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Vocabulary của Ielts

Unit 1: Vocabulary learning
New words
foreign

Meaning
form a country that is not
your own ( a person is a
foreigner).

gist

the gist of sth is the
general meaning but not
all the details

text

the written part of a book,
newspaper,etc.

recognize sb/sth


know who/what sb/sth is
because you’ve seen/
heard them before
N recognition

go through sth

read sth carefully from
beginning to end.

SING

identify sth

guess sth

context

keep a record of sth

recognize sth and decide
what it is
give an answer to sth
without being sure of the
facts.
N guess
the words before and after
the new word that help
you to understand the
meaning
write sth down to help you
remember it
V record sth

Example


make a note of sth


write sth down quickly to
help you remember it.

construction

the way words are used
together in a sentence.
V construct sth

translation

a text that has been
changed from one
language into another.
V translate sth

repeat sth
explain sth
pronounce sth

opportunity
experiment with sth
make mistakes
revise sth
method
work

B. Speaking and listening
say sth again.
N repetition
make sth clear/easy to
understand
N explanation
make a sound of a word or
letter.
N pronunciation
a itme when it’s possible
to do sth that you want to
do.
SYN chance
try sth to see what the
result it has.
NOT do mistakes
study sth again ( you do
revision).
a way of doing sth
get or have the result you
want.

Spotlight formal
We use formal language to appear serious or
official, or sometimes when we don’t know
people well.
OPP informal
N formality OPP informality

Spotlight conversation, chat, discussion,
argument
A conversation is a talk between 2 or more
people. You can also have a chat with sb,
which is a friendly informal conversation
(chat v). A discussion about sth is when you
talk about sth seriously (discuss sth). An
argument is a dicussion in which people
disagree, often angrily.

Unit 2: Progress and aims


New words
enthusiastic
motivated
after a while
improve
express sth
effectively
obvious

encouraging

accurately

Meaning
A. Making progress
very interested in sth or
excited by it.
N enthusiasm.
if you’re motivated , you
really want to do sth.
N motivation.
after a period of time.
become better
SYNS get better.
say or show what you
think or feel.
in a way that gives you the
result you want.
ADJ effective.
easily seen and
understood.
SYN clear.
if sth is encouraging , it
gives u hope and makes u
want to continue.
V encourage
N encouragement.
with no mistakes
ADJ accurate.

be aware of sth

if u are aware of sth, u
know about it.

frustrating

making u annoyed
because u can’t do sth u
want to do.
N frustration.
B. Future goals

goal
everyday

a thing u want to be able
to do in the future.
SYN aim.
normal or usual.

Example


expand

become bigger or make
sth bigger.

a wide range

a large number of different
things.

complex

not simple; often difficult
to understand.
SYN complicated.

fluent

able to speak a foreign
language easily and well.
ADV fluently.

in detail

appropriate

fully and including a lot of
information.
right or suitable in a
particular situation.
OPP inappropriate.

relevant to sth

useful for and connected
to sth
OPP irrelevant.

spcialized

having or needing a lot of
spcial knowledge.

Spotlight contain and include
We can often use contain or include with the same meaning.
Example: The film contains/includes scenes of violence.
Sometimes we can only use one of the verbs.
Example:
- The bos contains magazines. (There are magazines inside the box).
- The price includes service.( Service is one part of the price).

Unit 3: Dictionary
New words

Meaning

Example


definition
avoid doing sth

idiom

entry
provide sth
style
for instance
slang
offensive
symbol
syllable
relate sth to sth
build sth
select sth

an exact statement of what
a word or phrase means.
V define sth.
if you avoid doing sth,
you try not to do or
experience it.
a group of words whose
meaning is different from
the meanings of the
individual words
( also expression).
one of a list of items
included in a dictionary,
list,etc.
give sth to sb or make sth
available for sb.
the way sth is written or
spoken.
e.g: an informal/formal
style.
SYN for example.
very informal words or
phrases used in spoken
language.
rude and likely to upset
sb.
B offend sb.
a letter, number, sign that
has a particular meaning.
a part of a word which
contains a vowel sound.
connect sth to sth.
ADJ related.
make sth bigger; increase
sth.
SYN choose sth (but select
is more formal).
N selection.

There are 3 dictionary entries
on this page.

The symbol /∫/ is pronounced
‘sh’.
Go has one syllable and prefer
has two syllables.

Spotlight stress and emphasize
Both verbs mean to say a syllable, word, or phrase with extra loudness.


The related nouns are stress (on sth) and emphasis (on sth).
The stress is on the first syllable. Don’t emphasize every word.
They are also used to say that sth is more important.
Example:
- The newspaper stressed the need for urgent action.
- The emphasis mainly on education.

Unit 4: English punctuation
New words

Meaning

full stop

.

comma

,

colon

:

semicolon

;

question mark
exclamation mark
apostrophe
hyphen
dash
brackets
slash
quotation mark
abbreviation
capital letter
pause
separate sb/sth
list
omit sth

Example
A full stop is used at the end of
a sentence that is not a question
or an exclamation.
A comma in writing is like a
pause in speech.
A colon is often used to
introduce further details.
A semicolon is sometimes used
instead of a full stop.

?
!

_
()
/
‘’
“”
B. Punctuation rules
a.m is an abbreviation
a short form of a word.
meaning in the morning.
A B C are capital letters
a b c are small letters
a short period of time
when sb stops talking
keep people or things
away from each other.
SYN divide sb/sth
a series of names, items,
a shopping list, a list of
or numbers.
countries.
if you omit sth, you
don’t’t include it.


leave sth out.
occur in the middle of sth
and stop it continuing.
small pieces of
information about sth.
SYN

interrupt sth
details
instead of sb/sth
connect sth
such as
alternative

in the place of sb/sth.
put 2 or more things
together.
SYN join sth.
you used such as to
introduce an example.
SYN like.
one of 2 or more things
that you can choose
between.

Unit 5: Appearance
New words
well built
skinny
in a good/bad shape
plump
fattish
clean-shaven
stubble
dark-skinned
bald
scar

Meaning
Example
A. Male appearance
with a solid, strong body. He’s got a broad shoulders and
is well built.
very thin, but not in an
attractive way.
in a good/bad physical
condition.
quite fat, in a nice way.
quite fat
without a beard and
moustache.
râu (tóc) mọc lởm chởm.
OPP

without hair.
sẹo.
SYN

go bald

light/pale-skinned

lose hair
recede.

He’s tall and skinny.
I want to be in a good shape so
that I could become healthier.
My father is quite plump.
He also has a fattish face.
He’s clean-shaven.
He’s got thick eyebrows and
stubble.
When I was sick, I have a paleskinned.
My grandfather is bald.
Because of my cat, I have a lot
of scars on my arm.
He’s going bald/ losing his
hair.
OR His hair is receding.


B. Femal appearance

be pregnant
smooth
skin
tanned
slim
figure
appearance
go grey OR white
neat
contact lenses
wrinkle(s)

SYN

be expecting a baby.

with a completely flat
surface.
OPP rough.
Your skin covers your
body.
having brown skin after
spending time in the sun.
N tan.
thin in an attractive way.
SYN slender.
the shape of a woman’s
body.
the way sb looks.
become grey-haired or
white-haired.
tidy and carefully
arranged.
small round pieces of
plastic you wear in your
eyes to help you see
better.
nếp nhăn ở vùng trán, mắt
và miệng.

My mother was pregnant when
she’s 27 years old.
My younger brother has a
rough face.
My skin is quite smooth.
I want to have a tanned skin
because it makes me look
stronger.
I want to have a slim body.

My mother is getting older,
she’s got few wrinkles.

Spotlight –ish
The suffix –ish is used with some adjectives to mean ‘quite’.
A roundish face is a face which is quite round.
Also: tallish, youngish, fattish, etc.


Unit 6: Character
New words
see sb as sth
ambitious

self-confident

generous

impatient

arrogant
aggressive
cheerful
easy-going
energy

responsible
honest
hard-working
tolerant

Meaning
imagine or think of sb in a
particular way.
having a strong desire to
do well or be successful.
OPP unambitious.
N ambition.
feeling sure about your
own ability.
OPP insecure.
happy to give more money
and help than is usual.
OPP mean.
N generosity.
not able to stay calm and
wait for sth/sb.
OPP patient.
N patience.
thinking you are better
than other people.
OPP modest.
N arrogance.
likely to fight or argue.
N aggression.
felling happy.
relaxed and not worried
by what other people do.
the ability to be very
active without getting
tired.
ADJ energetic.
able to act sensibly and
intellignetly.
OPP irresponsible.
always telling the truth.
OPP dishonest.
N honesty.
OPP lazy.
able to accept ideas you
don’t agree with.
OPP intolerant.

Example


tolerance.
boring.
the ability to laugh at
things and see when sth is
funny.
N

dull
sense of humor

Unit 7: Feelings
New words

Meaning

Example

A. Feelings

thrilled

very happy and excited.
SYN delighted.

He was thrilled to win and he
kissed the cup.

very angry.

I lost his keys: he was
absolutely furious.

very surprised.
SYN amazed.

I was astonished to hear he was
married.

very sad and emotionally
upset.

She was heartbroken when her
dog died.

very frightened.
SYN scared stiff.

I was terrified when the plane
took off.

unhappy and depressed.
SYN fed up.

You look very miserable.
What’s wrong?

pleased about sth you or
other people have done.

I felt very proud when my
company was successfully
organised.

1.angry or sad ‘cause ur
afraid of losing sb’s love.
2.angry or sad ‘cause sb
has sth you don’t have.
SYN envious.

My boyfriend is jealous when
I’m with other boys.
I’ve always been jealous of
Tom; everyone likes him.

worried and afraid.

He was anxious before he went
into hospital.

sad and angry ‘cause of

She was very upset ‘cause no

furious
astonished
heartbroken
terrified
miserable

proud

jealous

anxious
upset


sth that has happened.

one spoke to her.

B. Emotional

emotional

show your feelings
upset sb
be in a bad mood
hurt sb’s feelings
moody

sympathetic
supportive

having strong feelings,
and often showing them.
N emotion.
express your feelings
openly.
OPP hide your feelings.
make sb unhappy.
feel angry or unhappy at a
particular time.
OPP be in a good mood.
say sth that makes sb
unhappy.
often change and become
angry or unhappy for no
obvious reason.
kind and showing you
understand sb’s problems.
sympathetic ≠ friendly/
nice.
giving help to sb who was
has a problem.

Spotlight absolutely and very
Use absolutely before extreme adjs.
Ex: furious, astonished, terrified,
heartbroken.
Use very before degree adj.
Ex: miserable, jealous, anxious, upset.
- I was absolutely amazed.
( NOT very amazed.)
- They were very proud.
(NOT absolutely proud.)

Spotlight sensitive
Sensitive has 2 meanings:
1. A positive meaning: able to
understand people’s feelings and
problems.
OPP insensitive.
2. A more negative meaning: easil
upset.

Unit 8: Relationships
New words

Meanings

Example


A.

friendship
make friends
get on (well) with sb
rely on sb
trust sb
loyal
sociable

Friendship

the relationship between
people who are friends.
form friendly
relationships.
have a good relationship
with sb.
OPP not get on well with
sb.
SYN depend on sb.
ADJ reliable.
believe sb is good and
won’t hurt you.
being a friend to sb, even
in difficult times.
OPP disloyal.
OPP antisocial.

Our friendship doesn’t lastlong.
I find it difficult to make
friends.
I’m not get on well with my
classmates.
My friends are not reliable.
I always trust my family.
He was very loyal to my father.
She’s very sociable and gets on
well with people.

(of 2 or more people) stay
keep in touch
in contact be speaking or
writng to each other.
B. When things go wrong
meet sb a number of times
get to know sb
and become friends.
one another
each other.
( of 2 or more people)
get together
meet for a social reason.
used when a problem
go wrong
happens in a situation or
relationship.
begin to understand sth
realize sth
that you didn’t know
before.
( of 2 people) have no
interests that are the same.
have nothing in common
OPP have a lot in
common.
feel sorry about sth you
regret sth/ doing sth
did or didn’t do.
stop being in a romantic
split up with sb
relationship with sb.
have sb as a boyfriend or
go out with sb
girlfriend.


in a (serious)
relationship
fall out with sb

having a long term bf or
gf.
argue with sb and stop
being friendly with them.

Spotlight friend
An old friend is someone you have
known for a long time.
A close friend is someone you know
and like very much.
If you are friendly with sb, you treat
them as a friend.

Spotlight have a row/ an argument
Both phrases mean ‘ have an angry
dicussion’.
Ex: I had a row with Li.
The verb related to argument is argue.
Ex: They argued with each other.

Unit 9: Families
New words
only child
single parent

foster parent

adopt a child

get divorced

support sb
bring sb up
stepfather

Meaning
Example
A. Family realtionships
a child with no
brothers or sisters.
a mother or father who
looks after their
children alone.
sb who looks after
another person’s child
in their home for a
time.
take sb’s child into
your family and legally
make them your child.
legally end your
marriage.
SYN get a divorce.
help someone live by
giving them money,
food, or a home.
look after a child and
teach them how to live.
a man who has married (related words:


your mother but is not
your father.

stepmother, stepson,
stepdaughter,
stepbrother, stepsister).

a brother or sister who
has either the same
half-brother, half-sister
mother or father as
you.
B. Family history
be in the same family as sb.
be related to sb
N relative
SYN relation.
a person who is in a group such as a family or a
member
club.
relating to a king or queen.

royal

a person in your famil who lived a long time ago.

ancestor

a person who comes to a foreign country to live
there.

immigrant
emigrate from … to…
previous
generation
originally
look like sb
take after sb

New words
choose sth

leave your country in order to live in another.
happening before the one you are talking about.
all the people in a family born at about the same
time.
in the beginning, before other things happened.

have the same appearance as sb.
be like an older member of your family.
Unit 10: Weddings and funerals
Meaning
A. A typical British wedding
decide which thing you want.
N choice.

Example


chose.
PP chosen.
ceremony
a formal public event.
A religious ceremony takes place in a church,
religious
mosque, temple, etc.
N religion.
civil
A civil ceremony is a non- religious one.
wedding
a time when a mam and a woman get married.
wedding reception a meal and/or a party after a wedding.
A traditional thing is sth that people have done for a
traditional
long time.
give a formal talk to a lot of people at a special
make a speech
event.
raise a glass of wine,etc. to wish sb success or
drink a toast to sb
happiness.
wish sb sth
say that you hope good things will happen to sb.
honeymoon
a holiday for a couple who have just got married.
have a special meal, party, etc. to show you are
celebrate sth
happy about sth.
the date on which sth happened the previous year or
anniversary
in the past.
the groom is helped by a best man who brings the
groom
rings to the wedding ceremony.
bride
the bride may have one or more bridesmaids.
B. The end of a life
graves
mồ mả.
gravestone
bia mộ.
mourners
người đi đưa ma.
mourning
quần áo tang.
coffin
quan tài.
stop living.
He died of old age.
die (die of an illness) N death.
His death was very sad.
ADJ dead.
a woman whose husband Mark’s widow never
widow
has died.
remarried.
a man whose wife has
He’s been a widower for
widower
died.
years.
PT


funeral
burry sb

cremate sb
cemetery
will N
inherit sth

a ceremony after sb dies. The funeral was at the
church.
put a dead body in the
He was buried this
ground.
morning.
N burial.
burn the body of a dead My grandfather wasn’t
person as part of a
buried; he was cremated.
funeral.
N cremation.
a place where dead
He’s buried in that
people are buried.
cemetery.
a document that says who He left his sister $10,000
money or things when
in his will.
you die.
receive money or things I inherited $10,000 form
from sb when they die.
my uncle.
N inheritance.

Spotlight wedding and marriage; bride and groom
A wedding is the ceremony for a couple (2 people who are getting married).
Marriage is the relationship between a husband and wife.
Ex:
- We went to my sister’s wedding on Monday.
- Jack and Dana’s marriage lasted 40 years.
On the wedding day, the couple are called the bride and groom. Atfer they
are married, they become wife and husband.

Unit 11: Universe
New word
universe
satellite

Meaning
A. The universe
the whole of space and
everything in it, including
the planets and stars.
an object that moves

Example


in other words
circle sth
approximately
reach sth
space
far-fetched
gain sth
knowledge

round a bigger object in
space.
used for saying sth in a
differnet way.
go round sth in a circle.
SYN revolve around sth.
about.
SYN roughly.
arrive at a place.
the area beyond the earth
round the planets and
stars.
not easy to believe
because it is very
improbable.
get more and more of sth
useful, such as knowledge
or experience.
what you know and
understand about sth.
B.

scientist
satellite
explore sth
carry out sth
experiment
analysis
confirm sth
exist

Scientific exploration

a person who studies the physical world.
N science.
ADJ scientific.
a piece of electronic equipment that is sent into space and
moves around.
travel round a place in order to learn about it.
N exploration.
do and complete a task.
a scientific test done in order learn sth.
a careful study of sth in order to explain it.
V analyse.
say or show that sth is true or define.
N confirmation.
If sth exists, it is present in the real world.
N existence.

Spotlight discover or invent?
If you discover something, you learn about or find something for the first
time.
N discovery.


If you invent something, you create something that didn’t exist before.
N invention.
Ex:
- They’ve discovered a new planet.
- Who invented the telescope?

Unit 12: Rivers and the sea
New words
flow
burst
ocean
tide
low/high tide
capsize
underwater
drown
wide > < narrow
deep > < shallow
dry up
pond
puddle
canal

Meaning
A. Water

move smoothly ( like water).
break open suddenly and violently.
a very big sea.
Ex: the Atlantic Ocean.
the regular change in the sea level caused by the moon and
sun.
(used of boats) turn over in the water.
happening or existing below the surface of the water.
die in water because you can’t breathe.
N width.
rộng >< hẹp.
N depth.
sâu >< nông.
cạn ráo.
ao nước.
vũng nước.
kênh, sông đào.
B.

coast
shore
steep
protect sb/sth
rough
horizon
rock
beach
harbour

Example

The coast.

the area of land that is close to or next to the sea or an
ocean.
the land along the edge of the sea, a lake, etc.
A steep hill or cliff goes up quickly from a low place to a
high one.
keep sb/sth safe from sth.
N protection.
A rough sea has big waves.
OPP calm.
the line between the land or the sea and the sky.
a large piece of stone.
an area of sand or small stones beside the sea.
a place where ships or boats are tied up and protected from


caves
bay

the sea.
a large hole in a cliff or under the ground.
an area of the coast where the land goes in to form a curve.

Spotlight cause
To cause sth is to make sth (often unpleasant) happen.
Ex: The wind caused problems for cyclists.
The cause of sth is the person or thing that makes it happen.
Ex: The police don’t know the cause of the accident.


Unit 1: Meaning and style
A/ Asking about meaning
New words

Meaning

synonymous

Having the same, or nearly the
same, meaning
synonym N
The meaning of a word or phrase
If two things are interchangeable
you can use one instead of the other
and the effect will be the same
Not clear; able to be explained in
different ways
Ambiguity N

sense
Interchangeable
ambiguous

Interpret sth
Transparent
Self-explantory
precise
virtually

Decide that sth has particular
meaning
Interpretation N
(of language) easy to understand
Opp opaque
Easy to understand and not needing
more explanation
Clear and accurate
Syn exact
Preciosion N
Almost; very nearly
(virtually the same/ impossible/
certain)


B/ Explaining meaning and style
Word
Irony N
Ironic Adj

Sarcasm N
Sarcastic Adj
Figurative

Literary

Disapproving
Old-fashioned

Slang
Pejorative
Insulting
Insult sb V

Example

Meaning

‘Thank you, Sam,’she said, The use of words to say the
with heavy irony. In fact,
opposite of what you mean,
Sam had hardly helped at all. often humorously (a
trace/hint of irony = a
little irony)
‘I’ve broken your CD.’
The use of words to say the
‘Oh, that’s just great,’ was
opposite of what you mean
her sarcastic reply.
in order to be unpleasant to
sb or make fun of sb.
Slim is used figuratively in (of words) not used with
the sentence.
their literal (=usual)
Many firms are slimmer than meaning.
they were.
Heart can be used in a
Used of the kind of
literary way, e.g,
language you find in stories
She put her hand on her
and poems.
heart.
The dictionary marks stupid (often used in dictionaries)
as ‘disapproving’.
showing that sth is bad or
wrong.
Spiffing means ‘great’, but No longer modern old
it’s very old-fashioned.
fashionable.
Syn dated
Opp in current use
In slang, wicked means
Very informal words which
‘very good’.
are not suitable in formal
situations.
His pejorative comments
FML, expressiong
about my essay upset me.
disapproval or criticism.
Syn derogatory
He called Mark an ‘old
Rude or offensive
woman’: how insulting!
(deliberatedly/ highly
insulting)




Spotlight: Make fun of someone

If you make fun of or poke fun at someone or something, you make jokes
about them in an unkind way. To mock someone means to make fun of them,
often by copying what they say or do.
Stop making fun of her! He’s always mocking her country accent.

Unit 2: Familiar words in a new way
A/ Phrases and figurative meaning
Word
Crawl
Have second thoughts

Meaning

(of a vehicle) move very slowly.
Start having doubts about a decision you have
made.
Be in two minds about sth Be unable to decide what to do about sth.
Sweet (of sb)
Kind (of sb).
Be tied up
Be busy and unable to do other things.
Dawn on sb
If sth dawns on you, you begin to realize it for the
first time.
Ulterior motive
A reason for doing sth that you keep hidden.
Thick
INF stupid.
Be the last thing on sb’s Be the thing that sb is least likely to be thinking
mind
about.
Get out of sth
Avoid doing sth.
Send sth/sb flying
Make sth/sb move quickly and without control.
You’re not gonna believe Used to introduce surprising and often un welcome
this
news (gonna INF = going to)


B/ Common verbs with less familiar meanings
Verb
Get sth/sb to
do sth
Keep
Keep sb going
Put sth

Push sb

Leave sth
to/with sb

Example
I finally got the car to start. I
couldn’t get him to leave the party.
We must eat the grapes – they
won’t keep,
I”ll have a sandwich. That will
keep me going until lunchtime.
It’s hard to put your feelings into
words.
I think he put it very well in his
essay.
Some parents push their kids
really hard.
I need to push myself more at
work.
We need to book a table. I’ll leave
that to you.
Leave it to/with me – I’ll do it.

Make sth sth My watch says 10.20. What time
do you make it?
He bought ten more; I make that
25 now.

Meaning
Make or persuade sb/sth to do
sth.
Remain fresh.
Be enough for sb until a later
time.
Say or write sth in a
particular way.
Make sb work harder.

Allow sb to take care of sth.

Think or calculate sth to be a
particular time or number.

Bring sb swh It was the war that brought him to Cause sb to reach aparticular
power.
condition or place.
What brings you here? ~ I’ve got a
meeting.
Come with
Come in

I’m sure the radio comes with
batteries.
The chairs come in four different
colours.
Do (for sb/sth) I peeled six potatoes. Will that do?
Will these shoes do for the
wedding?

Be sold or produced with a
particular feature.
Be enough or be acceptable
in a particular situation.


Unit 3: I can use compounds
A/ Nouns
Compound noun
Meaning
Driving licence
An official document that shows you are qualified to drive.
Birth certificate
An official document showing when and where you were
born.
Spare part
A part for a car or machine to replace an old or broken part.
Passer-by
A person walking past a place by a chance.
Long weekend
A short holiday from Fri to Sun, or Sat to Mon.
Life expectancy
The number of years that a person is likely to live.
Short cut / shortcut A path or route that is quicker than the normal way.
Fancy dress
Clothes that you wear to a party to make you appear a
different character.
Nursery rhyme
A short and usually very old song or poem for young
children.
Fruit/slot machine A machine into which you put money in the hope of
winning more back.
Next of kin
Your closest living relative (often used on official
documents).

B/ Adjectives
Compound Adj
Last-minute
Built-up
Panic-stricken
Thick-skinned
Off-putting
Tongue-tied
Worn out
Hard-wearing
Never-ending
Bad-tempered

Meaning
Happening at the last possible moment.
A built-up area has a lot of houses and not many open
spaces.
Extremely anxious about sth.
Not easily upset by unkind or critical comments.
(of behavior) irritating or unattractive.
Unable to speak easily because of nerves or shyness.
1 (of a thing) no longer useful because it has been used so
much.
2 (of a person) exhausted from work or execise.
(of a product) remaining in good condition for a long time.
(especially of sth unpleasant) seeming to last for ever.
Often angry and easily annoyed.




Spotlight: Adjectives with “-minded”

Narrow-minded = not willing to listen to the ideas and opinions of others,
SYN bigoted.
OPPS broad-minded, open-minded.
Absent-minded = forgetful.
Single-minded = thinking in a concentrated way about sth and determinded to
achive it.

C/ Phrasal verb to compound noun
Compound noun
Meaning
Let-down
A disappointment. let sb down V.
Drop out (of sth) Leave school, college, a course, etc, without finishing your
studies. dropout N.
Turnout
The number of people who attend an event. turn out V.
Shake-up
Large changes made in an organization to improve it.
Shake sth up V.
Break down
(of a vehicle or machine) stop working, breakdown N.
Hold sth/sb up
Delay sth/sb. Hold-up N.
Tailback
A long line of traffic, moving very slowly. Tail back V.
Write-off
A vehicle that is so badly damaged that it is not worth
repairing, write sth off V.
Break-up
The ending of a relationship or association. Break up V.
Setback
A problem that delays or prevents progress, of makes a
situation worse for sb.
Set sth/sb back V.


Spotlight: outbreak, outlay, etc

A few compounds based on phrasal verbs change the position of the particle.
When did war break out? (=start)
The outbreak of war followed.
Did he lay out much money? (INF =spend)
What was the initial outlay?


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