CHỐNG THAM NHŨNG – Nâng cao đạo đức tại ở Việt Nam
ANTI-CORRUPTION - Improving ethics in Vietnam
“A world, in which the government, politics, business, civil society and the daily lives of
people without corruption”
This is the vision statement of the organization of Transparency International, one of the
world's leading organizations that its headquarter in Berlin, Germany to enhance the anticorruption work and unethical behavior globally.
According to the majority of the world's leading authorities, corruption and unethical
globalization is one of the key issues and challenges that the global business faces in a
society with complex interrelationships today.
Bribery, abuse of power for personal interests, not transparent in the records, fraud, theft,
abuse of copyright and intellectual property law, tolerant of the people in family,
dishonest and unethical are all examples of unethical behavior.
Every year, the organization of Transparency International (TI) has ranked countries all
over the world on the issue of corruption. As we have learned in class, sadly, Vietnam
ranks 123 out of 177 countries in the ranking of Transparency International in 2012.
Corruption and unethical behavior affect the quality of daily life of local people, business
development opportunities and also affect foreign direct investment.
Singapore is a typical example of Southeast Asia, a small island country in Asia has a
very high rank in the rankings not corrupt and is a country with transparent business
environment. The country is ranked 5th in the ranking of non-TI corruption and debuted
at number 1 in the ranking of the World Bank for countries with favorable business
Part I: INTRODUCTION:
Corruption can say is a serious problem in many countries around the world including
Vietnam. As a result of the world's largest survey on “Views and experiences of people
towards corruption” by Transparency International organization implemented in 2013, the
result is: more than 55% of Vietanmese perceived corruption increased in the past 2
years, which is higher than the average 48% in Southeast Asia. Besides, according to the
survey, people's beliefs in the campaign of anti-corruption also decreased significantly.
In Vietnam, we can say that corruption is becoming more sophisticated, and more serious.
Topic of anti-corruption is one of the topics discussed, dissected a lot in the meetings
from the central to the local, from the forums, meetings, from the neighborhood to the
street. There were so many decisions, policies,... about preventing and fighting corruption
in Vietnam, however, is not effective to bring people's expectations. And watching out for
anti-corruption in Vietnam is considered one of the most important issues today and
needs a long time and route.
Corruption occurs in almost all areas, the scale and scope increasingly and difficult to
control: from health care, education, to land... The situation of corruption in our country
is now widespread , movements increasingly complex, sophisticated, causing more
Statistics of industries most corrupt state in Vietnam
Traffic police, land management, construction, customs, health are 5 fields thought to be much the most
corrupt - Source: Report on survey results of Sociology
For this exercise, our purpose is not to criticize the organization, individuals and
organizations. The data we present below is quoted from the press, media in the country
and internationally. With a desire of contribution to the development of Vietnam and to
the corruption of society.
Basic content: In this exercise, our group refers to the main problem as follows:
Background, real corruption in Vietnam
Some of the causes of corruption in Vietnam
The effects of corruption
Culture affects how the corruption and unethical business
Some suggestions and solutions to limit and reduce corruption in Vietnam?
Part 2: THE CORRUPTION IN VIETNAM TODAY
According to Transparency International Organization (TI) in Vietnam in the
category of serious corruption (Ranked 123/176 countries surveyed). Despite certain
progress, but Vietnam remains a country with low scores and still stand at the bottom of
the ranking. According to TI, in Asia, corruption in Vietnam serious than Singapore,
Japan, South Korea, Brunei, Malaysia, China, Thailand, Indonesia ... but less severe
Mongolia, Philippines, Laos, Nepal, Cambodia, Myanmar.
Corruption Prospectus Ranking in 2013, Quote of the report of Transparency
Along with ethics, corruption and bribery in international business have emerged as key
issues in a world economy increasingly interdependent. No longer considered merely a
morality play, generally accepted view of the world of corruption and bribery today that
they impede competition, distorting trade and harming the consumers and taxpayers and
diminishing the public's support for the government.
Common forms of corruption in business relations – authorities of the State are still in the
form of bribes “thank envelopes, invitation of dinner, reception...”. In business – business
relationships, common forms of corruption as money from the "kickbacks" according to
the contract value. The frequency and scale of corruption are no significant difference
between the businesses by criteria such as ownership, field of operations, markets,
Accordingly, up to 96% of Vietnam businesses asked confirmed each related to bribery or
corruption. Similarly, according to other survey by the Vietnam Chamber of Commerce
and Industry of - VCCI in 2009, with 59% of businesses have lost “lube fee”; nearly 62%
of businesses asked admitted to have "relationship "with the provincial officials having
access to the documents relating to business activities such as land use planning,
infrastructure development plan, ..., 41% of businesses admitted to negotiate with new
local tax officials to do business smoothly2...
The corruption in Vietnam exists in the following main fields:
In the field of management, land use, natural resources, minerals, mainly corruption
currently going on in the planning; conversion of land use purpose; acquisition of
agricultural land for the construction of economic zones, industrial parks, urban areas;
land allocation, land lease; valuation when land acquisition, compensation; licensing the
exploitation of resources, mineral... Some people abuse their positions and powers to
allocate land ultra vires; blank documentation or opening up the land when
compensation. Typically for abusing powers while on duty occurred in project of
development of urban infrastructure of Bac Thang Long - Van Tri (Hanoi) losses
estimated at 14 billion; abusing their positions and powers while on duty happened in
Ben Cat District, Binh Duong province, damaging nearly 11 billion; corruption in the
land in Do Son and Quan Nam, Hai Phong City , ...
In the financial and banking sector, emerged corruption, negative on the part of
officials in the banking sector, especially the commercial banks or banking officials in a
hand, with the hook of foreign operations through loans, guarantees, financial leasing,
financial investment, entrusted loans, investment trusts ... to appropriate property, causing
large losses. For example, for Le Hoai Phuong, official of Investment and Development
Bank of Vietnam, Cau Giay branch (Hanoi) embezzled 24 billion; for Phan Van Tuong,
Techcombank official with accomplices embezzled over 10 billion; services Union Tien
Dung, deputy general director of the Bank for Investment and development of Vietnam
received customers 5 billion, being 3-10% deduction in the amount of money that
customer's bank loans , for Nguyen Thi Thuy Van embezzled more than 24 billion in Bank
of Commerce of Sai Gon - Ha Noi, for Hoang Thi Thu Ha, Director of the North branch
of Saigon Jewellery Corporation (SJC) abused her position and power while on duty
caused loss of 19 billion VND; for Vu Viet Hung, Director of the Development Bank,
branch in Dak Lak - Dak Nong, received 92 billion, and $ 100,000 and a BMW car of
Cao Bach Mai and Tran Thi Xuan to improper lending ...
In the field of capital construction investment, most constructions are the property losses
occur mainly due to corruption and intentionally break. Violations occur in most stages,
from project planning, design, cost estimates, financing plan approved to bid, counseling,
supervision, construction, testing and finalization of the project. Tricks mostly fail to
comply with the order and procedures for capital construction investment; fraud, lack of
transparency in the bidding; declarations in volume and value of materials and
equipment; put inferior quality material , the use of incorrect specifications; wrong
construction process to reduce costs ... eg embezzlement cases, deliberately left and
abusing powers while on duty occurred in the project management unit of historic Dien
Bien Phu victory; for Huynh Ngoc Si, Director of project management of Avenue East –
West, HCMC received 260 thousand dollar bribe to bid evaluation and acceptance in
favor of the bribe;
In the management and use of capital, assets in state enterprises, mainly tricks is to
hide and reduce the value of assets, lower land value or sale of the shares, securities,
leasing business; establish the black contracts of sale, transportation of false invoices to
appropriate, raise black prices or send the black purchase price of the assets in order to
profit. For example, for Bi Nguyen, Board Chairman, CEO and Nguyen Thanh Huyen,
Deputy General Director, chief accountant of the Vifon Company - Ho Chi Minh City, has
seized up blank vouchers to appropriate more than 20 billion no company earned 59.9
billion to appropriate when the shares of this company; for Tran Van Khanh,
Corporation of Agricultural Materials had embezzled, intentionally violated, damaged
several billion; for Aviation Petroleum Company declared the black oil shrinkage rate to
appropriate tens of billions, for II Financial leasing Company of the Bank of Agriculture
and Rural Development improved black cost of diving equipment from 100 million to 130
Besides, in the field of health, education and transport are still very much exists the
phenomenon of corruption, waste, causing outrage in the public.... in a long time.
Especially in the field of state-owned corporations, the corruption situation occur very
common, complex, and very large scale. Typically telecommunications corporation in
Vietnam (VNPT), Bao Viet Group,... specially and hottest, Vietnam Shipbuilding
Industry Corporation (Vinashin). Vinashin case is one of the largest economic cases ever
in Vietnam, related to loss of huge amount. A series of Vinashin officials were put on trial
on charges of “intentionally violating state regulations on economic management causing
serious consequences”. Or Headed case of “gambler with million dollars” of Bui Tien
Dung and big negative in the Project Management Committee (DA) PMU 18 under
Ministry of Transport Properties.
“Vinashin Shipwreck case” is a corruption scandal rocked the most in Vietnam far
more damage to tens of trillions of Vietnam dong
In short, the corruption situation in Vietnam is serious, with expressions subtle, complex,
blatant, overt, occurring in many fields, many levels, many industries, there are
similarities and different than corruption in other countries, but the features are common,
occurring in almost all sectors, at all levels, even occurring within agencies of anticorruption functions, so fighting, preventing and handling are very difficult. Meanwhile,
the corruption is the position and powers so often people with depth perception, legal
knowledge, access to more information and economic conditions with wide ties; some
people have the largest contribution to society, have credibility with the public, it is
difficult to detect and treat...
The basic types of corruption:
Firstly, corruption is to achieve or accelerate the implementation of a specific right that
citizens or legal persons are entitled. For example: If a person bribed an officer that his
passport may be issued passport, ie there is no legal barrier for his passport, this is exactly
the first kind of corruption.
Its specific and more overt form is to bribe officials for their "priority" to solve the
problem, but completely legal. In other words, the officials received bribes to do their
work or do it faster than usual, rather than not. The frequency of this kind of corruption is
a clear evidence demonstrated capacity and efficiency levels in the administrative
apparatus of the state. The most serious and direct results of corruption are the laws and
policies of the state not to be done fairly.
Finally, there is “bending the law” - corruption aims to change the rules of law to rules
served the interests of those who are corrupt. The basic premise of corruption is the
ability to ensure the mutual benefit of receiving bribes. It is associated with collusion,
Part III: CAUSES OF CORRUPTION
1. Objective reasons
The political system is slow innovation, management skills are obsolete, low
living standards, creating loopholes for corruption arise and develop.
Due to effects of downside of the market mechanism, competition and promoting
excessive value for money to the producers and business tend to maximize profits
at all costs, try to bribe the government officials to create business advantage.
Legal Policies incomplete, inconsistent, inconsistency, decentralization between
the central and local, discrimination of state management and production and
business management are somewhat unclear.
Some cultures, such as donations and gifts ... are used to perform acts of
2. Causes and subjective conditions of corruption
Ethics of officials degraded, management, and education of officials are poor.
Many key leaders at all levels and sectors, including senior leaders are lacking
exemplary in upholding ethics.
Administrative reform has been slow and awkward, the “asking – giving”
mechanism in the public service activities are still popular; administrative
procedures are troublesome, heavy and unreasonable. The “asking – giving”
mechanism is one of the risks of corruption, bribery but there is no way to fix.
The management, inspection, testing loose, weak of the State; cursory treatment,
indicative of “form” as a warning, critique or policy of “the largest of the small,
little things of no” because the officers violated often have power and status,
should not admonishing. Liability regime of officials and employees is not clear,
specific, especially the responsibility of leaders to mistakes, negative happens in
agencies or units.
Salary system for officials is irrational, slow reform. Salary is not enough to
ensure the needs of life as a propulsion for officers and employees to commit acts
of corruption, negative when conditions, opportunities.
Lack of tools to detect and treat effectively of corruption.
The mobilization of a large force of the people as well as the involvement of the
press forces in the fight against corruption has not been enough attention.
Journalism has warned effect where the risks of corruption, has joined discovered
and made particularly strong opinions required handling corruption.
The dissemination and awareness of society about corruption and the fight against
corruption are to have the attention, but not to create a positive change in social
consciousness in response to currency corruption and enhance the sense of
responsibility of the people involved in the fight against corruption.
3. The effects/Consequences of corruption:
Corruption can cause many serious consequences on all sectors of social life. To
generalize the effects of corruption mainly in the following main points:
a. Political Harm
Corruption is the major obstacle to the process of national renewal and undermines
people's trust towards the administration. Corruption occurs almost in all fields with
many sophisticated tricks and forms. The hazards of corruption, waste directly affect the
effectiveness of the implementation of the economic - social policies. Corruption
becomes the major obstacle to the success of the renovation, operation and management.
b. Economic Harm
Corruption causes huge damage to the property of the State, collective and
In Vietnam, in recent years, corruption takes place in all fields of social life,
causing great damage to the property of the State, money, time and effort of the
people. Consequences of acts of corruption is not only the assets and interests of
the State, collective or individual property turned into who committing acts of
corruption, but more dangerous, taking behaviors of corruption also causes
damage and loss, wasting large amounts of state, the collective of citizens assets.
c. Social Harm
Corruption violates, even changes, overturnes the social ethics and alienates
officials of the state.
Corruption does not only arise in the fields of economics, finance, banking,
investment, construction, management of land ... but also tend to spread to fields
far less the possibility of corruption, such as culture, health, education, fitness and
sport ... Not even fields such as social welfare or law enforcement.
It is alarming corruption seems to have become normal in the concept of a number
of officials. That is a sign of deterioration, degradation of ethics seriously.
Moreover, corruption also violates the traditional moral values of the nation, when
people perform acts of corruption as teachers and doctors who work in the fields
of education, health, culture, society - who perform construction of life, spiritual
foundation for society.
Part IV: CULTURE AFFECTS BEHAVIORS OF UNETHICAL CORRUPTION IN
“Corruption caused millions of people not to escape poverty”
“Historically, the culture of corruption undermines the development and effective
management while increasing crime and distrust around the world”
- Former President George W. Bush
Corruption is not just an abuse of power for personal gain, but is gaining up their
personal that trampling others, so that corruption affects the moral, ethical, social,
economic, political fields and impacts broader regional.
With the concept "wheel lubrication", "a good beginning makes a good ending", "coins
going ahead are wisdom coins" and the quickest and the most effective solution to
resolve work is "the first procedure " , this is also the cause promoting
corruption. Moreover, people still use gifts as a form of " a deep relation ", "in-depth
investment", "investment in the future" to facilitate their career path for themselves and
their loved ones. It is the behavioral and psychological awareness that make many
officials and employees fall in passive corruption. This situation lasts and harassing
thoughts appear in officials and employees to receive "envelope" from residents in order
to settle jobs, they think that bribery is an indispensable procedure in the job
process. This creates a bad way of thinking and habit for both public officials and those
who want to use the money to settle job, gradually it forms the "envelope culture".
In some countries, many people know bribery will good for your job but they still refuse
to do so because it is contrary to the principles of justice and fairness that they trust and
follow. It is here people found differences in culture: corruption is more likely to develop
in areas where it is easily accêtd. There, it is said that, first, the bribes are not ethical;
second, whoever and wherever there is corruption, so they do not have any other choices;
and third, because of those two main reasons, corruption is acceptable.
In Vietnam, the corruption, especially the bribes, is excluded from the ethical matter and
it is considered a communication culture with a very sweet name : gifts. Gift giving is not
a bribe and receiving gifts is not bribery. Bribery is associated with greed and deception,
moreover, is an offense. Gift is different: gifts are associated with love and tradition and,
therefore, is a noble act. That a doctor receives money from a patient to arrange for the
patient's bed in a hospital does not seen as a bribe, it is just a "gift". On Tet, employees
give the head envelop with tens of thousands of dollars and this is still seen as "gift".
PART 5: SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR PREVENTION & RESOLUTION
AGAINST CORRUPTION IN VIETNAM:
A. ROLE OF MEASURES TO PREVENT CORRUPTION
Denmark is one of the purest water, with high rankings in the annual ranking of
corruption by Transparency world, while Vietnam is ranked 123, this shows the level
of corruption in Vietnam.
Vietnam is a dynamic developing country, has a strategic location and important
position in the international market. However, we are also faced with the risks and
serious challenges. One of the risks that impede reform is corruption. Corruption
along with waste are happing severely, causing discontent among the people,
causing great damage to State property, affecting moral in officials and party
members, directly harming to justice and social fairness.
Recognizing this danger, Vietnam has many policies and measures to fight
corruption and has achieved initial results. However, corruption is still going very
common, may spread in all sectors, at all levels, in all areas. Clearly, there is a need
to have a more fully aware of the nature and causes of corruption so that there are
more effective solutions.
B. PROPOSE ANTI-CORRUPTION MEASURES IN VIETNAM.
1. Regard to the State agencies.
1.1. Strengthening political and ideological education for public officials
The fight against corruption is the struggle against the physical temptation that
may affect strongly economic market today. The political, ideological and moral
education for officers can not just stop in the directives, resolutions but it have to
become important regular tasks.
There should be policies to guide and monitor staff to train their moral
qualities through concrete work on each working position. Political and
ideological education and moral training can not only a form, but there must
have certain criteria for each staff to inspire themselves, and also for the
organizations to understand their members and help them.
1.2. Strengthening to manage staff.
Closely cooperating with state agencies in managing team of officials, officials
management here is understood as a comprehensive management from recruitment,
promotion to appointment and evaluation.
1.3. Raising responsible, treating strictly officials especially those who hold key
positions in the state apparatus if they have negative or irresponsible actions that
lead to corruption in the sectors, agencies they are in charge. A strict attitude against
violations of the officers is a very effective measure for preventing corruption.
1.4. Adding and completing policy, law of state, especially the mechanism of
economic - financial management, management of public assets, ensuring adequate
provisions, namely, clear, easy to implement. First is the mechanism of economic financial management, management of public assets. At the same time, promoting
policies to observe laws and policies so that bad guys can not enjoy illegal profits. In
Singapore, the anti-corruption laws is also strict. Bureau of corruption may working
directly with the Prime Minister's office and have great power. They can arrest and
investigate without a license, if there is "a reasonable basis to believe that waiting for
license may prevent investigation process."
1.5. Continuing reform the state apparatus to ensure logic, clear specific tasks,
administrative reform, removing the troublesome procedures for businesses and
citizens, public administrative procedures.
1.6. Reforming basic salary, raise the living standards, and strictly deal with those
who commit acts of corruption, improve quality, and political qualities, discipline and
expertise of staff. For example, in Singapore, government has paid high salary for
politicians and civil servants. This both prevents brain drain and eradicates corruption.
1.7. Strengthening inspection and supervision and prevent corruption, strengthen
the inspection and investigation activities of public work of civil servants and public
authorities, in order to prevent acts of harassment when being on duty, timely
recommend amending and supplementing shortcomings of policies that lead to
1.8 . Publicity and transparency in the activities of agencies, organizations and
units : This is the first important measure to prevent corruption. The transparency will
create conditions for people as well as the whole society to participate in monitoring
the activities of state agencies. With the transparency of operations at the state
agencies, people will easily recognize their rights and their obligations to comply with
all the provisions of law as well as require state authorities and officials, civil servants
to implement such provisions. Publicity and transparency will make public officials
more aware of the implementation of their responsibilities and duties as procedures
which authorized by law, because any violation, harassment or abuse their authority to
self-interest can be detected and treated.
1.9. Matter of assets and incomes transparency of officials and civil servants : This
is very important solution and has been successfully applied in a number of countries
around the world. Declaring transparent property will help staff become more aware
of keeping his own image and this is also useful in warning, taking precautions of
behaviors, thoughts to hide corruption.
2. For society organizations, the press and the people.
2.1. Promoting the spirit to own of the people and there is mechanism for people to
exercise their rights and monitor State bodies and officials, civil servants, actively
detect and denounce the behavior and corruption expression. It needs to organize well
implementation of democratic regulations at grassroot level.
2.2. The mass media actively participate in detecting acts of corruption and also
struggle with manifestations abuse anti- corruption to fight one another, cause bad in
internal and affect the potitical and social situation. In the fight against corruption, it
can not forget the great role of the mass media agencies. Press is a link between the
people and the State and is the voice of the people. Content and propagation methods
must be varied, fit the actual situation. Each legal policies have to come to the people
in a quickest and most effective way so that they know their rights and their
obligations and responsibilities to struggle in the implementation process.
Epilogue: The anti-corruption in Vietnam is now considered continuous and urgent
work, requiring effort on the part of public authorities as well as the close monitoring
of the entire society. We need to minimize corruption if there is a strong political
will. Work against corruption will become hopeless if it is lack of political will, or
when political leaders and senior officials just say not do. Because it is the politicians
who has the ability to create the biggest changes, because they create law and decide
finance for law enforcement.
We hope that our efforts with innovation and determination, we will achieve success
in the fight against corruption and bring a clearer and more livable society. /.
Website of Worldbank: www.worldbank.org
Website from : http://www.transparency.org
Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs : www.mofa.gov.vn
Website of General Statistics Office: www.gso.gov.vn
Marketing management – PGSM