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Khoá luận Tác động của Hiệp định TPP đến ngành dệt may Việt Nam 2018

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

After an intensive period of three months, it is my opportunity to show gratitude to
all those people who contribute, support and encourage me to complete my graduation
thesis. I will cherish forever.
First of all, I would like to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Tran Viet Dung who
guides me in thesis in period of time. During the study time, she has helped me in finding
materials, repairs and guiding me to find out the best way for me to fulfill all my thesis.
Moreover, she has encouraged and given me motivation when I met some difficulties. A
deep understanding of international trade and her experience is a prerequisite to help me
gain valuable achievements. I could not have imagined having a better advisor and
mentor for my thesis.
Secondly, I would like to say thank you with my family: my parents. My family is a
spiritual solid fulcrum, I can desire to fulfill my thesis. I wonder how I could do without
my family.
.
Hanoi, 27 April 2017.
Author
Nguyen Thi Anh Dao



Contents
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................. 1
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................. 2
LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................... 3
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 4
1. Rationales of the subject .............................................................................................. 4
2. Research question......................................................................................................... 5
3. Research purposes ........................................................................................................ 5
4. Object and scope of the thesis ...................................................................................... 5
4.1. Object of the thesis. ............................................................................................... 5
4.2 Research cope. ........................................................................................................ 6
5. Methodology ................................................................................................................ 6
6. Research structure ........................................................................................................ 6
CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW ........... 7
1.1. Theoretical framework .............................................................................................. 7
1.1.1. Overview of the Free Trade Agreement. ........................................................... 7
1.1.1.1. Definition of Free Trade Agreements......................................................... 7
1.1.1.2. Basic contents of Free Trade Agreement ................................................... 7
1.1.2 Overview of the TPP Agreement. ........................................................................ 9
1.1.2.1. History of formation, development and TPP negotiation process. ........... 9
1.1.2.2. The content is negotiated in the TPP ........................................................ 12
1.2 Literature review. ..................................................................................................... 17
1.2.1 The research revolves around the issue of free trade agreements and Vietnam
textile and garment sector. .......................................................................................... 17
1.2.2 The research revolves around the impact of TPP Agreement to Vietnam's
economy. ..................................................................................................................... 19
1.2.3 The research revolves around the impact of TPP Agreement to the Vietnam
textile industry . .......................................................................................................... 21
CHAPTER 2.ANALYSIS PROCEDURE AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. ...... 23


2.1 Analysis procedure. .................................................................................................. 23
2.2 Research methodology. ............................................................................................ 25
2.2.1 Methods of collecting and processing data ........................................................ 25
2.2.2 Methods of analysis and synthesis ..................................................................... 26
2.2.3. Methods of inheritance. .................................................................................... 28
2.2.4 Case Study Method . .......................................................................................... 29
CHAPTER 3.THE INFLUENCE OF TPP ARGREEMENT TO VIETNAM TEXTILE
INDUSTRY. ...................................................................................................................... 30
3.1 Overview of Textile export situation of Vietnam . .................................................. 30


3.1.1 Overview of Vietnam's textile sector. ................................................................ 30
3.1.2 Exports of Vietnam Textile. .............................................................................. 31
3.1.3 Competitiveness of Vietnamese textile industry. .............................................. 39
3.2 The influence of TPP agreement to Vietnam Textile Industry. .............................. 51
3.2.1 The impact of the terms of tariff cuts diminished. ............................................ 54
3.2.2 The impact of Rules of Origin . ......................................................................... 58
3.2.3 The impact of the terms of safeguard . .............................................................. 61
3.2.4 The impact of the terms of employment. ........................................................... 63
3.2.5 The influence of the environmental terms. ........................................................ 66
3.2.6 The influence of the foreign direct investment FDI wave. ................................ 68
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS .............................................................. 70
4.1. Opportunities and challenges for the Vietnam textile industry. ............................. 70
4.1.1 Opportunities Against Vietnam textile industry . .............................................. 70
4.1.2 Challenges Against Vietnam textile industry. ................................................... 71
4.2 Recommendations for Vietnam textile companys. .................................................. 73
4.3. Recommendations to the government. .................................................................... 77
REFERENCE .................................................................................................................... 79


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
No

Abbreviations

Meaning

1

AFTA

Asean Free Trade Area

2

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

3

CMT

Cut- Make – Trim

4

EPA

Economics Partnership Agreement

5

EU

European Unicon

6

FDI

Foreign Direct Investment

7

FTA

Free Trade Agreement

8

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

9

ILO

International Labor Organization

10

MFN

Most Favoured Nation

11

OBM

Original Brand Manufacturing

12

ODM

Original Designed Manufacturer

13

TPP

Trans- Pacific Strategic Economic
Partnership Agreement

14

US

United State

15

VCCI

Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and
Industry

16

VINATEX

The Vietnam National Textile and
Garment Group

17

VJEPA

Vietnam – Japan Economics Partnership
Agreement

18

WTO

World Trade Organization

1


LIST OF FIGURES
No

Figure

Name of figure

Page No

1

Figure 2.1

Research topics process

24

2

Figure 3.1

Export structure between 2015 and 2016

30

3

Figure 3.2

Export turnover of Vietnam textile and 32
garment from 2009 to 2016

4

Figure 3.3

Market structure of export of textiles and 34
garments

5

Figure 3.4

Structure of export categories of textiles and 35
garments

6

Figure 3.5

Labor productivity index of the manufacturing 39
sector.

Figure 3.6

Cotton consumption of countries in the world

40

Figure 3.7

Cotton prices on the Nymex floor

41

Figure 3.8

Fiber yield over years

43

Figure 3.9

Domestic fabric production over the years

44

2


LIST OF TABLES
No

Name

Content

Page

1

Table 1.1

Rounds of TPP negotiations

11

2

Table 3.1

Compare the transit time among Vietnam, 37
China, India

Table 3. 2

Balance of trade surplus

45

Table 3. 3

Japan's tariff (combining) tariffs for 47
textiles and garments imported from
Vietnam (%)

3

Table 3.4

Textile import tariffs into the United 53
States of some commodities.

4

Table 3.5

Forecast of Vietnam's export turnover to 54
2025.

5

Table 3.6

Forecasting the impact of TPP on 54
Vietnamese garment industry.

6

Table 3.7

Impact of RoO on Vietnamese garment.

59

7

Table 3.8

The impact of higher labor standards

63

3


INTRODUCTION
1. Rationales of the subject
Trade liberalization has become a strong tendency in the world and Vietnam is no
exception. After a period of renovation that is Doi moi (1986), Vietnam has gradually
opened the market, especially since Vietnam became the 150th member of the World
Trade Organization (WTO) in January 1, 2007. It was a crucial turning point of our
country.
Additionally, Vietnam has integrated into the world by signing many Free Trade
Agreements including both bilateral agreements and multilateral agreements. The TPP is
of particular importance for a number of reasons. According to Le Hong Hiep (2015),
firstly, as TPP member countries account for 39% of Vietnam’s total exports in 2014,
deeper integration with these economies will enhance Vietnam’s export performance.
Therefore, trade activities including import and export tend to remarkably grow up in
many sectors, especially in some textile products.
Textile Industry - one of the industry's fastest growing assessments in Vietnam
today, which plays an important role in economic growth. With the ability of
promoting exports and improving the quality of life, textile industry is the key to
create jobs for the people of Vietnam. Vietnam is emerging as an important
destination of the textile industry export turnover, including fabrics ,clothes products
.Total export turnover value is 11.9% in 2014. After five years of negotiations with
more than 30 sessions on technical level and more than 10 talks at Ministerial, the
Economic Partnership Agreement Trans-Pacific (TPP) was officially signed on 4 /
2/2016. Agreement includes 30 chapters, mentioned not only the more traditional
sectors such as goods, services and investment but also new issues such as electronic
commerce, facilitating the supply chain, public enterprises ... In such, the TPP is
considered the "golden opportunity" for the textile sector, Vietnam with estimates of
textile exports in 2025 up to 50 billion dollars, nearly double in 2015 with $ 27
billion.

4


When Vietnam joins the TPP agreement, it promises to create more
opportunities for Vietnamese garment exports to develop as barriers to trade are lifted.
However, along with the opportunities also exist many challenges that businesses and
governments of Vietnam need a lot of effort to be able to jump through to take
advantage of opportunities and limit the negative impact. The TPP Agreement is
signed. Analyzing, evaluating and forecasting the impact of TPP on Vietnam's
garment industry, in the context of non-public negotiation is not easy. However, it
will have a certain significance in raising awareness, helping Vietnamese businesses
and government agencies take certain steps to become involved.
Therefore, the selection of the topic analyzing the impact of the TPP agreement
on the Vietnamese textile industry will provide analysis and comments on the
Vietnamese textile industry in general and Vietnamese textile enterprises in particular.

2. Research question
In this thesis, author focus on answering for key question that “How tariff Police
of TPP impact on Vietnam’s trade flows in some textile products?”
- How does Vietnam textile exports influence when joining TPP Agreement?
- What do textile Enterprise and Vietnam governments need do when joining TPP
Agreement?
3. Research purposes
General objective: Assessing impacts of the TPP on textile in order to provide greater
insight on imported market in Vietnam and suggesting policies for the Government,
directions for the distribution enterprises as well as textile manufacturing enterprises in
Vietnam.
4. Object and scope of the thesis
4.1. Object of the thesis.
Research objects: Textile goods imports as well as domestic textile industry in Vietnam
and the TPP.
5


4.2 Research cope.


Space scope: Vietnam textile industry.



Time scope: From 2010 until now.

5. Methodology
- Inherited methods: collecting, synthesizing, analyzing and assessing domestic and
foreign materials relating to the content of research, then selecting the document and
implement research topics.
-Dialectical materialism, scientific abstractions for comparison and objective analysis
of the similarities and differences in Textile industry of some Asian countries which
subjects were selected for study
6. Research structure
Chapter 1 : THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
Chapter 2 : ANALYSIS PROCEDURE AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Chapter 3: THE INFLUENCE OF TPP ARGREEMENT TO VIETNAM TEXTILE
INDUSTRY.
Chapter 4 : RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS.

6


CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE
REVIEW
1.1. Theoretical framework
1.1.1. Overview of the Free Trade Agreement.
1.1.1.1. Definition of Free Trade Agreements
According to Ministry of Industry & Trade (2010), FTA (Free Trade Agreement) is
defined basically as an agreement in which the participating countries signed an
agreement for the preferences such as: as trade barriers, including tariff and non-tariff
were removed. However, each member state determines the commercial policies of its
independence for non-member countries.
FTAs can be bilateral (signed between 2 countries) or multilateral (signed by many
countries). However, FTAs often bring huge benefits for the member countries to
promote trade, take advantage of each other's comparative advantages. In addition, FTAs
also promote investment liberalization, transfer of technology cooperation, performing
procedures of customs and other services. FTA is a good chance to increase the import of
goods because the tariff is significantly reduced.
1.1.1.2. Basic contents of Free Trade Agreement
Liberalization of trade .
Trade liberalization is defined as a move towards freer trade by tariff and other
barriers reduction, is a crucial force behind globalization. Basic content of trade
liberalization is the State applies the necessary measures to gradually reduce these tariff
and non-tariff barriers in order to create favorable conditions for the development of
international trade activities.

7


Tax and non-tariff trade barriers.
Commitment to removed tariff barriers and non-tariff commodities are highlights
and always be early mentioned in the FTAs. Tax rates can be reduced to 0% immediately
or gradually reduced according to the schedule with most items and usually specifies the
categories such as: List of goods lifted tax right, the list of goods for tariff reduction
roadmap gradual tax cuts, Sensitive catalog, catalogs exclude inclusion in cuts.
Currently, there are very few items on the list of exclusions. Exceptly, goods
related to security, culture and customs of the country. Besides, FTA also specific road
map for the Member States commitment. This process is not only based on potential,
ability to liberalize national but also depended on the peculiarities of some
commodities. Today, the quantitative restrictions and technical barriers to trade are also
mentioned in the agreement FTA agreements.
About the origin of goods.
FTAs often include rules on origin of goods in order to ensure benefits for the
member countries. The Regulations of the goods imported into the partner countries need
to meet a localization rate given. From there, we will enjoy preferential tariffs than goods
from third countries.
In addition, the FTA also includes regulations on the customs procedures in order to
be able to simplify procedures and ensure the harmonization with international standards.
From there, creating favorable conditions for the circulation of goods.
Liberalization of trade in services.
Today, the FTAs include not only liberalize trade in goods but also extend to
services trade. Based on the scope of the FTA as well as large and small openness in the
FTA and the countries signatory to the provisions on service liberalization have different
aperture. FTAs often have the participation of the United States or some other developed
countries which require the level of liberalization of superior services and absolutely
opening.
8


Investment liberalization.
Recently, many FTAs are signed, especially the FTA with the participation of the
developed countries which often include commitments on investment liberalization, they
removed barriers to coutries member of investment partners, creating favorable
conditions for investment cooperation signed. FTAs sometimes require the member
States to open some sectors which the Goverments hold the key to facilitating foreign
investment into the join. The provisions of FTAs often include regulations on the
protection of investors and investment activities, the adequate compensation measures if
the property was nationalized, ensure free flow of liquidity.
1.1.2 Overview of the TPP Agreement.
1.1.2.1. History of formation, development and TPP negotiation process.
Trans-Pacific Strategy "Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP) is a trade
agreement multiparty freedom, is signed with the aim of establishing a free trade zone
between countries in Asia and

Pacific. The Transpacific Pacific Partnership (TPP)

Agreement originated from the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement
(P4), a free trade agreement Signed on 3 June 2005, effective May 28, 2006 between the
four countries of Singapore, Chile, New Zealand and Brunei.
In 2007, the P4 members decided to expand the scope of the Agreement's
negotiations not only on financial and investment services, but also to discuss with the
United States the possibility of engaging in negotiations. Extension of the P4. On the US
side also began to conduct research on the issue, the US has consulted internally with
interest groups and the Parliament to discuss this issue. In September 2008, the USTR
announced the decision of the United States to participate in the expanded of P4
negotiations and participated in several discussions on the opening of financial services
markets with P4 countries. In November, Australia, Peru and Vietnam also expressed
their interest and taked part in negotiating TPP, which led to the total number of
participants to eight countries (except Vietnam to November 13, 2010 announced the
9


participation in talks. As a full member, other countries decided to join officially from the
beginning.) From this point on, the P4 expansion were renamed Pacific Partnership
Transactions (TPP) negotiations.
However, TPP negotiations were postponed until the end of 2009 because they
had to wait for the United States to finalize the presidential election and the new Obama
administration to consult and reconsider its participation in the TPP negotiations. In
December 2009, the USTR announced President Obama's decision on the United States
to continue participating in the TPP. Finally,TPP negotiations will be officially launched.
In March 2010, the first round of negotiations in Australia included the following
countries: Australia, Chile, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam, United States, Brunei and New
Zealand. In October 2010, the third round of talks took place in Brunei with the
participation of Malayxia. In October 2012, Canada officially entered into negotiations
and in March 2013 Japan also agreed to participate in TPP negotiations. So far, the TPP
has 12 member countries: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico,
New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States and Vietnam. The most negotiation took
place on August 1, 2015 in Hawaii, although it was expected to complete negotiations
between all members, eventually collapsed, with negotiations expected to resume in
Septemper 2015 and signed before the US presidential election takes place in 2016.

10


Table 1.1 : Rounds of TPP negotiations.
Rounds

Dates Starts

Locations

1

March 15-18, 2010

Melbourne, Australia

*

June

APEC Trade Ministres Meeting,
Sappoor, Japan

2

June 14-18,2010

San Francisco, USA

3

October 4-9,2010

Brunei Darussalam, Brunei

+

November 2010

APEC Leader Meeting, Japan

4

December 6-10, 2010

Auckland, New Zealand

5

February 14-18,2011

Santiago, Chile

6

March 28-April 2, 2011

Singapore

*

May ,2011

APEC Trade Ministres Meeting,
Big Sky, Montana, USA

7

June 20-24,2011

Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam

8

Septemper 6-11, 2011

Chicago, USA

9

October 24-28,2011

Lima, Peru

+

November, 2011

APEC Leader Meeting, Honolulu,
USA

*APEC Trade Minitres Meeting
+APEC Leader Meeting.
Source : VINATEX

11


1.1.2.2. The content is negotiated in the TPP
TPP negotiations are much broader than the WTO. If the WTO is an negotiation
on the market of goods and services, some issues related to the right intellectual property,
the TPP talks also addressed the issue of government procurement, labor issues,
environment, state enterprise issues. Under the agreement, the parties to the TPP will
continue to negotiate and sign two important documents on investment and financial
services, the documents to be signed no later than 2 years after the official TPP effect.

Cut import tariffs
The general principle of the TPP is to bring zero tariffs on all tariff lines.
However, for some of the least sensitive tariff lines, the TPP may apply tariff quotas or
substantial tariff reductions, which are subject to acceptance by all 11 countries.
In terms of textiles and clothing, in order to enjoy preferential tariff rates, the textile and
apparel industry will have to meet the rules of origin "from yarn onwards". This rule in
the long run will encourage businesses to invest in the textile industry, thereby improving
the value added of garment exports and helping the textile industry to develop more
sustainably. However, in order to meet the immediate preference requirement of firms in
countries that are not strong in the textile industry, the TPP Agreement has a "short
supply" portfolio. According to this list, businesses will have the right to import certain
types of fabrics and fibers from third countries (other than TPP) to make garments but
still enjoy preferences. In addition, there are other flexible mechanisms for the textile and
apparel industry to enjoy more incentives as soon as the Agreement enters into force
without overly relying on "originating fiber" rules of origin.
Open service and investment
In the area of services - investment, the main purpose is non-discrimination,
including:
(I) non-discrimination between member countries (most favored nation treatment)
(Ii) non-discriminatory treatment between investors - domestic service providers and
foreign investors - providing foreign services (national treatment) .
12


Any country wishing to discriminate, it shall preserve the discriminatory measure
in the Annex to the Agreement.
All management measures, if they have no discriminatory elements, will be
allowed to be maintained without reservation in the Agreement. With the objective of
attracting investment in the TPP sector (40% GDP and 30% of global trade), countries
have high expectations for the service sector - investment. Vietnam's services and
investment commitments are basically equivalent to the current level of openness.
Procurement of Government agencies.
TPP countries have agreed to come up with a comprehensive set of procurement
rules for government agencies. These rules do not apply to bidding packages for national
defense and security purposes, packages that are of a certain value and under other
circumstances reserved for negotiation. These rules are mainly:
- Basically, international tender will be used to select contractors from TPP countries;
- Preferred bidding conditions are not applied to contractors as well as domestic goods
and services, except for cases reserved;
- Transparency of information and procedures at all stages;
- There are regulations to ensure integrity in the bidding process and to develop
procedures for reviewing complaints of contractors.
The TPP does not require the opening of the local government procurement market nor
does it require the opening of the market for security and defense.
State-owned enterprises (SOEs)
The main obligations of the Agreement include:
- SOEs must operate under the market mechanism;
- SOEs must not engage in anti-competitive behavior when having a monopoly position,
affecting trade and investment;
- Transparency of some information such as the ownership rate of the State, financial
statements have been audited and allowed to publish.
- The state does not subsidize excessively, greatly affecting the interests of other
countries.
13


The obligations of the Agreement apply to SOEs where the State holds more than
50% of charter capital. However, only if these SOEs have a turnover exceeding a certain
threshold are they subject to the Agreement.
Vietnam has reserved all business-related defense-security activities. With other
SOEs, Vietnam accepts fair competition in the market. The state will still support SOEs,
but the level of support will not be such as to cause major inequalities and adversely
affect trade and investment among TPPs. Vietnam also agrees to disclose information on
SOEs on request, except for information that affects defense and security or is subject to
business secrets.
Protection of intellectual property rights (IPR)
The TPP is geared towards high standards of IP protection, especially for
pharmaceuticals. At the same time, countries should also have mechanisms to effectively
enforce the protection of IPR within their own borders, including in the Internet. In
particular, there should be provisions allowing the criminal handling of IPR
infringements that cause significant damage to IPR holders. This approach goes beyond
the WTO approach (criminal handling of commercial infringement and illicit gain).
TPP also requires that countries allow the ability of criminal processing of some new
forms of IPR infiltration such as the design of electronic crack software to serve pirated,
Cable picture etc.
Vietnam agrees with the TPP standards but will implement its commitment
according to the roadmap, in line with the level of development and capacity of Vietnam.
Export tax
The TPP requires countries to try to abolish export taxes as a form of indirect
subsidy to domestic firms (cheap materials purchased). Vietnam agrees with this effort
but must follow a reasonable roadmap, while preserving the right to impose export taxes
on some items of significant importance to revenue collection such as crude oil and coal.
We have domestic production.

14


Trade and the environment
TPP offers the following requirements:
- Commitment to environmental protection in accordance with the provisions of
international treaties that have or will participate and sanction in case of violation.
- Failure to apply forms of fisheries subsidy that negatively affects over-fishing fish
species, but with a road map for policy review and policy adjustment, if needed.
- In accordance with domestic regulations, to provide appropriate forms for cooperation
in dealing with violations of environmental law in foreign countries.
Along with the process of participating in environmental forums, Vietnam has
made a lot of reforms in the legal system. Therefore, commitments in the environment
field are basically in line with the legal system as well as the conditions, circumstances
and capacity of Vietnam.
E-Commerce
TPP sets out the following key requirements:
- No discrimination of digital products and no imposition of import / export taxes on
domestic products;
- The right to access and transfer information on the Internet;
- If it is not for legitimate public purposes, it is not required to place the equipment
(server) in the home country as a condition of investment licensing or service provision.
All measures of Internet management aimed at ensuring security - national defense,
social order and safety, fine customs and habits are still allowed to be applied.
Transparency and anti-corruption
TPP countries offer a number of principles for enhancing transparency such as
posting all draft laws on a single website, allowing the business sector to comment on
policy making, This will allow interested parties to comment on future discussions on
TPP committees, etc.
In addition, countries have agreed to include in the Transparency chapter some of
the principles of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) that most
TPP members (except Brunei) have participated in.
15


Other content
As with other FTAs, the TPP Agreement contains a number of regulations related
to trade and investment such as regulations on technical barriers to trade, sanitary and
phytosanitary measures and sanitary and phytosanitary measures. All food, customs
regulations and trade facilitation, investment environment regulations, investment
protection (including allowing investors to sue government in some schools Special cases
such as when the government deprives the investor of the property), etc. However,
regulations in these areas of the TPP are in line with other trade and investment
agreements that we have signed or with the existing regulations of the law.

16


1.2 Literature review.
1.2.1 The research revolves around the issue of free trade agreements and Vietnam
textile and garment sector.
Journal of Science of Hanoi National University, Economics and Business No. 28
(2012), pp. 49-59, entitled "Analysis of Vietnam Garment Export Chain" by Assoc. Ha
Van Hoi, this paper is conducted within the framework of the theme "Participating in
global textile value chain, experience of some Asian countries and suggestions for
Vietnam" Research Assistant for Asian Studies - Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
This article analyzes in detail the global textile value chain and identifies specific phases
of the global textile and apparel value chain, including stages such as the production of
raw materials, spinning, Weaving, dyeing, printing, cutting and distributing. The article is
also based on the output approach to analyze and clarify the value chain of apparel
exports. The article points out the low value added value of Viet Nam's textile and
garment exports in the export value chain of this product.
In April 2004, FPT Securities Joint Stock Company published "Textile Report" by
analyst Bui Van Tot. This report clearly shows the world textile and apparel situation
with a good growth tendency, the trend of outsourcing to developing countries, and the
link between rising prices in the sector textile value chain. Next, the article also gives an
overview of the Vietnamese textile and garment industry, in particular the number of
companies, the size of enterprises and the target of textile and garment development up to
2015 with a view to 2020. In addition, The report details the import and export situation
of Vietnam garment and textile industry in terms of indicators overall export value,
export rate of domestic and joint ventures FDI, monthly export turnover in the period of
2005 - 2013, mechanics exports to major markets as well as export textiles. In addition,
the report mentions the industry including cotton and fiber weak imports. The report also
shows the position of Vietnamese companies in the chain the value of the textile and
apparel industry is mainly in the processing of garment processing contracts. This is a
low value added sector in the value chain. From there, author fake has pointed out the
17


weakness and dependence on the outside of the textile and garment industry in Vietnam
through model analysis Michael Porter with some conclusions.
In the report "Assessing the Impact of Rules of Origin in Agreements Free trade of
Vietnam by Stefano Inama, Ho Quang Trung, Tran Ba Cuong and Phan Sinh, this paper
of Mutrap Multilateral Trade Assistance Project has a comprehensive and detailed
assessment of the impact of product-specific rules of origin from the perspective of
Vietnam. Through a detailed analysis of each of the trade agreements that Vietnam
participates with, such as AFTA and ASEAN - China Free Trade Area, Australia - New
Zealand Free Trade Area, Vietnam, EC - Vietnam, India - Vietnam, Korea - Vietnam,
Vietnam - Japan. Many commodities are related to rules of origin such as textiles,
fisheries, footwear and agricultural products. The report identifies the benefits to be
gained from negotiations, ie, rules of origin that are conducive to export, stability and
transparency of rules of origin in FTAs to increase usability. The study also mentions
some aspects of rules of origin. Suggestions are made to improve the rules of origin in
Vietnam's FTAs with different partners. These recommendations relate to the calculation
of the percentage and relationship between general criteria for rules of origin for a
particular product. This report is worthy of reference when the rules of origin are an
obstacle to Vietnam's TPP negotiation process, which greatly affects our textile and
garment industry.
In the report "Vietnam's accession to the WTO and free trade agreements (FTAs):
Implications for export of textiles and garments" was implemented according to the
requirements of the project "Trade promotion and export promotion in Viet Nam -VIE /
61/94 "by Department of Trade Promotion of Ministry of Industry and Trade of 2 authors
Nguyen Anh Duong and Dang Phuong Dung. The report pointed out a lot of problems
thatVietnamese garment exporters are encountering. It can be said: Firstly, the valueadded content of export products is generally limited. Second, businesses have difficulty
accessing capital. Thirdly, the cost of production in Vietnam has not reached the level of
competition needed. Fourthly, enterprises have limited knowledge about foreign markets
18


and issues of international trade and non-trade. Fifth, the activities of importing and
exporting goods in general and textiles in particular have not been significantly facilitated.
Sixth, to a certain extent, trade policy, in particular tariffs in Vietnam, is variable and
unpredictable. Seventh, Vietnamese exporters face problems from non-market economy
status imposed by major export markets for Vietnam. Eighth, in the context of global
financial crisis and economic recession, countries tend to implement new protectionism.
Ninth, China's textile and garment export quotas to the United States and the EC were
lifted in 2008. Secondly, businesses do not have much experience in brand building and
brand protection in the market. Foreign school. Once in a row, the actual value chain
protection mechanism still lacks protection for textile products, which protects more
garment products. 12th, barriers to investment for enterprises in the textile and garment
industry. 13th, inadequate labor policy and salary of Vietnam. The 14th, the textile and
garment enterprises have difficulty due to lack of access to business support services. So
far, TPP can be considered as a turning point for the Vietnamese textile and apparel
industry, the great opportunity is accompanied by many difficulties. The report also
summarized some recommendations for policy makers, textile associations as well as
businesses to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the opening up of integration.
1.2.2 The research revolves around the impact of TPP Agreement to Vietnam's
economy.
In February 2014, Journal of Economics and Development No. 200 published an
article"Transpacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP) Expectations and
Implications for Vietnam" by Do Duc Binh, Nguyen Tien Long, Ho Trung Thanh. The
article has quite similar content to the topic. The article content has specifies that the TPP
is a high standard free trade agreement with a broad scope of coverage covering all areas
such as trade in goods, services, investment, intellectual property, labor and the
environment. TPP members expect that, given the high quality model (WTO + style ...),
the TPP will bring enormous and sustainable benefits to participating countries.
(Including Vietnam) while speeding up the global liberalization process. The article
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indicates the extent to which the agreement will be primarily committed in the TPP,
expectations about making good use of opportunity, positive impact and limiting
challenges, when negative join the TPP for Vietnam. The article uses statistical collection
methods and data processing, which provides analysis and prediction.
In May 2014, the Journal of Economics and Development published an article
"Pacific

Partnership

Agreement:

Opportunities,

Challenges,

and

Policy

Recommendations" by Vinh Tuong and Pham Sy An have broadly assessed opportunities
and challenges for Vietnam when joining TPP. Vietnam is preparing to join the
Transpacific-Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). This is an important integration milestone,
which can have a strong impact on economic growth and development, so it is important
to analyze the opportunities and challenges of getting involved. Enter TPP, as a premise
for appropriate policy responses. When joining the TPP, membership fees open up
opportunities such as expanding export markets, technology imports, FDI attraction, and
institutional reform. However, the government will also face many challenges such as
competitive pressures, limited ability to adjust policies due to TPP's stringent regulations,
the inability of local industries to adapt, and " Bogged down by the institution. " In order
to take advantage of the opportunities and face the challenge, there are a number of
enterprise and government solutions that are particularly important in the preparation of
the enterprise and the institutional reform and the building of the base system
infrastructure.
In March 2013 Petri published another report: "The Trans-Pacific Partnership and
its impact on Vietnam" s economy assess the impact of TPP on Vietnam alone. In this
report, Petri analyzes the new context of world trade, focusing on three super-scale
agreements: the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), the Comprehensive
Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP), the Transatlantic Trade and Investment
Agreement (TTIP). According to Petri, these are agreements where all parties are
benefiting from trillions of dollars and the TPP for Vietnam is a particularly promising
option. By using the DCGE model (dynamic equilibrium balance), Peter A. Petri And the
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pros to point out that when the TPP enters the Vietnamese reality completely .It is the
member state that is most beneficial. Accordingly, by 2025 Vietnam South will increase
the gross revenue of about $ 26.2 billion and this number will be $ 35.7 billion, if Japan
joined TPP in 2013. However, he noted in particular that tough negotiations are still
ahead of difficult issues like intellectual property, government procurement, rules of
origin, etc.
1.2.3 The research revolves around the impact of TPP Agreement to the Vietnam
textile industry .
In January 2015 The Economic Development Review of Ho Chi Minh City
Economics University No. 0 posts "The Orientation of Textile Industry Development".
Vietnam may meet TPP integration requirements "by two authors Vo Thanh Thu and
Ngo Thi Hai Xuan. The article states that the textile and garment industry is one of the
two leading exporters of Vietnam, with an export turnover of nearly $ 20 billion a year.
However, Vietnam's textile and garment industry is in a very low position in the global
textile and apparel value chain, mainly for the export of garment products. Most materials
have to be imported from China. Through method Qualitative research: statistical
analysis and dialectical logic, author of the hit the current situation of the textile and
apparel industry is to identify strengths, weaknesses and comparisons. This situation with
the requirements of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) for the garment industry to make
forecasts of opportunities, as well as challenges to branch; From then on, the orientation
to help the textile and garment industry to develop sustainably apply for integration when
TPP is signed and and enforced in the near future.
Speech report by Pham Minh Duc "Textile and Garment Sector Report Vietnam in
the context of the implementation of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) "at
the workshop, which summarized the difficulties and challenges of the textile and
garment industry when joining TPP as well as synthesizing the qualitative research
results of other authors. The exact price of changes with the textile and garment industry
in the near future.
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Le Tien Truong, Vice Chairman of the Vietnam Textile and Garment Association,
has been presented Presentation paper "TPP Agreement Statement: Views and
Approaches of the Association Vietnam Textile and Garment "has stood under the vision
of a textile industry leader, looking at the current difficulties of the industry in
implementing measures to take advantage of TPP opportunities with textiles. The author
has made some recommendations when Vietnam negotiates and recommends policies to
the Government.

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