HANDBOOK OF TEACHER
Globalization, Standards and
Professionalism in Times of Change
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, U.S.A.
Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia
A C.I.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN-10 1-4020-4773-8 (ebook)
ISBN-13 978-1-4020-4773-2 (ebook)
ISBN-10 1-4020-4772-X (HB)
ISBN-13 978-1-4020-4772-5 (HB)
Published by Springer,
P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Printed on acid-free paper
All Rights Reserved
© 2007 Springer
No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording
or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception
of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered
and executed on a computer system,
for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work.
Printed in the Netherlands.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GLOBALIZATION AND DIVERSITY:
PROMISE OR PROBLEM?
TONY TOWNSEND AND RICHARD BATES / Teacher Education in a
New Millennium: Pressures and Possibilities
JONATHAN JANSEN / Learning and Leading in a Globalized World:
The Lessons from South Africa
AHMED M. AL-HINAI / The Interplay between Culture, Teacher
Professionalism and Teachers’ Professional Development at
Times of Change
KONAI HELU THAMAN / Partnerships for Progressing Cultural
Democracy in Teacher Education in Pacific Island Countries
JANINKA GREENWOOD AND LIZ BROWN / The Treaty, the Institution and
the Chalkface: An Institution-wide Project in Teacher Education
IVAN REID, KEVIN BRAIN AND LOUISE COMERFORD BOYES / Where have
all the Teachers Gone? Gone to be Leaders, Everyone
STANDARDS AND ACCOUNTABILITY:
WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A GOOD TEACHER AND
HOW CAN WE MAKE IT HAPPEN?
DAVID G. IMIG AND SCOTT R. IMIG / Quality in Teacher Education:
Seeking a Common Definition
MIKE NEWBY / Standards and Professionalism: Peace Talks?
RICHARD BATES / Regulation and Autonomy in Teacher Education:
System or Democracy?
LAWRENCE ANGUS / Globalisation and the Reshaping of Teacher
Professional Culture: Do We Train Competent Technicians or
Informed Players in the Policy Process?
AYSEN BAKIOGLU AND OZGE HACIFAZLIOGLU / Academics’ Perceptions
of Private University Establishment Standards and
TEACHER PREPARATION: GETTING THE BRIGHTEST AND
MAKING THEM THE BEST
BEVERLEY JANE / Mentoring in Teacher Education: An Experience that
Makes a Difference for Fledgling University Students
JANETTE RYAN / Exploring ‘Lifewide Learning’ as a Vehicle for Shifting
Pre-service Teachers’ Conceptions of Teaching and Learning
DAVID ZYNGIER / Productive Pedagogies: Seeking a Common Vocabulary
and Framework for Talking about Pedagogy with Pre-service Teachers
ROBERT P. PELTON / From Performing to Performance: Can the
Repositioning of Teacher Candidates Create a Measurable Impact on
Children’s Achievement While Developing Positive Teaching
RUTH GORINSKI AND GLORIA ABERNETHY / Maori Student Retention and
Success: Curriculum, Pedagogy and Relationships
MAHMOUD AL-WEHER AND MAJED ABU-JABER / The Effectiveness of
Teacher Preparation Programs in Jordan: A Case Study
LYDIA PUNGUR / Mentoring as the Key to a Successful Student
Teaching Practicum: A Comparative Analysis
TERI C. DAVIS AND BARBARA MOELY / Preparing Pre-service
Teachers and Meeting the Diversity Challenge through Structured
Service-learning and Field Experiences in Urban Schools
LORELEI CARPENTER AND BETTE BLANCE / Teaching Internships and
the Learning Community
TEACHER INDUCTION: FROM NEOPHYTE TO
PROFESSIONAL IN THREE EASY STEPS
IRIS RIGGS AND RUTH SANDLIN / Workplace Contexts of New Teachers:
An American Tradition of “Paying One’s Dues”
H. JAMES MCLAUGHLIN AND GAIL E. BURNAFORD / Re-thinking the Basis
for “High Quality” Teaching: Teacher Preparation in Communities
ZACHARIAH O. WANZARE / The Transition Process: The Early Years of
Being a Teacher
JULIE KIGGINS AND BRIAN CAMBOURNE / The Knowledge Building
Community Program: A Partnership for Progress in
VICTOR FORRESTER AND JANET DRAPER / Newly Qualified Teachers in
Hong Kong: Professional Development or Meeting one’s Fate?
JANET DRAPER, FIONA CHRISTIE AND JIM O’BRIEN / Meeting the Standard?
The New Teacher Education Induction Scheme in Scotland
CONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS:
THE CHALLENGE TO CHANGE
MARION MEIERS / Teacher Professional Learning, Teaching Practice and
Student Learning Outcomes: Important Issues
CHENG MAY HUNG, AU KIT OI, PANG KING CHEE AND CHEUNG
LAI MAN / Defining the Meaning of Teacher Success in
IVAN REID, KEVIN BRAIN AND LOUISE COMERFORD BOYES / Networked
Learning Communities: Joined up Working?
CHARLES PODHORSKY AND DOUGLAS FISHER / Lesson study:
An Opportunity for Teacher Led Professional Development
MICHAEL AIELLO AND KEVIN WATSON / An Alternative Approach to CPD:
an Evaluation of the Impact on Individual and Institutional
Development of an Action Learning Programme Run in Partnership
by an HE institution (HEI) and a Sixth Form College (SFC)
RUTH GORINSKI / Building Leadership Capability through Professional
Development: A New Zealand Case Study Analysis
JILL SMITH / A Case Study: The Dilemmas of Biculturalism in Education
Policy and Visual Arts Education Practice in Aotearoa-New Zealand
HARRISON TSE / Professional Development through Transformation:
Linking Two Assessment Models of Teachers’ Reflective Thinking
AMY A.M. YIP / Action Research and Tacit Knowledge: A Case of the
MARGARET TAPLIN, DOROTHY NG FUNG PING AND HUANG FUQIAN /
The Impact of a Collaborative Model for Curriculum Restructuring
on Teachers’ Professional Growth
DANJUN YING / Teacher Educators’ Collaborative Inquiry in a Context
of Educational Innovation in China – A Case Study of RICH as a
THE REFLECTIVE PRACTITIONER: THE WAY FORWARD
38. NEIL HOOLEY / Participation and the Question of Knowledge
39. ALEX MOORE / Understanding the Social Self: The Role and Importance
of Reflexivity in Schoolteachers’ Professional Learning
40. JOHN LOUGHRAN / Teachers as Leaders: Building a Knowledge Base of
Practice through Researching Practice
41. CHRISTOPHER DAY / School Reform and Transitions in Teacher
Professionalism and Identity
EILEEN HONAN / Teachers Engaging in Research as Professional
THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY: TOOL OF THE
TRADE OR THE TERROR FOR TEACHERS?
GLENN RUSSELL AND GLENN FINGER / ICTs and Tomorrow’s Teachers:
Informing and Improving the ICT Undergraduate Experience
PAUL GATHERCOAL, JUDITH CROWE, SILVA KARAYAN, THOMAS
MCCAMBRIDGE, SUSANNE MALISKI, DOUGLAS O. LOVE AND
GERRY W. MCKEAN / Webfolios: Authentic of State and
MURIEL WELLS / Collaborative Online Projects in a Global Community
MANJULA WANIGANAYAKE, SUSAN WILKS AND RON LINSER /
Creating Thinking Professionals: Teaching and Learning about
Professional Practice Using Interactive Technology
CHRISTINE GARDNER AND JOHN WILLIAMSON / The Complexities of
Learning to Teach: “Just What Is It That I Am Doing?”
GLENN RUSSELL AND GEOFF ROMEO / Pre-Service Teachers
Self-perceptions of ICTE: An Australian Perspective
RICHARD BATES AND TONY TOWNSEND / The Future of Teacher
Education: Challenges and Opportunities
Information About the Authors
This book has its origins in conversations that started when the International Council
on Education for Teaching (ICET) and the Australian Teacher Education Association
(ATEA) jointly agreed to co-sponsor a World Assembly of Teacher Educators in
Melbourne in July 2003, hosted by Monash University. The editors of this book were
not only intimately involved in the management of the conference but had also been
key figures in the Associations involved. Tony Townsend had been secretary, and on the
national board of the South Pacific Association for Teacher Education (SPATE), which
later became ATEA and had previously managed a SPATE conference in Frankston,
Australia, in the 1980s. He is currently the President of ICET and now works at Florida
Atlantic University. Richard Bates has been a long time board member of ATEA and is
currently President of that organization. He is also a Board member of ICET.
The International Council on Education for Teaching (ICET) was founded in 1953
for the purpose of emphasizing international cooperation in educational development
in order to improve the quality of teacher education as well as to expand global educational opportunities for people in teacher education. Since that time, ICET has
developed into an international association of practitioners of teacher education,
policy and decision-makers in education, government and business dedicated to
global development through education. ICET is a Non-Governmental Organization
(NGO) and participates in NGO meetings and other UNESCO-sponsored conferences around the world.
Scholars, administrator, practitioners from universities, colleges, departments and
institutes of education as well as members of government ministries, the teaching
profession and business leaders that are interested in educational development participate in ICET and share their ideas, research and experience with other professionals from around the world. The main goals of ICET are:
To foster international cooperation in improving the quality of preparation of
teachers, administrators and other education specialists through the development
of national, regional and international networks.
To promote cooperation between higher education institutions, government and
the private sector to develop a worldwide network of resources for innovative programs in international educational development.
To provide an international forum for the exchange of information and the discussion of issues and trends in education and development.
To assist educational personnel training institutions all over the world to respond
to the need for improved facilities, diversified curricula and alternative and nontraditional educational methods.
The Australian Teacher Education Association (ATEA) is the major professional
association for teacher educators in Australia. The mission of the Australian Teacher
Education Association is to promote:
The preservice and continuing education of teachers in all forms and contexts;
teacher education as central in the educational enterprise of the nation;
research on teacher education as a core endeavour.
The Association enacts this mission through several key strategies, namely:
to foster improvement in initial teacher education;
to engage in national advocacy for teacher education;
to promote and support the teaching profession;
to form strong links with individuals and organisations involved in educational
to improve the nature, quality and availability of professional development for
teachers educators, and
to promote and disseminate research, ideas and practices, innovation and evaluation in teacher education.
The Melbourne Conference was a good example of ICET and ATEA at their best.
With a partnership between an international and a national association, it was able to
bring key speakers and delegates from all over the world to consider its theme
‘Teachers as Leaders: Teacher Education for a Global Profession’. The keynote
speakers and the papers contained topics of such interest that we felt that it was
timely to gather together a series of perspectives of critical issues facing teacher education at this time. This idea was supported by Michel Lokhorst, then editor of
Kluwer-Springer and has been subsequently been followed through by Astrid
Noordermeer of Springer. The editors would like to acknowledge both people for
their support, without which this book could not have been published.
In addition, we dedicate this book to the thousands of teacher educators around the
world, many of whom are feeling under various types of pressure, from the community and the government, from lack of funding and other resources and from an
increasingly difficult task that faces them, for their sustained commitment to developing young people into the teaching force necessary to confront a rapidly changing
and increasingly complex world.
GLOBALIZATION AND DIVERSITY:
PROMISE OR PROBLEM?
TONY TOWNSEND AND RICHARD BATES
TEACHER EDUCATION IN A NEW
MILLENNIUM: PRESSURES AND POSSIBILITIES
Teacher education is currently facing a number of tensions as pressures have come from
many quarters in the last decade, with perhaps the most intense focus being on the issue
of teacher quality. This call for an improvement in the quality of teachers is welcomed
by many, but there are inherent dangers too. Cochran-Smith (2004a, p. 3) writes:
Over the past several years, a new consensus has emerged that teacher
quality is one of the most, if not the most, significant factor in students’
achievement and educational improvement. In a certain sense, of course,
this is good news, which simply affirms what most educators have believed
for years: teachers’ work is important in students’ achievement and in their
life chances. In another sense, however, this conclusion is problematic, even
dangerous. When teacher quality is unequivocally identified as the primary
factor that accounts for differences in student learning, some policy makers
and citizens may infer that individual teachers alone are responsible for the
successes and failures of the educational system despite the mitigation of
social and cultural contexts, support provided for teachers’ ongoing development, the historical failure of the system to serve particular groups, the
disparate resources devoted to education across schools and school systems, and the match or mismatch of school and community expectations
and values. Influenced by the new consensus about teacher quality, some
constituencies may infer that “teachers teaching better” is the panacea for
disparities in school achievement and thus conclude that everybody else is
off the hook for addressing the structural inequalities and differential power
relations that permeate our nation’s schools.
The issue of increasingly varied demographic conditions that have led to students
from all over the world being in a single classroom, with the associated need for teachers to deal with multiculturalism, whether they like it or not, has created a new complexity not faced by most teachers a decade or so ago. Teacher shortages in some parts
of the world has led to the possibility of teachers moving from one country to another
as the demand for teachers and associated wage rates make teaching a market unlike we
have experienced before. As teachers increasingly are blamed for lack of student performance, as politicians choose to offset any responsibility they have for the conditions under which teachers work, so too, teacher educators are targeted as being one of
the problems associated with what is perceived to be low levels of student achievement.
T. Townsend and R. Bates (eds.), Handbook of Teacher Education, 3–22.
© 2007 Springer. Printed in the Netherlands.
TONY TOWNSEND AND RICHARD BATES
These and other dilemmas for teacher education institutions and teacher educators
open up the opportunity for a detailed analysis of a number of major issues using data
collected from around the world. The key issues of globalization versus diversity, the
need for high quality pre-service programs, for well managed and supported integration
of new teachers into the teaching force and ongoing professional development for
that workforce, lead to two of the major factors that will impinge on the teaching
profession in the future; the need for the teacher to become a consistent, reflective
practitioner and the need to use rapidly developing technologies, both ICT and other
learning technologies, in an increasingly effective manner, to promote high quality
student learning for all students.
It is a fairly trying time for teacher educators, as well as for anyone else in education.
In many western countries, governments are now thinking that the cost of educating their
populations should be lowered at the same time as they expect school administrators,
teachers, and teacher educators, to do much more, in more difficult circumstances, than
they have ever done before. This has been translated by government as the need to have
‘highly qualified teachers’ in front of every classroom. US Secretary of Education,
Margaret Spellings, in her 2005 report on teacher quality argued the focus should be on:
… the essential principles for building outstanding teacher preparation
programs in the 21st century and … on the critical teaching skills all
teachers must learn. In particular, all teacher preparation programs
must provide teachers with solid and current content knowledge and
essential skills. These include the abilities to use research-based methods
appropriate for their content expertise; to teach diverse learners and to
teach in high-need schools; and to use data to make informed instructional decisions. Successful and promising strategies for promoting these
skills include making teacher education a university-wide commitment;
strengthening, broadening, and integrating field experience throughout
the preparation program; strengthening partnerships; and creating quality
mentoring and support programs.
(Spellings, 2005, p. iii)
Each of these strategies involves the necessity of doing things differently than how
they were done in the past. Typically, Colleges of Education are seen as being at the
bottom of the totem pole in universities, with some disciplines arguing that Teacher
Education shouldn’t even be there in the first place.
As well, comparatively recent research activity, now called the school effectiveness
movement, has tried to show that schools can and do make a difference, as a refutation
of the earlier work by Coleman and others in the 1960s which concluded:
Schools bring little influence to bear on a child’s achievement that is
independent of his background and general social context.
(Coleman et al., 1966, p. 325)
However, the school effectiveness research has been a double-edged sword. As
Reynolds has argued, the school effectiveness research has had the positive effect of
TEACHER EDUCATION IN A NEW MILLENNIUM
‘helping to destroy the belief that schools can do nothing to change the society
around them … and the myth that the influence of the family is so strong on children’s
development that they are unable to be affected by school’ (Reynolds, 1994, p. 2), but
he also argues that it has had the negative effect of ‘creating the widespread, popular
view that schools do not just make a difference, but that they make all the difference’
(Reynolds, 1994, p. 2).
This fairly new expectation that every student can and will be educated to high levels
of achievement, as typified by the No Child Left Behind Act in the USA, has been made
more difficult by a government that chooses to spend less on all forms of education
than previously. Although nearly 60% of Americans indicated they would vote for a
presidential candidate with a strong focus on public education and who would funnel
more resources into education (Public Education, 2004), in February 2005, President
Bush called for almost a 10% cut in education funding for the 2005–06 year, which
would have seen the elimination of 48 programs (AACTE Briefs, March 21, 2005).
The challenge is even greater when one looks at student achievement historically
in the United States. For almost thirty years, the percentage of students who achieve
proficiency has remained at approximately 30%. To imply that teachers, and teacher
educators, can somehow increase this percentage to 100% or somewhere close to it,
with less funding at the classroom level and less public support for the profession
than ever before suggests that No Child Left Behind might simply be another slogan
to disguise a chronic and perhaps unmovable level of underperformance. One might
ask why the richest country in the world, one that could put man on the moon, when
it put its mind to it, fails to educate nearly seventy percent of its people? One possible
answer is that, as a community, it chooses not to. A commitment to address the real
social issues that support underachievement in school would have far greater implications than any new slogan might have.
Instead, there have been reports in some parts of the world that suggest that teachers
are not well trained. Much of the criticism has been directed at the training institutions.
Schools of Education … are neither preparing teachers adequately to use
the concrete findings of the best research in education, nor are they providing their students with a thoughtful and academically rich background
in the fundamentals of what it means to be an outstanding educator.
(Steiner and Rozen, 2003, np)
Comments such as these have led to a lowering of status for teachers and, in many
cases, an unwillingness on the part of young people to enter the profession. To try
and overcome this, alternative ways of certifying teachers has emerged. The 2003
Report to Congress by then Secretary Rod Paige (see www.title2.org), indicated the
Bush government’s commitment to ‘raising the academic standards for teachers
while lowering the barriers that are keeping many talented people out of the teaching
profession’ and the response to this has been twofold. First there has been a push to
increase the responsibility on Colleges of Education to improve what they do, and
this has been accompanied by more focused attention on certain areas (such as
TONY TOWNSEND AND RICHARD BATES
Reading) and much higher standards of accreditation. Governments raised the expectations about the level of ability required by graduates of teacher education institutions,
to the extent that in some places, laws have been passed that hold Colleges of
Education responsible for the achievement of the students that their graduates teach,
regardless of the conditions under which they work in the field. If a principal complains that a new teacher is not as good as they require, the College of Education
must undertake, at their cost, the remedial activity requested.
At the same time, many governments, because of the shortage of teachers available,
are setting up alternative methods for people to enter the teaching force. Some of
these alternative programs involve very little, if any, academic training in the practice
of pedagogy. Temporary Certification is handed out to almost anyone with a degree
and a willingness to do the job. Thus at a time when teacher education institutions are
being held accountable for their graduates, other people who may not have any training
at all are being encouraged to become teachers. If this is not a contradiction, we are
not sure what is.
David Imig, President of the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education,
interpreted this as meaning ‘increasing prospective teachers’ content knowledge while
lowering requirements in pedagogy or teacher education’ (Imig, 2004, p. 2). This has
brought about the situation where people who have an undergraduate degree in ‘one
of the so-called core subjects’ (Ibid, p. 2) are given a fast-track alternative program to
get them into the front of the classrooms as soon as possible. What is being said here
is that anyone who has the content knowledge can become a teacher. It suggests that
there is only minimal inherent training required to teach. This has led to the position
where ‘instead of investing in traditional preparation, the government will continue
to invest millions in alternative certification and in studies that might show the success
of alternative efforts’ (Ibid, p. 2).
This move to alternative certification closely parallels the move towards charter
schools as the chosen mechanism for improving public education in the US.
Here, schools are given the choice to opt out of the system and determine their own
course and future. The No Child Left Behind website (http://www.ed.gov/ nclb/landing. jhtml?src ϭ pb) is instructive in that it is, in effect, an advertising mechanism
for charter schools. Yet all of the evidence suggests that charter schools, by and
large, are no more nor less successful than are public schools. As in the public
school system, the demographics of the students, the passion and ability of the
teachers and the pressure of the parents will lead to the outcomes the school has. In
some cases, charter schools have improved student achievement, in some cases they
have got worse, but in most cases the results are similar to what they were previously. One might argue, that since the parents had made the decision to remove their
child from the public school system, that the level of parental pressure in a charter
school would be higher than that in a comparative public school. If this was so, then
charter schools should make a difference. When they didn’t, the US Government
conveniently changed the argument for having charter schools from one related to
quality to one related to choice.
TEACHER EDUCATION IN A NEW MILLENNIUM
However, we would argue that such moves, at both the school and College of
Education level are based on at least a simplistic view, if not on completely
misguided perceptions, of the real world. This book seeks to focus on a number of
key issues that teacher educators must consider if the arguments being made above
are to be discussed in a rational and careful way. All of these things seem to oversimplify what is a very complex experience, namely learning. It may well be true that
what happens in classrooms and what happens in schools accounts for substantial
variance in student achievement, but at the very least, 40% of this variance can be
attributed to factors that are completely outside of the teachers’ and the schools’ control. Research is suggesting that we only know about 20% of the power of the human
mind at this point in time, but what we do know indicates that our experiences, both
in the community and at school, play a large role in how well we learn, what we learn
and what is likely to be the outcome of this learning.
The book is divided into seven separate but connected sections, each of which considers one of these issues. The issues that are discussed, in a way that enables a multitude
of perspectives from different countries and systems to be considered, are:
Globalization and Diversity: Promise or Problem?
Standards and Accountability: What does it mean to be a Good Teacher and how
can we make it happen?
Teacher Preparation: Getting the Brightest and Making them the Best
Teacher Induction: From Neophyte to Professional in three easy steps
Continuous Development of Teachers: The Challenge to Change
The Reflective Practitioner: The Way Forward
The Impact of Technology: Tool of the Trade or the Terror for Teachers?
In each of these sections we have provided a series of chapters, from authors in many
parts of the world, to consider ways in which these issues have impacted on various
systems. A brief description of what is contained in these sections follows
SECTION ONE: GLOBALIZATION
AND DIVERSITY: PROMISE OR PROBLEM?
Increasing globalization has impacted on teacher education in terms of teachers
now having to understand and cater for a diverse population. In certain parts of the
world there are now classrooms where a multitude of languages are spoken and
where different religious and cultural understandings must be considered when
teaching. A teacher can no longer assume that what seemed to be right to a white
western middle class community, will have meaning for students from other countries
that have different cultural values, different understandings of the values important
for human development and different habits and structures of knowledge. This
has brought about the need for a substantial shift in teacher attitudes about the
task and substantial change in terms of the teacher education program offered by
TONY TOWNSEND AND RICHARD BATES
This is not seen as being positive by all commentators. The impact of the global
economy on education can make life difficult for teachers and may even make it
impossible for teachers to provide the type of education they were trained for:
The role and function of education are undergoing dramatic changes in
response to these economic imperatives. The notion of a broad liberal education is struggling for its very survival in a context of instrumentalism and
technocratic rationality where the catchwords are “vocationalism,” “skills
formation,” “privatization,” “commodification,” and “managerialism.”
(Smyth and Shacklock, 1998, p. 19)
This has led to a worldwide attempt to ‘manage’ what happens in schools by politicians
and others. The outcome has been a reductionist view of what schools and teachers
Coupled with this is a worldwide move towards recentralising control
over education through national curricula, testing, appraisal, policy
formulation, profiling, auditing, and the like, while giving the impression
of decentralization and handling control down locally. The image of education is also revamped by reconfiguring the work of teaching so that
teachers appear more as deliverers of knowledge, testers of learning and
(Smyth and Shacklock, 1998, p. 20)
Certainly the diversity of most communities in many parts of the world has made
teaching and educating teachers much more difficult than it has ever been before
and there are expectations that teacher education needs to develop teachers who
have learned to teach with a cultural eye (Irvine, 2003). As well, people who are
trained to teach in a particular geographical area of the world (and governments are
pretty specific about what they want these days) may end up teaching in a different
part of the world or, at the very least, be teaching students from many parts of the
world and whose culture and context were not considered at all during the period in
This section considers the issue of how globalization has impacted, in particular
on countries still trying to establish a strong all-inclusive education system, based
on the best ideas from other parts of the world but still maintaining the cultural
integrity of the people. First, Jonathan Jansen describes how the overthrow of the
apartheid regime brings new issues for educational development. A key focus of the
chapter will be on the intersections between power, policy and practice within
schools and classrooms; and on the ways in which teacher identities have been
shaped and re-shaped as a consequence. Simply bringing two previously separated
groups together in institutions of learning does not ensure reconciliation of the two
In Oman, where the government seeks to move from largely an expatriate workforce
to one that is mostly local, Ahmed M. Al-Hinai examines the way in which cultural
issues interact with the ways in which teachers become more professional.
TEACHER EDUCATION IN A NEW MILLENNIUM
Konai Helu Thaman, from Fiji, discusses the concern among educators and educationists about the low quality of primary and secondary education in many Pacific
Island Countries despite over 30 years of mainly donor-aided educational reforms.
Some reasons for this include the apparent lack of ownership of the processes as well
as the content of school education by the people themselves and the continuing dominance of foreign ideas and ideologies in Pacific school curricula.
Janinka Greenwood and Liz Brown, from New Zealand, consider the issue of quality
in western terms being balanced by the need to consider local culture. There is a need
to interpret a 150 year old treaty, the Treaty of Waitangi, in order to balance what the
indigenous people require with the demands of the globalized world. They also consider
how concepts of capacity building and decolonisation with a consideration of both
Maori and Pakeha (white) perspectives might be developed.
Finally, from England, Ivan Reid, Kevin Brain and Louise Comerford Boyes trace
the dramatic proliferation of leadership roles in English primary and secondary
schools, due mainly to central government education policy of the last two decades.
The chapter considers the ways in which teacher education institutions have
responded in terms of providing initial and in-service education and training to equip
the profession for this new and developing challenge.
SECTION TWO: STANDARDS AND ACCOUNTABILITY:
WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE A GOOD TEACHER
AND HOW CAN WE MAKE IT HAPPEN?
The Standards and Accountability movement, which started in schools more than a
decade ago, has now moved to the training of teachers as the next step in the process.
It has been argued that there are a number of factors that have led to the increasing
surveillance of teacher education:
Among these are a deep-seated and growing distrust of teacher education;
a change in the locus of control, with national policy emerging as a
dominant influence; restructuring of licensing and governance;
and reconceptualizing the nature of standards, with performance and
outcomes assuming a preeminent role.
(Roth, 1996, p. 242 cited in Tellez, 2003)
Unlike most other reforms in education, in curriculum, in pedagogy and in areas of
student welfare and support, that are mostly driven by teachers and administrators
seeking to improve what they do on a day to day basis, the standards and accountability movement has been driven by people outside of education, based mostly on the
idea that we can no longer trust educators to do what is right. Tellez (2003, p.11)
Like nearly every other reform of the twentieth century, the accountability reforms of today did not emerge from the ranks of local educators’
TONY TOWNSEND AND RICHARD BATES
wishes or outcries of student need. Rather, such reforms, in retrospect,
have their origins in groups or organizations with enough power, money,
or combination of the two to dictate the reform dimensions.
He suggests that, rather than being done for any purpose of improvement, the
accountability movement became a new toy for politicians to play with:
The so-called success of the standards movement in K-12 has, I believe,
led to the creation of standards in teacher education. The political expediency of the accountability movement has encouraged policy makers,
many of whom are otherwise friendly to the issues teachers and teacher
educators hold dear, to embrace standards wherever they are found.
Legislators have found a hammer in the accountability movement and
everything now looks like a nail. If standards and accountability have
worked in the K-12 system, then they should be applied to all the endeavors funded by the state, including teacher education.
(Tellez, 2003, p. 11)
This section considers the tensions created by the standards and accountability movement in various countries. David and Scott Imig discuss the scene in the US, which
perhaps has driven much of the standards and accountability activity in the last
decade where the political nature of the debate creates dangers for all concerned. They
focus on the politicalization of teacher education and speculate as to the reasons for
this movement, particularly in the context of the United States.
Then Mike Newby considers the progress in England, where surveillance has
replaced trust. He discusses the experience of teacher education and training that
has been dominated by the battle between the policy-makers and funders establishing and inspecting standards of performance, on the one hand, and the practitioners
seeking an alternative model more faithful to the real work of teaching, on the
Richard Bates discusses how increasing regulation raises many social and ethical issues in Australia and looks at the challenge such prescriptions pose to curriculum, pedagogical and assessment strategies in schools and suggests that such
regulation serves the democratic state less well than a more autonomous form of
Lawrence Angus provides details of how this plays out in one Australian school
and analyses how school managers and teachers deal with government policy intervention and, in the process, both willingly and unwillingly become complicit in the
reconstruction of a global education policy agenda.
Finally, Aysen Bakioglu and Ozge Hacifazlioglu discuss the differences between
public and private universities in Turkey and how they are perceived by faculty working in them. The chapter discusses student views on their learning, the course content
and teaching methods and considers the implications of the trend for public universities to seek revenue through increasing teaching hours with a proportional decrease
TEACHER EDUCATION IN A NEW MILLENNIUM
SECTION THREE: TEACHER PREPARATION:
GETTING THE BRIGHTEST AND MAKING THEM THE BEST
The concerns identified in the previous two sections, increasing globalization and
diversity and a focus on standards and accountability for teacher education come at a
time when many western nations are facing a teacher shortage of unprecedented
proportions. There are various predictions in the US that national demands will reach
2 million teachers in the next few years due to the factors mentioned above (DarlingHammond et al., 1999; Oakes, et al., 2002). So at a time when there are higher and
higher demands for the graduates of teacher education institutions, the need for putting
bodies in front of classrooms has led to a lowering of entry standards for people who
enter through other means. Darling-Hammond, et al. (2002, p. 286) report:
In California, for example, the number of teachers hired on emergency
permits increased from 12,000 in the early 1990s to more than 40,000 in
2001, or about 14% of the workforce (Shields et al., 2001). In California
and nationally, underqualified teachers are disproportionately assigned
to teach minority and low-income students (National Commission on
Teaching and America’s Future, 1996, 1997).
However, it is necessary to make sure that such teachers have the skills required for
the job, regardless of how they came into the profession. It is not just finding any
teacher that is important, but finding the right teacher, with the right skills for
the right situation. Sleeter (2001, p. 94), after conducting an analysis of 80 studies
of the ‘effects of various preservice teacher education strategies, including recruiting
and selecting students, cross-cultural immersion experiences, multicultural education coursework, and program restructuring’, argued:
Most of the research focuses on addressing the attitudes and lack of
knowledge of White preservice students. This review argues that
although this is a very important problem that does need to be addressed,
it is not the same as figuring out how to populate the teaching profession
with excellent multicultural and culturally responsive teachers.
There has also been concern expressed that teacher education institutions may not be
up to the task, mostly because of their resistance to change. While editor of the
Journal of Teacher Education, Marilyn Cochran-Smith (2001a, p. 347) wrote:
Despite many reform initiatives over the years, however, it has been
widely perceived that teacher education has been almost “impervious”
to genuine reform (Fullan, 1998; Goodlad, 1990), failing to keep pace
with the conditions of a changing society even when they threatened its
very existence (Imig & Switzer, 1996). Perhaps it is the combination of a
perceived historical failure to change coupled with the unprecedented
intensity of current public attention that have prompted so many recent
initiatives by prestigious national organizations and foundations that are
TONY TOWNSEND AND RICHARD BATES
related to teaching and teacher education, teachers’ qualifications, and
So the issue of recruiting and training new teachers is much more complex than it
was a decade ago. This section looks at a number of ways in which teacher education
institutions have attempted to ensure that the teachers being graduated from their
programs do have the skills and the desire necessary to move into the profession in
ways that will improve what happens in schools. First, Beverly Jane talks about the
need to mentor students into a university in the first place, as moving from school to
university can, in itself, lead to a high dropout rate. This chapter reveals, from the
perspective of one group of students, the process of group interaction in a mentoring
program, and how they came to find their identity as university students.
Janette Ryan argues that recent times have seen a questioning of content-driven,
discipline-based curricula in schools. There have been moves away from these
approaches towards curricula based on the skills and strategies required in a rapidly
changing world. This has resulted in initiatives aimed at promoting ‘new learning’
approaches in schools. This chapter reports on an Australian university’s initiative
that used the concept of ‘lifewide learning’, to encourage a shift in students’ conceptualisations of teaching and learning.
Then, David Zyngier argues that Australian teacher educators and teachers have
become increasingly familiar with the notion of ‘Productive Pedagogies’, a product
of longitudinal research on school reform recently undertaken in Queensland. One of
its strengths has been its efficacy for teachers to talk about their pedagogical work.
This chapter considers the value of Productive Pedagogies as a metalanguage for
developing preservice teachers’ knowledge and understanding of teaching.
Robert P. Pelton argues that teacher candidates have a long history of focusing on
“performing lessons” rather on their impact on children’s achievement. The chapter
discusses the restructuring of the field placement component for a group of education
majors at a small private US college and demonstrates how Action Research was used
to shift the focus from “performing” lessons to the impact on, and the subsequent
performance of, young learners.
Ruth Gorinski & Gloria Abernethy, from New Zealand, report on the findings of
an investigative case study that sought to answer the question: “What are the issues
confronting Maori student participation and retention in one department in this
institution?” The chapter discusses the relationship between curricular transformation,
classroom pedagogy and relationships and enhanced retention and success for Maori
Mahmoud Al-Weher and Majed Abu-Jaber discuss three different methods of
teacher preparation in Jordan. The chapter argues that teacher preparation programs
where educational and academic courses were both taught excel over programs that
only have academic courses, based on teacher self-assessments, student assessment
of teachers, and school principals’ assessments of teachers in five areas.
Lydia Pungur argues for the importance of the mentoring process in pre-service
training. The chapter argues that the essence of a successful teaching practicum is
TEACHER EDUCATION IN A NEW MILLENNIUM
effective mentor-student teacher relationships and the forging of a close association
with the academic world. A conceptual model for an ideal student teaching program,
based on school coordinator, mentor teacher, and university facilitators working closely
together with common goals for the student teacher, is presented and discussed.
Then, Teri C. Davis and Barbara Moely discuss a recently-implemented teacher
preparation program that offers students a range of service-learning experiences
throughout their academic careers. Finally, Lorelei Carpenter and Bette Blance argue
that internship offered as an integral part of the teacher education programs, has wide
ranging benefits. These include the development of robust school university partnerships, the provision of professional development for practising teachers and the
provision of teacher education students with a sustained teaching experience that
prepares for the challenges and complexity of the classroom.
SECTION FOUR: TEACHER INDUCTION:
FROM NEOPHYTE TO PROFESSIONAL IN THREE EASY STEPS
Education systems and teacher education programs need to support the induction of
young teachers into the workforce in ways that ensure their retention over time.
Huling et al. (2001, p. 326) argue that the teacher shortage in the US has come about
because of three intersecting issues:
Today, the nation is facing an unprecedented teacher shortage that will
undoubtedly result in increased attention to alternative certification programs as a possible means of addressing the school-staffing crisis. The
teacher shortage is being created by a “triple whammy” of increasing
student enrollments, an aging teacher force transitioning from the classroom into retirement, and a high teacher attrition rate, especially among
It is the third of these causes, the high teacher attrition rate that this section seeks to
address. Kelley (2004, p. 438) argues:
Recent reports further suggest that staffing needs may not be due to overall
shortages of qualified teachers entering the profession but rather by large
numbers of teachers migrating to other schools or leaving the profession
altogether (Ingersoll, 2000, 2001, 2002). Ingersoll’s (2001) analysis of the
national Schools and Staffing Survey and Teacher Follow-Up Survey found
that more than a third of beginning teachers leave the profession during
the first 3 years, and almost half leave after 5 years.
Cochran-Smith (2004b, pp. 387–388) concurs with this analysis of Ingersoll’s work:
Ingersoll’s analyses challenge the conventional wisdom that the teacher
shortage in the United States is due to a simple imbalance between supply
and demand caused by large numbers of teacher retirements, increased
student enrollments, and an insufficient supply of new teachers. Instead,
TONY TOWNSEND AND RICHARD BATES
Ingersoll reveals that it is true that both student enrollments and teacher
retirements have increased since the mid-1980s, that most schools now
have job openings, and that a significant number of schools have been
unable to find enough qualified teachers. However, it is not true that most
teachers who leave teaching do so because of retirement, and it also is not
true that an insufficient number of teachers is being produced. To the contrary, Ingersoll (2004) argues that although there are not necessarily
enough teachers produced in every field, there are overall, “more than
enough prospective teachers produced each year in the U.S. (p. 8).
It could be argued that much of this attrition is due to young teachers, who, newly
emerging from their training, are given the hardest classes, the most unruly students
and are left, by and large, to enter their classroom, shut the classroom door, and fend
for themselves. Kelley (2004, p. 438) argues:
Although other professions provide transitional assistance for new members (e.g., residents in medicine, interns in architecture, and associates
in law), historically the education profession has ignored the support
needs of its new recruits and has been described as “the profession that
eats its young” (Halford, as cited in Renard, 1999, p. 227).
Although issues of induction into the teaching profession have come a long way since
this time, we could argue that we are still at the front end of the development. Sharon
Feiman-Nemser (2001, p. 17) argues:
There is growing interest in the problem of teacher induction and widespread support for the idea of assigning experienced teachers to work
with beginning teachers. Still, we know relatively little about what
thoughtful mentor teachers do, how they think about their work, and
what novices learn from their interactions with them.
This section examines some of the activities that are currently occurring to support
young teachers to enter the profession in a way that will assist them to be successful.
First, Iris Riggs and Ruth Sandlin consider pre-induction and post-induction differences in mentors’ self-perceived competence in professional teaching standards.
Mentors reported that their ability to implement each standard area significantly
changed in a positive direction after serving as an induction mentor. The chapter
argues that induction may not only be beneficial to new teachers but also to the mentor
teachers supporting the novices.
Jim McLaughlin and Gail Burnaford discuss the difficulty that the US faces in
training, employing and retaining sufficient high quality teachers for the needs that
are on the horizon. They argue that one of the characteristics of high quality teachers
is their ability to interact in a positive way with the community in which they work.
The chapter reports on the internship experiences of teacher students working in
Chicago and Mexico and identifies the positive outcomes for both the student and the
TEACHER EDUCATION IN A NEW MILLENNIUM
Then, Zachariah Wanzare discusses the transition from pre-service training into the
profession of teaching, a shift that is seldom smooth. Whereas most teachers in preservice training begin their education programs with confidence, optimism, and a
strong calling to the teaching profession, newly-qualified teachers’ dreams, hopes,
aspirations, and optimism often turn into disappointments and frustration. This chapter
discusses the challenges experienced by beginning teachers during their transition into
the teaching profession and the strategies to facilitate their success in the workplace.
Julie Kiggins and Brian Cambourne consider three different but complimentary
perspectives concerning an alternative model of teacher education offered in an
Australian university. The chapter discusses the Knowledge Building Community
(KBC) Project, where an alternative model of teacher education was a joint venture
of a Faculty of Education, a Department of Education and a Teachers’ Federation. The
chapter discusses the triadic partnership between preservice teachers, school-based
mentor teachers and university facilitators that was developed.
Then, Victor Forrester and Janet Draper consider issues related to the new teacher’s
induction into the profession, including global and local influences such as educational
reforms, demographic changes, concern about standards and the professional ladder,
teacher supply and retention and pressures for school effectiveness and improvement,
which leave ‘new’ teachers bearing the brunt of new educational policies. They discuss
Nicholson and West’s (1989) model of induction, which suggests four stages: preparation, encounter, adjustment and stabilisation and argue that good induction includes the
provision of useful information to staff both before and when they arrive in post, the
provision of support for survival in the early stages and feedback on their teaching.
Janet Draper, Fiona Christie and Jim O’Brien discuss a new probation arrangement
for teachers in Scotland, in the form of a new induction scheme, which saw new
teachers entitled to a one year training post with a 70% workload, 30% of working
time for professional development and 10% of an experienced teacher’s time for support, but with a training grade salary and the imperative to meet the Standard for Full
Registration (SFR) by the end of the first year. The chapter explores the experiences
of beginning teachers drawing on data collected by interview and questionnaire from
the teachers themselves, their mentors, induction managers and employers.
SECTION FIVE: CONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT OF
TEACHERS: THE CHALLENGE TO CHANGE
Levin and Rock (2003, p. 135) argue:
Recent scholarship on professional development for teachers calls for
change. According to Sparks and Hirsh (1997), it is time to find ways to
move beyond the dominant training-focused models of professional development to modes that support learner-centered views of teaching.
Lieberman (1995) characterized effective professional development as that
which is grounded in inquiry, reflection, and participant driven experimentation, naming the role of teacher-researcher as an appropriate means.
TONY TOWNSEND AND RICHARD BATES
The movement towards developing professional learning communities and networks
of teachers and others working together has become a major force in changing what
happens in schools. Lieberman (2000, p. 221) argues:
Educational reform networks are particularly well suited to making use
of new technology and institutional arrangements. By their very nature,
they are flexible, borderless, and innovative; they are able to create
collaborative environments, focus their efforts, and develop agendas that
grow and change with their participants.
This has changed the interactions that teachers have with each other and has resulted, in
many cases, in much more cross fertilization of what teachers do. Meier (1992, p. 602)
At the very least, one must imagine schools in which teachers are in
frequent conversation with each other about their work, have easy and
necessary access to each other’s classrooms, take it for granted that they
should comment on each other’s work, and have the time to develop
common standards for student work.
This section looks at some strategies used by teacher education institutions to foster
the further development of teachers after they have completed their initial training.
Marion Meiers argues that evaluation of teacher professional development can
operate on a number of levels. At one level, data can be gathered on the participants,
and on their general satisfaction with a professional development program or series
of activities. Other levels of evaluation can focus on the connections between the
professional development experience and changes to teachers’ professional knowledge.
In turn, the connections between enhanced professional knowledge and teaching practices that lead to enhanced learning opportunities for students can be investigated.
Then, Cheng May Hung, Au Kit Oi, Pang King Chee and Cheung Lai Man discuss
a project that aims to develop knowledge on the concept of, and factors helping and
hindering, teacher success. It considers the ways in which teacher success is related
to teacher development, and whether appropriate professional development in the
course of a teacher’s career can facilitate teacher success.
Ivan Reid, Kevin Brain and Louise Comerford Boyes review the British government’s initiative to set up Networked Learning Communities [NLCs], consisting of
groups of schools, within the broader current educational policies of England. Their
chapter identifies the role played by the National College of School Leadership in
this process, explores the extent to which the initiative’s objectives are being reached
and assesses the effects on the teachers and schools involved.
Charles Podhorsky and Douglas Fisher argue that student achievement in the
United States has continued to decline over the past decade and that national and
state boards of education have attempted to remedy this problem by increasing
school accountability measures. However, instead of creating programs which focus
on improving the practice of teaching and learning, recent reform efforts have
focused on developing a ‘teacher proof’ curriculum. While these strategies may provide
TEACHER EDUCATION IN A NEW MILLENNIUM
an opportunity for better curriculum alignment, they do not get at the core of student
failure, ineffective instructional practices.
Michael Aiello and Kevin Watson’s chapter examines the possibility of creating an
approach to continuous professional development which combines institutional
development and the needs of the individual teacher as a learner and professional.
It examines a deliberate strategy of moving from action research to action learning,
and from learning communities to a learning organization. The chapter suggests that
the key element is the ongoing commitment and response to learning by the principal.
Then Ruth Gorinski argues that Maori students in compulsory schooling have historically performed less well than their non-Maori counterparts and that teachers in mainstream schooling contexts have lower expectations of Maori students, fail to effectively
identify or reflect on how their practice impacts on the educational experiences of these
students, and have limited support to address these particular issues. There is an urgent
need to provide innovative and effective professional development for teachers that is
both supportive and enabling, to reverse the historical trends of Maori student underachievement. Findings from a New Zealand pilot study suggest that professional development that is contextualised within practice settings is a critical success factor in
determining teachers’ receptivity to modification and development of their practice.
In the next chapter, Jill Smith discusses the situation where Maori, the indigenous
people of New Zealand, are given protection of their taonga (treasures) by the Treaty
of Waitangi (1840). Under the Treaty all students are required to honour its principles
and become cognisant with Maori art and culture. The majority of art teachers in
New Zealand schools are European/Pakeha, however, thereby creating a dilemma on
how to fulfil the bicultural obligations. This chapter focuses on the problems faced by
non-indigenous art teachers; the questions raised about their roles and rights in
addressing indigenous knowledge; and the strategies used by a non-indigenous
teacher educator to mentor and empower them to gain the requisite knowledge and
understanding to work in the field with confidence, sensitivity and integrity.
Harrison Tse considers how the ability to reflect affects the professional development
of practicing teachers. This chapter reports on the appropriateness of linking two learning theories, the Experiential Learning Theory (Kolb, 1985) and the Transformative
Learning Theory (Mezirow, 1991), together. It reports on an instrument designed for
assessing teachers’ reflective thinking and practice.
Amy Yip analyses and reports on the action processes of a Hong Kong secondary school adopting a multidisciplinary project approach where practitioners
problematised and reconstructed habitual practices in a cyclical mode where they
‘plan-act-observe-reflect’ on their daily professional experience. Teachers’ tacit
knowledge had a significant impact on early identification of problems and suggesting solutions to ensure the smooth running of the curriculum. The author argues that
it is time for university academics or experienced researchers to help teachers publicize the ‘tacit’ to enrich the knowledge base for teaching and learning.
Margaret Taplin, Dorothy Ng Fung Ping and Huang Fuqian describe aspects of
teachers’ professional growth during a two-year professional development program
in Guandong, China. The project was a part of national curriculum reform in
TONY TOWNSEND AND RICHARD BATES
Mainland China, one component of which was to integrate values education across
the curriculum while simultaneously helping teachers to adopt current theories of
learning and teaching about values education.
Danjun Ying discusses the global discourse on how teachers can be supported in
their efforts to become professional learners, and be better prepared for their new
roles as facilitators and co-learners to promote student life-long learning. It considers
a task-based learning curriculum innovation, called Research-based learning,
Integrated curriculum, Community learning, and Humanistic outcomes (RICH), first
developed in 1997. The aim of RICH is to help students to become autonomous lifelong learners with critical thinking skills, open-mindedness, creativity, and a sense of
SECTION SIX: THE REFLECTIVE
PRACTITIONER: THE WAY FORWARD
In recent times there has been call for change in teacher education in ways that will
promote teachers being much more reflective in their practice (Jones, 1998;
Korthagen and Kessels, 1999; Ball, 2000; Wise and Leibbrand, 2001). Korthagen and
Kessels (1999, p. 4), argue teacher education programs need to link theory and
practice and “to integrate the two in such a way that it leads to integration within the
teacher”. Similarly, Ball (2000, p. 244) maintains “We must understand better the
work that teachers do and analyze the role played by content knowledge in that
work”. The importance of teachers engaging in reflective practice is recognized by
numerous researchers (Schön, 1983; Cochran-Smith and Lytle, 1999; Ball, 2000).
Loughran, (2002, p. 33) argues:
… for reflection to genuinely be a lens into the world of practice, it is
important that the nature of reflection be identified in such a way as to
offer ways of questioning taken-for-granted assumptions and encouraging
one to see his or her practice through others’ eyes.
The best way for teachers to improve what they do is for them to reflect on their practice
and work with other teachers to help them understand what is needed for high
achievement. However, Cochran-Smith argues that the current standards movement,
which reduces the role of a teacher to the implementation of a few narrowly focused
outcomes, has a negative effect of this activity:
The image of teachers as professionals who learn from practice and
document the effect of their teaching on students’ learning is a clear part
of the discourse of the new teacher education. Experienced as well as
prospective teachers are expected to function as reflective practitioners,
work collaboratively in learning communities, and demonstrate that
their teaching leads to increased student achievement. But, a narrow
interpretation of higher standards - and one that is lurking beneath
the surface of the discourse that heralds the paradigm shift in teacher