Tải bản đầy đủ

Tác động của Hiệp định TPP đến xuất khẩu dệt may sang Mỹ của Việt Nam 2018

VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS

Annual Thesis
IMPACT OF TRANS-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP
AGREEMENT ON EXPORTING VIET NAM TEXTILES TO
THE UNITED STATES
Supervisor

: Nguyen Tien Dung

Student

: Nguyen Quang Duc

Class

: QH 2013E-KTQT-CLC

Hà Nội, 08/2016



INDEX
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.....................................................................................i
ABBREVIATIONS..................................................................................................ii
LIST OF TABLES..................................................................................................iii
LIST OF CHARTS.................................................................................................iv
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................v
1. Rationable.........................................................................................................v
2. Objectives.........................................................................................................vi
3. Objects and scope............................................................................................vi
4. Literature review.............................................................................................vi
5. Contribution.....................................................................................................ix
6. Structure...........................................................................................................ix
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW DOCUMENT, THE BASIS OF THE THEORY
AND PRACTISE OF EXPORTING TEXTILES TO THE US............................1
1.1. Some basic concept...........................................................................................1
1.1.1. Definition........................................................................................................1
1.1.2. The roles of export.........................................................................................1
1.1.3. Factors affecting exports...............................................................................4
1.2. Practical basis...................................................................................................5
1.2.1. Successful experience of China while exporting textiles.............................5
1.2.2. Lessons learned for Vietnam.........................................................................8
1.3. TPP.................................................................................................................... 9
1.4. Research methodology....................................................................................10
1.4.1. Study Design................................................................................................10
1.4.2. Data collection methods...............................................................................11
1.4.3. Data analysis methods.................................................................................11
1.4.4. Comparative method...................................................................................11
Chapter 2: REALITY TEXTILE EXPORTS TO VIETNAM MARKET
UNITED STATES..................................................................................................11
2.1. Situation textile exports from Vietnam to the US market............................11
2.1.1. The protectionist policies of the US............................................................11


2.1.2. Trading goods between Vietnam - United States.......................................13
2.1.3. Exports of textiles and garments to the US................................................18
2.1.4. Imports of textiles and garments from the US...........................................21
2.2. The impact of TPP..........................................................................................21
2.2.1. Macroeconomic effects................................................................................21
2.2.2. Sectoral effects.............................................................................................23


2.2.3. Restrictive rules of origin on apparel exports............................................24
CHAPTER 3: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF TPP, POLICY
IMPLICATIONS...................................................................................................27
3.1. Opportunities for textile exports to the United States joining TPP............27
3.2. The challenge for the textile industry............................................................28
3.3. Policy Implications.........................................................................................31
CONCLUSION......................................................................................................33
REFERENCES......................................................................................................34


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
As assigned by the Facult of internatinal business and economics, the
consent of the instructor Nguyen Tien Dung, I made the subject “Impact of TransPacific partnership agreement on exporting Vietnam textiles to the United States”
To complete this annual thesis, I would like to thank the teachers for guiding
and teaching during the academic, research and training at University of Economics
and Business
Sincerely thank Mr. Nguyen Tien Dung for enthusiastically guide me made
this annual thesis
Although there have been many attempts to implement the project but due to
novice research work should not be able to avoid certain mistakes, but I swear
contents all done by me or quoted with source, not copied.
Your sincerely!
Nguyễn Quang Đức

1


ABBREVIATIONS
Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Abbreviations
US
TPP
Vinatex
VNU
WTO
VCCI
FTU
FDI
GSO
GTAP
FTC
FTA
VITAS
RoO
ILO

Meaning
United States
Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement
Viet Nam National Textile and Garment Group
Vietnam National University
World Trade Organization
Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Foreign Trade University
Foreign Direct Investment
General Statistics Office
Global Trade Analyst Project
Federal Trade Commission
Free Trade Agreement
Vietnam Textile and Apparel Association
Rules of Origin
International Labour Organization

2


LIST OF TABLES
Table
1
2

Name
US tariffs on some goods
Evolution export goods between Vietnam and the United

Page
12
15

3

States from 2010 to May 04/2016 15
Exports of goods mainly from Vietnam to the United States

16

4

in 2015 and the first 04 months of 2016
Import goods originating in the United States in 2015 and

18

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

the first 04 months of 2016
Textiles and garments export turnover to the US
Textile exports to the United States by major items
Textiles and appreals import turnover from the US
Estimated macroeconomic impacts of TPP 2020
Some Vietnamese sectoral effects in 2020
Impact of rules of origin on Viet Nam apparel sector
Impact of increased minimum wage for unskilled labor
Some sectoral effects of enhanced labour standards

20
21
22
24
25
26
27
27

3


LIST OF CHARTS

4


INTRODUCTION
1. Rationable
Globalization and internationalization are the general trend of the world, a
vital requirement of all countries and Vietnam is no exception. Following that trend,
to be able to go faster and catch up with the times, Vietnam needs to promote its
inherent strengths. As a populous country with a population of over 90 million
people, the population of working age are in a high percentage and income per
capita is low, the biggest advantage of Vietnam's workforce is an abundant with
lower labor costs. Textile industry is one of the great advantage of Vietnam's
advantages in labor. Therefore, the development of textile industry plays an
important role in the process of industrialization - modernization of Vietnam. In
addition to production for domestic consumption, create jobs for millions of
workers, textile also contributes largely in the increase of national exports. In recent
years, Vietnam's garment sector has significant development with the average
growth rate in 2010-2015 was approximately 20%, accounting for about 22% of
national exports. The impressive growth of the textile industry contributed to
Vietnam ranked 4th in the world's largest textile exporter.
United states of America is one of the nations largest textile importer in the
world. Recently, exports of textiles to the US market always reach high scale and
growth rate. In 2015, textile and apparel imports of the US reached 8.33 billion. The
proportion of exports of clothing to the USA in the total export turnover reached
53.7% textile industry. However, the export of textiles to the US market is still
facing many difficulties due to the quality of goods has not yet stabilized, combined
with savvy business law as well as customs and traditions of the US market.

5


At 02/04/2016, Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiations
were completed, Vietnam is one of the first countries to sign the treaty. TPP opens
up huge opportunities for the export of Vietnam in general and partucularly in
textile export to the United States .So, what can we to do to take advantage of the
opportunities TPP bring to the textile industry? This is a topical issue and very
practical. Hence the theme "The impact of TPP on exporting Viet Nam textiles to
the US" is selected as research topics.
2. Objectives
a. General objectives
Assess the true state of the textile industry exports Vietnam, pointed out the
impact of the TPP and provide solutions to take advantage of the TPP to boost
exports of textile to the United States.
b. Specific objectives
Overview of documents related to research projects
Analyze the positive and negative impact of TPP
Estimate the actual export of Vietnam's textile sector
Proposing solutions for Vietnamese enterprises and the State to promote
the export of textiles
3. Objects and scope
a. Objects
Viet Nam textile exports to the USA
b. Scope
Space scope: Viet Nam and the USA
Time scope: from 2010 to 2020. At this time, Viet Nam really deep
integration into the world economy and is under the first effects of TPP.
Content scope: the research focus on the influence of TPP on exporting
textile to the USA, not mention the production to meet the domestic
demand.

6


4. Literature review
Thread "Some problems equitization Vietnam Textile Corporation" by
Nguyen and Truong, Economics Development magazine in July 2012 No.181.
Article refered to the process of equitization of state-owned enterprises in the textile
corporation (Vinatex), benefits, harms and measures should be taken to promote this
process. However the article refered only to the state-owned enterprises and in
VINATEX so it is not enough general.
Topic "Integration and convergence productivity at the level of enterprises of
the textile industry" by Nguyen and colleagues, Economics Development magazine
in July 2014 No.205. The paper pointed out the positive impact of the integration of
financial markets and to the convergence of total factor productivity of enterprises
of textile industry. However, data from the years 2000-2011 the article is so poorly
updated properties.
Article "Textile exports: many worries in" the game "TPP" by Le, Journal of
Economics and forecasting dated 21.12.2015. Article pointed out the challenges of
Vietnam's garment sector when joining TPP as well as solutions to not be left
behind before integrating. However, the analysis pointed towards state-owned
enterprises in the system VINATEX, therefore the objectivity is still not high.
Thread "Value chain analysis Vietnam's textile exports" by Dr. Ha Van Hoi,
VNU scientific journal, Economics and Business No.28 (2012) page 49-59. The
paper presented the nature of the textile value chain globally, analyzing and
clarifying the stages of the value chain of textile exports. However, the figures used
in the post only until 2011, as updated restricted.
The theme "The value chain of the textile exporters Vietnam: The
disadvantages, difficulties and countermeasures" by Dr. Ha Van Hoi, VNU scientific
journal, Economics and Business No.28 (2012) page 241 -251. Article pointed out
the causes subjective and objective value chain affects textile exports as well as
measured to increase the value of the export value chain. However, the solution had
not yet been specifically identifiable.

7


The article "Social responsibility of business in Vietnam's textile sector,"
Nguyen Phuong Mai, VNU scientific journal, Economics and Business, vol 29, No.
1 (2013). The paper presented research results enforcement practices in corporate
social responsibility in a company Dap Cau Garment, then set out a number of
proposals contributing to the implementation of social responsibility activities
business of a company now in a fundamental and sustainable way. However, the
study only one company makes paper loss of generality and objectivity.
Article "Disputes over textiles in the WTO and some suggestions for
Vietnam" of MA. Nguyen Thi Vu Ha, VNU scientific journal, Economics and
Business No.25 (2010) page 193-200. The paper summarized the WTO dispute
occurred in the textiles and on that basis made a number of recommendations for
Vietnam. However, the data is not up-to- date.
The theme "Vietnam's garment sector in the context of implementing the of
Trans-Pacific partnership agreement (TPP)" of Pham Minh Duc in August 2014 at
VCCI workshop. The paper outlined the impact of the TPP for Vietnam's garment
sector, opportunities, challenges and policy implications some to enhance garment
exports. But yet, the solutions are general, not specific.
The article "The impact of Trans-Pacific partnership agreement to Vietnam
textile industry exported to America" by Luu Tien Thuan and Nguyen Hoang Khoi,
the scientific journal of Tra Vinh University No. 17 (2015 ) page 32-38. The study
focused on the impact of the TPP for Vietnam's textile sector exports to the US
through an online survey of 65 enterprises. However, the surveyed enterprises are
mainly the south and now number only 65 so this lacked objectivity.
Article "Vietnam faces to the shifting trends of textile industry" by Bui Nu
Thanh Ha, Da Nang scientific and technology journals No.2, 2016. Through SWOT
matrix analysis, the article determined key investment needs for the textile industry
in the near future since the proposed strategy and investment approach for
Vietnam's garment sector. Yet, article analyzes used only businesses in Danang was
limited generality.

8


In summary, the research paper before mentioned the main factors to affect
textile exports, the opportunities and challenges in the new era as well as proposed
solutions to enhance textile exports. However, most of these studies are limited in
terms of updates and generality.
5. Contribution
Using updated data for 2010-2015, thereby giving an objective view of the
situation of textile exports to the US
The solution is practical, feasible and effective.
6. Structure
Chapter 1: Overview document, the basis of the theory and practice of
exporting textiles to the US
Chapter 2: Research Methodology
Chapter 3: The situation of textile exports to the US Vietnam and the impact
of TPP
Chapter 4: Opportunities and challenges of the TPP, policy implications

9


CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW DOCUMENT, THE BASIS OF THE THEORY
AND PRACTISE OF EXPORTING TEXTILES TO THE US
1.1. Some basic concept
1.1.1. Definition
The concept of exporting: the sale of goods abroad, it is not individual
behavior but organized system sales to both inside and outside for the targeted
profit, boosting production development, economic restructuring, stabilize and
gradually improve the people's living standards
Textile products: including the clothing products, products for consumption
everyday such as tents, blankets, curtains ..
1.1.2. The roles of export
For the national economy:
Export generate funds for import to serve industrialization and modernization
of the country.
Export boosts economy to restructuring to promote production
Under the impact of the export, the structure of production and consumption
of the world has changed drastically. Export makes the restructuring of the national
economy from agriculture to industry and services
+ Export paving the way for the industry to develop. This is possible through
the development eg textile export sector, other sectors such as cotton, spinning,
dyeing, bleaching ...will have conditions for development.
+ Export expands product market, contributed to the stablization of
production, create economies of scale.
+ Export expands the ability to provide input to the production, expanding
consumer market of a country. It allows a country to consume all the food items
with a much larger than the limited production capacity of the country, even the
items they can not afford to produce.

1


+ Export contributes to promote specialization, enhance the efficiency of the
national production. It allows specialization of production to develope in both width
and depth.
Export has positive impact to solving jobs, improve people's living.
Exports are the basis to expand and promote the development of economic
relations and foreign affairs.
For businesses:
Export creates conditions for enterprises to expand market for products
produced by the enterprise. Thanks to export the names of enterprises not only
domestic customers but also known in foreign markets.
Exports generate foreign currency for businesses, increase reserves thereby
enhancing the ability to import, replace, supplement or upgrade machinery and
equipment, raw materials ... for the development process.
Exports promote highly creative dynamism of Imex officials as well as
participation units such as actively explore and develop the export capacity in the
market that now has the ability to penetrate.
Exports forced businesses to always innovate and finishing work in business
administration. Also helps businesses extend the life of the life cycle of a product.
Manufacturing exports helps businesses increases income stability to the
lives of officers and employees and increase more profitable.
Enterprises conducting export activities have the opportunity to expand
business relations with trade partners abroad on the basis of mutually beneficial ..
Direct exports
Direct exports are exports of goods and services produced by the enterprises
themselves or purchased from production units in the country, then exported to
foreign countries in the name of its company.
Indirect exports
Indirect export is the supply of goods to foreign markets through export
intermediaries as agents or brokers. That may be the agencies and offices, the

2


company entrusted import and export ... indirect exports will limit your relationship
with each of the exporters, and that exporters have to split share part of the profits to
middlemen. However, in practice this method is used a lot, especially in the least
developed countries
Counter-trade
This form of transaction in which incorporated exporters with importers,
sellers and buyers, the exchange of goods with similar value. Export purpose is not
to obtain an amount of foreign currency on which to earn a valuable cargo of
approximately value of export shipments.
International outsourcing
International outsourcing is a commercial business activity in which one
party (called the processor) to import raw materials or semi-finished products of
another party (known as the ordering party) to process into a success transferred to
the ordering party and receive remuneration (called a processing fee). Thus, in the
processing of international import and export activities associated with production
activities.
Re-export transactions
Re-export transactions including import and export for the purpose of
collecting foreign currency on some larger initial capital outlay. This transaction has
always attracted three countries: countries export, re-export countries and importing
countries. So they call re-export transactions are transactions or transactions
tripartite triangle (Triangular transaction)
Exports under the Protocol
This form of export of goods (usually paying debt) under the Protocol signed
between the two governments. Exports under the protocol has many advantages
such as solvency sure (paid for by the State, the exporter), commodity prices are
relatively high, the manufacturing purchasing more priority ...
Export Trust

3


Exports are entities entrusted the transaction, negotiating and signing
contracts to export for a unit (the mandate)
1.1.3. Factors affecting exports
Exchange rate
The exchange rate impact on operating income due to mental exports
Goals and strategies of economic development
Through strategic goals and economic development, the government can
make policies to encourage or restrict trade.
Tariffs, quotas and export subsidies
*Tariffs
The export taxes enacted by the government to manage exports in the
direction most beneficial to the domestic economy and the expansion of foreign
economic relations. However, the tariff also caused a social cost due to increased
domestic production inefficient and domestic consumption has fallen.
*Quota
As prescribed by the State for the maximum number of an item or a group of
export goods allowed in a given time through the issuance of licenses. The reason
for this tool because the State does not always encourage exports but also
sometimes on national interests to control a few commodities or commodity groups,
such as special products and raw materials by domestic demand also deficient…
* Export Subsidies
In some cases the government has to implement policies to increase export
subsidy levels of countries exporting their goods, creating the conditions for a
competitive product on the world market price. Export subsidies will increase the
domestic price of exports, domestic consumption decreased but increased
production and export levels.
Cultural factors
Culture is the dominant lifestyle factor to exporters so they must always
understand the cultural factors in the market that they export to.

4


Legal and political factors
Political factors are factors that encourage or limit the process of
internationalization of business activities. Government policies could increase the
market linkages and promote growth of export operations by the removal of tariff
barriers, non-tariff, established relationships in infrastructure market floor. As
political instability will hinder the economic development of the country and create
negative sentiment for traders.
The elements of nature and technology
Geographical distance between countries will affect the cost of transportation
to the contract execution time, the time of signing the contract as a result, it affects
the choice of sourcing, marketing options, commodities export…
- The location of the nation also affects the selection of sources, markets eg
The purchase and sale of goods to countries with ports have lower costs than
countries without seaports.
- Time of the export contract may be extended due to natural disasters such
as hurricanes, earthquakes ...
- The development of science and technology, especially information
technology allows traders grasp accurately and quickly the information, creating
favorable conditions for the monitoring and control of exports export, save costs,
improve the efficiency of export operations. At the same time technological factors
also affect the production or processing of export goods processing, and other
relevant fields such as transportation, banking ...
1.2. Practical basis
1.2.1. Successful experience of China while exporting textiles
Regarded textile industry is a cornerstone of the first phase of
industrialization, thereby creating markets for developing textile assistant.
China's textile industry is the sector with a long tradition of development.
Since its implementation process of industrialization, based on the advantages of a
long tradition and abundant labor resources, Chinese government has considered

5


textile industry is the spearhead and focus on assisting it to develope. Thus, the
Chinese textile industry has developed rapidly with a growth rate of 500% from
1990 to 2008, the output value increased from $ 10 billion to $ 50 billion, employ
15 million workers. Every year, China's cotton production up to 6 million tons,
accounting for 1/3 of world cotton production.(Trademap)
There is strong support from the state
Since the late 70s until before 1998, like the other developing countries,
China's textile industry characterized with outdated equipment, small production
facilities, distributed, efficient production low. In addition, the financial crisis, the
1997 Asian currency has caused the devaluation of the currency in a range of areas
and a strong impact on the competitiveness of Chinese textiles. Faced with this
difficulty, in 1998, the Chinese government approved the reform and modernization
of the textile enterprises, especially in the priority development activities upstream
raw material production.
- To encourage the removal of old and obsolete machinery: Chinese
Government subsidizing the textile industry in the form of grants and grant
preferential loans to businesses to remove the old spindles (assistant 3 million CNY
grant preferential loans and 2 million CNY with each 10,000 old spindles discarded
(Trademap). This policy comes with the increasing the tariffs to offset the cost when
exporting textiles.
- Planning to focus on textile sector: The Chinese government has planned to
concentrate on textile production in coastal areas having a long tradition in the
manufacturing of materials and garments to take advantage of production
experience , favorable conditions for infrastructure and abundant labor force skilled
in these areas. The plan focuses also promotes the advantages of scale of production
to lower cost products.
- Encouraging foreign investment in the field of textile manufacturing, textile
raw materials: The Chinese government has set up a system of modern
infrastructure, synchronized and there are special incentives for the foreign investor.

6


Such dated 10.11.1996 "Regulations on encouraging foreign investors' income tax
rate decreased from 30% to 15% and for enterprises in special economic zones is
only 10%, exemting the first 5 years of tax for newly established enterprises in
special zones, exempt from income tax when transferring overseas interest, income
tax refund for part of the profits to reinvest, etc .. (FTU, 2009).
Targeted investments and investments towards modernization
The Chinese government made the funding solution to help businesses
replace, renovate, modernize the textile industry. With the advantage of favorable
conditions for the development of upstream raw materials from agriculture,
especially cotton and mulberry, China’companies are activate in almost accessories
for textile from yarn spinning, fabric manufacturing, daisies, only, locks, etc ..
Achieving this result is because China has not stopped investment, access to
modern technology in the world, especially in the fields of mechanical, chemical,
manufacturing technology fabric.
Currently, in order to increase competitiveness and measures against
"retaliation" by the West, China is reducing production and export of cheap textiles,
shift to producing high quality products pair. Therefore, enterprises in supporting
industries are also constantly innovating to keep up and the best support for the
textile industry.
Build economic ties closely link
Any industry that wants to develop must be based strongly on a solid
foundation, as well as having a close relationship, mutual support among industry
Textile companies have built links between enterprises producing fabric
together, forming theprivate industrial textile centers vai. Crosslinking method has
brought much success for the textile industry in particular and the the process of
industrialization in China in general. Besides labor and cheap raw materials, the
support of the manufacturing plant of domestic raw materials is the key factor to the
success of the Chinese textile.

7


In addition, China is also focusing on strengthening the joint venture, the link
between the enterprises producing products that support the domestic textile with
FDI enterprises. The link between the enterprises producing textile products having
the FDI investment with domestic peers will help exploit technology, management
experience of FDI enterprises.
Develop high quality human resources in the field of textile assistant.
General strengths in textile industry and textile assistant of China is an
abundant labor force, technical staff of skilled, formal workforce and the ability to
leverage the equipment and machinery to create new products, high quality.
1.2.2. Lessons learned for Vietnam
Learning Chinese, to compete on international markets, in recent times
Vietnam has established textile groups. However, Vietnam still has to strengthen the
joint venture, further links between the textile business case together to be able to
resolve the major contract, to ensure timely delivery to enhance reputation with
customers foreign.
- For the localization rate of textile products is high, such as China, Vietnam
needs to develop a strategy focused production and regional development in order
to ensure raw material supply for the textile industry raw materials stability and
quality.
- Vietnam needs to constantly innovate, enhance equipment advanced
technology, rapid product manufacturing requring the high technical demands as
suits, vest ... to diversify the export items, meeting the increasing demands of
consumers, improve the value of export turnover. To implement this solution,
Vietnam has to attract capital, taking advantage of the funding, preferential loans
from international financial institutions to invest in the expansion and development
of production scale, change new equipment and advanced production lines to the
modern world to meet the increasing requirements of world markets.
- Vietnam should move from merely competitive advantages based on low
labor costs to compete with adding value and increasing service quality. Vietnam

8


could grow by offering products for the smaller markets, the market for expensive
products, sophisticated, demanding and skilled technicians and good qualities.
Vietnam needs to move from products that require low intellectual content, nonfashion and culture to the intellectual content and contains cultural elements,
exploiting the national cultural identity in order to make up own style, own brands
contribute to improving competitiveness in the international market.
- Implementation of the rules that was accepted international nature of the
business operating as technological applications of barcodes into the activities of
the enterprise, application quality management system standard products ISO ...
Special emphasis on technical barriers to anti-dumping, origin, environment,
working conditions ... in order to ensure sustainable development.
- The fact that Vietnam's textile enterprises are short of manpower in
international competition, Vietnam should soon have policies to support, encourage,
attract and train managers, business, design; technical workers for the industry. Like
China, Vietnam needs to strengthen cooperation with foreign companies in order to
learn the management experience, transfer of modern technology ...
- Actively participate in promotional activities, collecting information about
the customs, habits, consumer habits, trade practices, customs procedures, import
and export procedures, distribution system countries, the nature of the textiles and
clothing needs, competitors, competitive mode ... to help businesses identify
strategic of producing commodities, the amount of production and export capacity,
performance innovation in design, to meet the needs of the market varies.
1.3. TPP
Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement is a treaty / agreement of free trade
between 12 countries signed on February 4, 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand after 5
years of negotiations with the aim of integrating the economies of the Asia-Pacific
region. The agreement was originally signed by Brunei, Chile, New Zealand and
Singapore on June 3rd, 2005 and entered into force on 28 May, 2006. Then, add 5
countries negotiating to join: Australia, Malaysia, Peru, United States, and Vietnam.

9


Negotiations for the agreement was delayed several times due to lack of a
common voice around issues such as export-import tax reduction, sponsored
domestic goods, intellectual property rights etc .. October 5 th 2015 in Atlanta, US,
treaty negotiations ended successfully
Chart 1: Countries joined TPP

Signed
Announced interest
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans-Pacific_Partnership
1.4. Research methodology
1.4.1. Study Design
- Step 1: Look at the document to determine the situation of textile exports to
the US
- Step 2: Gather documents for analysis of factors affecting the export of
textiles to the US market
- Step 3: Analysis and processing data to make assessments, and solutionoriented.

10


1.4.2. Data collection methods
Search secondary data from newspapers, magazines, Viet Nam customs,
GTAP GSO, Uncomtrade, trademap.... (Chapters 3 and 4)
1.4.3. Data analysis methods
Statistical methods described, allocating data to design tables (Chapter 3)
1.4.4. Comparative method
Based on the available documents, make comments, reviews, comparative
advantages and disadvantages of the secondary literature, comparative
figures for the year, the field, ... (Chapters 1, 3 and 4).
Chapter 2: REALITY TEXTILE EXPORTS TO VIETNAM MARKET
UNITED STATES
2.1. Situation textile exports from Vietnam to the US market
2.1.1. The protectionist policies of the US
a. Tariff barriers
Table1: US tariffs on some goods
Yan
-Silk
-Wool
-Cotton
-Other vegetable fiber
-Man-made fiber
Woven fabric
-Silk
-Wool
-Cotton
-Other vegetable fiber
-Man-made fiber
Knit fabric
Non woven fabric
Industrial fabric
Appreal
Home
furnishings

HS Chapter/Subheading

Tariff rate range (%)

5003-5006
5105-5110
5204-5207
5306-5308
5410-5406/5501-5511

5-10
0-5
5
3-5
0-5

5007
5111-5113
5208-5212
5309-5311
5407-5408/5512-5516
60
5603
59
61-62
63

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
0-12
5-20
0-20

11


including: bed, bath,
ktchen lines, etc.
Carpet
57
Footwear
64
Travel goods
4202
Source: http://web.ita.doc.gov

12
5-30
25

b. Non-tariff barriers
-

Regulations on the textiles products

The products imported yarns must have stamps, labels, codes as prescribed in
"textile fiber products identification act", unless an exemption under Article 12 of
this law:
Name and the weight ratio of the components is greater than 5% of the fiber
products, the fiber content of less than 5% are recorded as "other fibers"
The manufacturer name and the name or registration number by "Federal
Trade Commission". Brand names have been registered in the US may be indicated
on the label, if the label is sent to the FTC
Name of the country where there was the process of producing or curving
part
-

Regulations on the brand, trademark and copyright

Counterfeit trademark goods or copied, imitated a registered trademark of a
copyrighted US or foreign companies will be banned from entering the US. Brands
have been registered in accordance with the provisions of customs
The import of goods with the original trade mark owned by one US citizen is
considered illegal without the consent of the trademark owner.
-

Greentrade barrier

Green trade barriers are applied to textiles that require products to meet
ecological standards prescribed, health safety for users, not polluting the
environment in the production , forced the exporters to comply
-

Antidumping Law

12


This law was set for determining imports of foreign goods that were dumped
or lower than the normal price in the US market. The anti-dumping procedure to be
conducted when ther is the claim of the US manufacturing sector. Antidumping
laws also allow the manufacturing industry in the United States submitted a
complaint about dumping activities taking place in the third country to the office
trade representative and ask the agency to defend rights interests of the
manufacturing industry in the US
-

Certificate of origin

US rules of origin for textiles aim is to combat fraud quotas, origin fraud to
exploit the advantages which the United States intends for some countries
US requests VISA for goods exported under the quota. Visa is stamped on
the commercial invoice or permits, some products have no quota, but still have
visa, depending on the agreement and must be granted by government agencies,
sample shalls less than $80 have no visa and quota.
2.1.2. Trading goods between Vietnam - United States
According to preliminary statistics of the General Administration of Customs
04 months from the beginning of 2016, the United States is the second largest
trading partner of Vietnam (just behind the Chinese partner) with export turnover
reaching 13,92 billion USD, accounting for 13.3% of total exports and imports of
the country, and increase of 13.5% compared to the same period of 4 months of
2015.
The United States is also the market that Vietnam reached a trade surplus
biggest, namely in 2015 a surplus of 25.67 billion US dollars, especially in the first
4 months of 2016 recorded a surplus of 8.98 billion, increasing US $ 1.48 billion
over the same period in 2015.
Table 2:Evolution export goods between Vietnam and the United States
from 2010 to May 04/2016
Year

Export
Import
Total
Turnover Proportion Turnover Proportion Turnover Proportion

Trade
balance

13


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