980/2003)
state that the concept of LOVE is structured mostly in metaphorical terms.
The conceptual metaphors used as categories of metaphors in section 4
originate from different sources. Among the many conceptual metaphors of
love they give, Lakoff and Johnson mentioned the following:
LOVE IS A JOURNEY

It is a bumpy ride.

THEORIES ARE BUILDINGS

Her theory is well-constructed.

LOVE IS MADNESS

I’m just crazy about Harry.

LOVE IS MAGIC

I was spellbound.

LIFE IS A GAMBLING GAME

He’s bluffing.

Of these conceptual metaphors, THEORIES ARE BUILDINGS
became LOVE IS A BUILDING/CONSTRUCT and LIFE IS A GAMBLING
GAME was changed into LOVE IS A GAME (TO PLAY) to meet the needs
of the data better.
According to Kövecses (1990), container metaphors3 are central to
metaphors of love and in understanding any emotion. When in conjunction
with emotions, container metaphors work in two different ways: either the
emotion is the container, LOVE IS A CONTAINER, or the emotion can be
contained in the human body, LOVE IS FLUID IN A CONTAINER.
Agreeing with both Lakoff and Johnson’s and Kövecses’views, Tissari
(2001) considers subcategories of containment (my heart is empty), amount
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(endless love) and exchange (I give my love to you) very common when the
target domain is love. She continued by suggesting that when the target domain
was love, people tend to fetch metaphors from spatial (love is lifting me higher),
temporal (eternal love) and sensory (blinded by love) domains. Also
subcategories of containment (my heart is empty), amount (endless love) and
exchange (I give my love to you) very common when the target domain is love.
Tissari (2006) mentioned the conceptual metaphors LOVE IS A
PLANT and LOVE IS A RELIGION/RELIGIOUS RITE, both of which were
suitable for the data although the latter became LOVE IS RELIGION. Two
conceptual metaphors have been adopted from Tammela (2009)In his
extensive Licentiate thesis on metaphors of love, Tammela utilized the
conceptual metaphor theory. He used the conceptual metaphors RAKKAUS
ON ASTRONOMIAA (LOVE IS ASTRONOMY) and RAKKAUS ON
MUSIIKKIA (LOVE IS MUSIC) in this study. The data required a slight
alteration to Tammela’s LOVE IS ASTRONOMY and it became LOVE IS AN
ASTRONOMICAL OBJECT/PHENOMENON instead (cited in Harpela 2015).
Furthermore, Kövecses (2002/2010) gave the conceptual metaphor LOVE IS
A COLLABORATIVE WORK OF ART, from which I believe Tammela has
deduced his conceptual metaphors LOVE IS ART and LOVE IS MUSIC. The
conceptual metaphor LOVE IS MUSIC suits the purposes of this study the
best and the aspect collaborativeness, which Kövecses strongly emphasized in
conjunction with LOVE IS A COLLABORATIVE WORK OF ART, will be
kept in mind (cited in Harpela 2015).
The data required inventing some additional conceptual metaphors of
love as it includes metaphoric expressions that do not match any of the
abovementioned conceptual metaphors.
LOVE IS FLYING/FLOATING

Love is lifting me up.

LOVE IS MOVEMENT

I want to dance to your beat.

LOVE IS CHROMATICITY

You show me all the colors of love.
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Also metonymy (i.e. part for a whole or part for another part) can be
treated similarly as metaphors, as Kövecses shows:
INABILITY TO BREATHE STANDS
FOR LOVE:

You take my breath away.

PHYSICAL CLOSENESS STANDS
FOR LOVE:

They are always together.

SEX STANDS FOR LOVE:

They made love.

Of the concepts introduced in this section, the different types of love will
be essential in analyzing the data. Eros and storage are the most typical ones.
2.3. Summary
In this chapter, we have examined several issues which focus attention
on metaphors from different views. Traditionally, a metaphor is a figure of
speech that refers, for rhetorical effect, to one thing by mentioning another
thing. It may provide clarity or identify hidden similarities between two ideas.
From cognitive view, metaphors are not seen as unnecessarily flamboyant
language use of poetry but rather as an integral part of our being human
beings. The concept of LOVE is structured mostly in metaphorical terms
(Lakoff and Johnson 1980/2003). When in the relationship with emotions,
container metaphors work in two different ways: either the emotion is the
container, LOVE IS A CONTAINER, or the emotion can be contained in the
human body, LOVE IS FLUID IN A CONTAINER.

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CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Orientations
3.1.1. Research Questions
- How are the orientational metaphors organized in The Carpenters’
Love songs?
- What are the structural metaphors of love in The Carpenters’ Love songs?
- How are the ontological metaphors of love manifested in the lyrics of
The Carpenters’ Love songs?
3.1.2. Research Setting
With the help of the supervisor and other researchers, the study is
carried out at Hanoi Open University.
Data for the present analysis, which are collected from The Carpenters’
Love songs, form a corpus of 20 songs (See Appendix). The data in the
current research are also published or submitted data which are available in
books, MA theses and journals.
3.1.3. Research Approaches
My approach is empirical and mostly qualitative in nature. I analyze the
data through the cognitive theory of metaphor, using sources that deal with
interpreting symbols and symbolic items in supporting my views and
interpretations. Again, the cognitive theory of metaphor is present, working as a
framework for my categorizing, analyzing and interpreting the data. I also give
each definition one to two examples from The Carpenters’ Love song lyrics, in
order to classify the features and explain what is observed.
3.1.4. Data Collection
The Carpenters:
The Carpenters were an American vocal and instrumental duo
consisting of siblings Karen and Richard Carpenter. Producing a distinctively
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soft musical style, they became among the best-selling music artists of all
time. During their 14-year career, the Carpenters recorded 11 albums, 31
singles, five television specials, and a short-lived television series. Their
career ended in 1983 by Karen's death from heart failure brought on by
complications of anorexia. Extensive news coverage surrounding the
circumstances of her death increased public awareness of eating disorders.
The duo's brand of melodic pop produced a record-breaking run of hit
recordings on the American Top 40 and Adult Contemporary charts, and they
became leading sellers in the soft rock, easy listening and adult contemporary
genres. The Carpenters had three No. 1 singles and five No. 2 singles on the
Billboard Hot 100 and fifteen No. 1 hits on the Adult Contemporary chart. In
addition, they had twelve top 10 singles. To date, the Carpenters' album and
single sales total more than 100 million units.
The Carpenters’ love songs:
Love Songs contains the Carpenters' love ballads, from their first big
hit, "(They Long to Be) Close to You" to their later songs, like "Make Believe
It's Your First Time" and "Where Do I Go from Here?". It remained on
the Billboard charts for over six months and was certified Gold.
3.2. Research Methods
3.2.1. Major Methods
Due to the main aims and objectives of the study, library research methods
would be mainly carried out throughout the process. While Tissari (2001)
studied LOVE metaphors over time, and Fu (2010) investigated a particular
LOVE metaphor in song lyrics, The Carpenters’ use of conceptual metaphors of
LOVE has not yet been examined. Consequently, the lyrics of The Carpenters’
love songs were analyzed to see which conceptual metaphors they used and if
their usage of them has changed.
The lyrics were analyzed and the occurrences which describe LOVE, or
certain other aspects strongly connected to the idea of LOVE, such as
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relationships and couples, were singled out and placed in appropriate metaphor
categories. The matter of which category the phrases belonged to was selected
mostly with the help of the descriptions of conceptual metaphors made by other
linguists. The phrases with similar structure and meaning as the references
were subsequently put in the appropriate category. Metaphorical phrases were
selected after careful consideration and analysis by the researcher, but since the
analysis of the lyrics is based on the mental interpretations of the situations, the
selection of phrases is somewhat arbitrary.
3.2.2. Supporting Methods
Statistical and descriptive methods: Classifying the metaphor by
conceptual categories to give the system of the basis conceptual metaphors
and derivative conceptual metaphors, thereby analyzing the interaction
between the layer concept, interoperability of metaphor and cultural harmony
in order to explain the concept in each models studied metaphor. The
statistical methods will also help us find each type of cognitive metaphors in
the lyrics of the songs.
Analytical method: The lyric of the song by artist is considered a
conceptual system (or spiritual vocabulary systems). Not only is the simple
product of the intellect, but also the system was structured concept feelings,
emotions, behavior, among human being. By analysis the concepts in each
song, clarifying the nature of the conceptual/cognitive metaphor model in the
role as perceptions, thoughts, feelings and human activities.
3.2.3. Data Collection Techniques
The data for analysis are mainly samples taken from love songs
released in 1997 by The Carpenters. The major technique to collect data is
survey with the observation of instances of linguistic expressions used to
signal metaphors. The lyrics were gathered from a web page called
http://www.metrolyrics.com/, a data bank of many song lyrics.
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