Tải bản đầy đủ

Nexus english for advanced learners workbook


Heinemann English Language Teaching
A division of Reed Educational and
Professional Publishing Limited
Halley Court, Jordan Hill, Oxford 0X2 8EJ

The author and publishers are grateful to the following
for their permission to use copyright material in this
p17 British Defence and Aid Fund for Southern



Africa (November 1990 appeal letter); p28 © The

Guardian (editorial text 21.2.91); p32 The Economist

(extract from 'A survey of Brazil' 7.12.91); p34 © The
Guardian ('Wiser W e l s h still h a n k e r for chips' by
Vivek C h a u d h a r y 5.6.91); p43 © The Guardian

ISBN 0 435 28206 9

('Cucumber thief put in cooler' by G a r e t h Parry
11.12.90); p 4 8 © The Observer ('Albania tanks roll to

© Martin Mills 1993
First Published 1993

quell protests 1 by Mark Frankland 16.12.90); p53 ©
Carnell Ltd 1991 (advertisement: 'How to talk to your
cat'); p58 © Times Newspapers Ltd 1986 ('Krishna

All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in

leaders face criminal charges' by Mark Hosenball
Sunday Times 1.9.86).

any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the Publishers.
Designed by Mike Brain and Rob Fowler
Illustrations by Peter Till, Peter Schrank, and
John Batten
While every effort has been made to trace the owners
of copyright material in this book, there have been
some cases whete the publishers have been unable to
contact the owners. We should be grateful to hear
from anyone who recognises their copyright material
and who is unacknowledged. We shall be pleased to
make the necessary amendments in future editions of
the book.

Printed and bound in Great Britain by Thomson Litho

96 97 98 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

To the Student
Organising Your Learning: Introduction

Learning and teaching English
Organising Your Learning: Dictionaries


The family
Organising Your Learning: Vocabulary
Organising Your Learning: Grammar


Organising Your Learning: Speaking (1)


Entertainment going out
Organising Your Learning: Writing


The Third World
Organising Your Learning: Reading (1)


Health and medicine
Organising Your Learning: Speaking (2)


Crime and law enforcement
Organising Your Learning: Listening



Political ideas

Organising Your Learning: Reading (2)






Unusual beliefs, the occult



Environmental problems



Motoring, cars



Travel, holidays


Answer key

To the Student
This Workbook has four main aims:
• to develop the suggestions made in your
Coursebook about organising your learning
• to offer further practice of the language presented
in your Coursebook
• to introduce and practise related vocabulary and
grammar points
• to provide further work on writing, pronunciation,
and register
The exercises can be done in class or as set homework,
and a key is provided so that you can correct for
yourself any exercise which you do on your own.

Organising Your Learning:
1 Why go on studying English?
Your English is fairly good now. Most likely you
manage quite well when you speak and hear it. So
why do you want to go on studying? Look at the
reasons for advanced English study below. Which of
them are true for you? Are there any other reasons not
mentioned here?
• pure interest in the language, and the culture(s)
associated with it
• a specific need to use English well in a particular
• a long-term need for English in your work
• a desire to speak English as the 'international
• a need for English in your studies
• to pass an EFL exam (why?)
2 What are your strengths in English?
All learners are better at some things than others in
English. Grade your own performance on the skills
below, using the following:
VG: very good G: good QG quite good
NVG: not very good
• expanding your passive vocabulary (what you
• activating your passive vocabulary (using it)
• using grammatically correct English: in writing
and speaking

• using an appropriate register, or style of English,
depending on the situation
• speaking with little accent
• speaking fluently, with little hesitation
• writing
• understanding what you hear
• understanding what you read
3 What are your priorities?
Bearing in mind the needs you considered in
exercise 1 and your strengths and weaknesses, what do
you most need to work on in your English?
4 Studying alone or in a group
No course or language class can entirely reflect your
personal priorities, so it is essential to organise your
own learning outside the classroom.
Note the advantages of studying in class or working on
your English outside class time.

in class

5 Organising work outside the classroom
The Organising Your Learning units in this Workbook
and in your Coursebook provide suggestions and
demonstration activities for working on your English
outside the classroom. These range from fluency
activities, to file management, to ways of making the
most of your dictionary. You may well have other
ideas of your own. Whatever shape your self-directed
learning takes, the following basic rules are important:
• set aside a regular, realistic time for study or
activities, and plan what you will do
• keep a record, even a simple one, of what you
have done
• always be aware of the purpose of what you can do,
and how this relates to what you want to achieve
Good luck and enjoyable learning!


Learning and teaching English

be used to doing
1 The sentences below are marked to show
sentence stress. For example, in a evening is
stressed, in b used is stressed. Say the sentences to
yourself, stressing the correct syllable.
a I'm used to eating late in the 'evening.
b I'm 'used to teaching individual students.
c They're'used to working in groups.
d They're used to 'cold weather.
e I'm used to teaching individual 'students.
f She's 'used to risking her life.
g I'm 'used to eating late in the evening.
h They're used to lying in 'bed all morning.
i They're 'used to cold weather.
j She's 'used to the sight of blood.
k I'm 'used to driving long distances without rest.
1 They're used to working in 'groups
m She's 'used to getting up early.
n She's used to risking her'life.
2 Match each sentence below with a sentence in
exercise 1.

1 She won't mind starting work at 6am.
2 Paris to Athens in three days should be no
problem3 The students find all this individual work a bit
4 She won't worry about being sent off to cover the
5 Penguins find summers in the zoo a bit
6 The students work together really efficiently.
7 Working in an office will seem rather dull and
safe, I expect.
8 We didn't get to the restaurant till 1 lpm, but that
was OK.
9 They won't like getting up at dawn in the army!
10 She won't be shocked, working in the casualty
11 Penguins don't mind the English winter a bit!
12 No problem, I've given a lot of private lessons.
13 These early suppers in England are really strange.
14 I'm not sure about teaching such a big group.
Check on page 77.

8 We didn't get to the restaurant till I lpmt but that
was OK.
g I'm 'used to eating late in the evening.


Language register: not... any more and no longer
to speak of changes
3 Sentences A and B below talk about the same
change of situation, but B is more formal.
A: Bob Smith doesn't workhere anymore.
B: Mr Smith is no longer employed by the company.

Convert the following sentences in the same way,
using the words in brackets. Do not change the
form of the words. The first is done for you.
a Alice doesn't live here any more, (resides, address)
Alice no longer resldee at this address.

b He doesn't respect what his parents believe in any
more, (respect, beliefs)
c We don't mind them being here any more,
(objection, presence)
d I'm not interested in all that any more,
(interest, that matter)
e He doesn't want to go on living any more,
(desire, continue)
f There's no reason why he should feel that way any
more, (reason for, him, such an attitude)
g I'm not going to take the job any more,
(intention, the position)
h People aren't hopeful any more that they can sort
out the crisis without a war. (there, hope, crisis,
resolved peacefully)

Emphasis: neutral and strong adjectives

4 At twelve points in the dialogue below, adverbs
qualify adjectives. Sometimes the adverbs and
adjectives don't match, because one of them is too
strong or too weak. In. these cases, replace one of
the words, and write the new combination below.
Where adverbs and adjectives do match, write OK
below. The first two are done for you.
A: Gosh, mother, I'm 1 absolutely exhausted, aren't
you? I can't remember the last time I walked so far.
It really is 2 fairly amazing how difficult it is to get
a bus whenever it snows.
B: Amazing? I should say it is 3 utterly deplorable.
4 Absolutely annoying, in fact. The bus company
should do something about it. It is 5 fairly
incredible that elderly people should have to walk
in ice and snow in such weather.
A: Young people, too! What about me? I'm
6 absolutely freezing!

B: Take that poor old lady over there, for example.
She looks 7 absolutely scared that she's going to slip
up and fall down.
A: Still, I must say I'm 8 utterly pleased we went
shopping today. If we hadn't we would probably
never have found Dad's present. I bet he'll be
9 extremely delighted with it. All right, I know you
found it a 10 rather strange colour, but I think it's
B: It is not strange, dear, it is 11 absolutely ugly. And I
can't imagine your father in a hat, anyway. He'll
look 12 very ridiculous, I'm sure.
A: Well, as long as it keeps his head warm, I'll be
1 OK
2 absolutely I utterly amazing

i This structure isn't difficult for me any more,
(presents, difficulties)


Check on page 77.





5 Fill in each gap in the following dialogues with an
adverb + adjective combination.
a Dinner guest:


Mmm, this pie is

Check on page 77.

Modest hostess: Thank you, yes, it is

7 Fill the gaps with expressions from exercise 6.

isn't it? It's my own recipe, you know.
b A: You really must see the new Mel Brookes'
comedy. It's __


will be, _________________ .


B: I'm not a Mel Brookes fan really. I mean, he's


The children were

, I suppose, but he doesn't make

of going






I couldn't sleep though, no matter how hard I

me laugh much, I must say.
c A: Look, listen to me, it is

Dinner's on the table, come and eat or your food



this letter is posted today.




'Oh yes, they're

, they've got a

house in the Bahamas, a flat in Paris, and a castle

B: Oh come on, calm down, I know it's

in Scotland. That's where they keep Uncle Angus

that they should know soon, but it's not

locked up, by the way.'

that urgent, surely?

'Why? Is he a bit strange?'

Check on page 77.


is more like it!'

Emphasis: adjective collocations
6 Adjectives like exhausted are quite strong on their
own. However, some 'neutral' adjectives, like tired
can combine with other words to make strong,
emphatic combinations, or 'collocations'.
Using your dictionary, match words on the left
with words on the right to form collocations.
Some left-hand words can be used more than once.


I agree with him entirely, he's


What a tedious film; I was


beginning to end.
Check on page 77.



Emphasis: strong verbs

Emphasis: similes
8 Similes with an adjective or a verb like stubborn as
a mule and She works like a slave can also he used
for emphasis.
Each picture can combine with one of the words
below to make a simile. Match the pictures and
words and write the simile beneath each picture.

9 As with adjectives, some verbs are stronger than
others. For example, she's struggling to understand
is stronger than she's trying to understand.
Using your dictionary, replace each verb in italics
with a more emphatic verb from the list.
The first is done for you.
a The car left the road on a sharp bend and feU into
the sea. plunged
b The drawer was jammed shut but he managed to
pull it open.
c The thieves took her bag and ran off with it.
d I absolutely dislike that man.
e She threw her glass at the wall.. .
f . . . , where it broke into a thousand pieces.
g We searched the country, and finally found the
sort of house we were looking for.
h He asked her to forgive him, but she refused to.

i He pushed me out of the way in his hurry.
j The kite rose into the air as the wind caught it.

k The police suddenly came i n , . . .

. . . hurried up the stairs....

m . .. and began knocking on the door.
n I promise I'll never do it again.
o Don't give up, Pm sure they'll find her soon.
p Don't look at the man just because he looks a bit
q He walked in, very annoyed, and asked to see the
quiet light blind smoke
drink (alcohol) old clean

eat pretty

r Unfortunately it poured with rain, which spoilt the

Check on page 77.


hurl grab hammer burst wrench race soar
shatter stare shove swear demand loathe
beg scour despair ruin
Check on page 77.
Explaining purpose and function
10 Complete the sentences in your own words
using one of the following forms: infinitive
in order to

so that for (people) to (do)

for doing

a Some teachers ask their students to work in groups

11 Each sentence below makes two recommendations.
Rewrite the sentence using the expression in
brackets, and add a clause of purpose with so that
or in order to. The first has been done for you.
a A good language course should not only teach
students the language, but also help them to
develop their own best way of learning.
(apart from) (purpose: students can study effectively
outside the classroom)
Apart from teaching students the language, a good _

they can talk freely.
b Some teachers ask their students to work in groups


c A language lab is good _____ pronunciation.
d Our school has a language lab

language course should help them to develop their own
best way of learning, so that they can study

opportunity to talk freely.




b Apart from participating in classroom work, a
good language student will work independently
outside class time.
(not only.. .but also) (purpose: to achieve her own
learning objectives)

we can

practise our pronunciation,
e I go to the language lab

Adding information and explaining purpose

practise my

f Phonemic script is

how words are

g Phonemic script is used

see how words are
c A good language school will not only support its
teachers with efficient teaching materials, but also
pay them for preparation time.

h Dictionaries print words in phonemic script

(apart from) (purpose: the teachers can present an
organised programme of work)

. students how words are pronounced.
i She writes words up on the blackboard


students can see how they are spelt.
j She writes words up on the blackboard
show how they are spelt.
k It's useful to have dictionaries in the classroom
look words up in.
1 Make sure your written work is as good as you can
make it

d Apart from working hard in the classroom, a good
language teacher will spend time on lesson
(not only) (purpose: to be able to present an organised
programme of work)

your teacher can see where you

really have problems.
Check on page 77.
Check on page 77.


Organising Your Learning:
Choosing and exploring a dictionary
Bilingual dictionaries are useful when you know what
you want to say, but don't know the word in English.
However, they can also lead you astray, if you use an
English word as if it meant the same as its 'equivalent'
in your own language in every context.
A monolingual learner's dictionary avoids this
problem, and will tell you more about usage.
It is worth spending some time finding out what
information a dictionary can offer you, especially if
you are deciding which one to buy.
1 Compare two or three learner's dictionaries (the
introductions and contents lists as well as the
entries). Do they contain the following?
• words included specifically because they are
common in modern English
• clearly laid out entries, so that meanings,
derivatives (e.g. childhood, childish), idioms,
compounds and phrasal verbs are easy to find
• explanations in easy-to-understand English
• helpful example sentences
• information about grammar, pronunciation, style
(formality/informality), US/British differences
• separate sections on grammar, punctuation,
prefixes and suffixes, important abbreviations,
Christian names, place names, nationalities,
measurements, abbreviations
2 Clear layout is especially important with very long
entries, which may contain several meanings, plus
phrases, compounds, and phrasal verbs.
a Look up the following words as they are used in
the sentence contexts. If you can, use two
dictionaries. Which one is quicker?
1 He looks as if he's high on something.
2 He was speaking in such a high voice.
3 We're low on sugar.
4 I thought he was looking a bit low.
b Look up the following, comparing dictionaries
again if possible.
1 She's lying low at the moment, (phrase)
2 I feel like a Chinese takeaway, (compound)
3 He took to her straight away, (phrasal verb)

3 How words are pronounced should be made clear
by your dictionary. It should include a table,
showing all the sounds in phonemic script, with
examples. A good idea is to record your teacher
saying the example words, so that you can listen to
them from time to time.
4 Using your dictionary, match the following words
with their phonemic transcriptions on the right.
a longingly
b yawning
c flame-thrower
d jumbled
e lotion
f chocolate
g fearless
h frightful
Check on page 77.
5 Word stress will also be shown by a good dictionary.
Mark what you think is the stressed syllable in
each word below. Check in your dictionary, then
practise saying the words correctly.
a operation b potential c particular d automobile
e knuckle f coincidence g delicacy
h kaleidoscope i quantitative j psychosomatic
6 Most sounds can be written in different ways in
English (e.g. /su/ in low, alone, loan). If such a
sound is at the beginning of a word you hear and
want to look up, try to guess the probable spelling,
and keep looking until you find your word.
Write out the phonemic transcriptions below in
normal script. To check your answers, look them
up in your dictionary. If you don't find the word,
try a different spelling. As a last resort, check on
page 77.

wish + past simple/ past perfect, or would

'He's horrible. He laughed at me. Everything (10

1 Convert the infinitives in brackets to the correct
tense, or could + infinitive..
'Oh, Mummy, I wish I (1 tell


how horrible he is. If I ( 2 know _____

) you

(5 never meet

) him, do you?

Yesterday you were in love. You said if you (6 not go
) to the disco with him, you (7 not go
) with anyone. Now you're wishing

) at me. 1 wish 1(12 never buy
) the stupid dress.'


Oh well, in that case . . . '
'Oh, Mummy, I wish you (13 take

) dead!'

Don't talk such nonsense! So now you wish you



'He laughed at you in your new dress? Is that all?

) going out with him. Oh, it's all gone


) alright if only he {11 not


what he was like, I (3 never start

wrong, I wish I (4 be



_____ ). I wish I (9 keep up with
) you, you change too quickly for me.
All right, what's so bad about him, then?


me seriously! I wish 1 {14 never mention
) it to you!'
Check on page 77.

Wish + would with clauses of purpose
2 Change each sentence below into a wish + would
sentence, including a so clause to explain purpose.
The first has been done for you.
a You don't understand what you're supposed to be
doing, because you don't listen properly.
I wish you would listen properly, so you would
understand what you were supposed to be doing



b You always make such a mess because you don't
take enough care.
I wish
c We can't get any sleep because of the noise you're
I wish
d We can't go to bed yet, not till they go home.
I wish
e I can't get any work done with you talking all the
I wish
f Because you won't make up your mind, I can't
book the tickets.
I wish ____________________________________
g He never fixes the car, so I have to take the bus to
I wish ___________________________________
h Behave yourselves, you kids, I can't hear the
I wish________________________________
Check on page 78.
Wish + past perfect with third conditional
3 For each sentence below, write a wish + had
sentence, followed by a clause of reason with a
shortened third conditional. The first one has
been done for you.
a You didn't tell me, so I couldn't help.
I wish you'd told me; I could have helped if you had.

b We spent a lot, so we can't take a taxi home.
I wish
c You didn't tell me you were coming, so I didn't
cook anything nice for dinner.
I wish
d I couldn't go to university, because I didn't study
hard at school.

I wish____________________________________


e I couldn't get a good job, because I didn't go to
I wish____________________________________
f We didn't know she could babysit, so we had to
stay in.
I wish ____________________________________
Check on page 78.
Wish + would or it's high time...
4 Wish + would can express impatient
recommendation. It's time + past tense does this
more forcefully. It's high time is even more forceful.
I wish you would make up your mind.
It's high time you made up your mind!
This can't he done when wish + would doesn't
express impatience.
I wish you would come to the party.
It's high time you came to the party. (Wrong)
Recommending a change of habit, we usually add
the verb to start.
I wish you would listen more carefully.
It's time you started listening more carefully!
Below, which wish + would sentences could be
replaced with a forceful It's time sentence? Write
out the new sentences.
a 1 wish the government would tackle inflation.
b I wish you would do some homework!
c I wish it would stop raining.
d I wish you would be a little more patient.
e I wish you children would go to bed.
f I wish they would put a stop to all these strikes.
g I wish you would try this cheese, it's good.
h I wish you would be a bit more punctual.
i I wish you would grow up and act responsibly.
j I wish you would explain tilings carefully Dad!
Check on page 78.


Second, third and mixed conditional sentences

Say the words to yourself. Which of the stresspatterns do you think is/are the most common in
Words in column 5 look like four-syllable words,
but in normal speech one of the syllables is so
reduced that it disappears. Using your dictionary,
sort the words listed below into the 5 columns.

5 Write second, third or mixed conditional
sentences based on the following prompts.
a I'm sure he's rich; he bought that new car, didn't
If __________________________
b I'm such a fool; that's why I didn't leave him long








c I lost my address book, so I can't ring them up.


d This government doesn't know what it's doing; it's
increased interest rates!
e Tilings are bad for business because interest rates
went up.
f My marriage broke up because I was made
g Nobody will give him a job because he hasn't got
a fixed address.
Perhaps s o m e b o d y _
h He can't save any money because he hasn't got a

satisfying secretary literary sentimental
nevertheless hesitation schizophrenia formidable
subsidiary underexposed extravagant reasonable
saturated notwithstanding preservative impossible
impractical unrestricted insensitive
disenchantment disotderly polytechnic

i He can't rent a place to live because he hasn't got
any money.

Check on page 78Were you right about the most common stress patterns?

If_____________________________________ Phrasal verbs
j He's in this mess because he came to London.
Check on page 78.
Word stress and vowel reduction
6 Four-syllable words can be stressed in one of the
following ways. The big dot shows the syllable
which carries the primary stress.

7 Replace the words in italic with one of the phrasal
verbs in Section E of your Coursebook.
a How do you relate to your parents?
b The marketing manager proposed some very
interesting ideas.
c Look, I'm counting on you for this lift tomorrow,
so don't disappoint me, please!
d Her son has the same personality as her.
e I used to like honey, but I have stopped liking it.



f Most criminals escape punishment for their crimes.
g I really had to reprimand her this morning.
h Can you share books today? There aren't enough
for everyone to have one.




9 Below are the root verbs from four phrasal verbs.
Beside each there are two or three meanings. Look
up each root verb in your dictionary and find a
phrasal verb for each of the meanings. Write the
particle or particles on the line after the root verb.
a Grow
slowly become more enjoyable or
attractive to (someone)

c _________________ g

become more grown up and stop


doing (something)

b Fall

Check on page 78.

quarrel (with someone)

8 Fill the gaps with a phrasal verb from Section E.

become strongly attracted to

a The Ferrari had tyre problems, and

laugh almost uncontrollably

the Maclaren.
c Catch

b After a tyre change, however, it soon

understand (something), or
realise something is happening
catch someone making a mistake,
or trick them into making one

it again.
c Look that's enough! I am not going to
you talking to your mother like that!

d Get


d He's still very strange, I don't think he's

cause something to be understood;
make people understand
avoid a law, or difficulty, or

. the shock of it yet.
e 'There's no water.' 'We'll just have to

be successful and make progress
in your life and career

baths, then.'
Check on page 78.

f I can't stand winter. I'm already

10 Use one of the phrasal verbs you discovered in
exercise 9 to complete each sentence below.

spring to arrive,
g I can't explain everything. You'll learn more if you

a She's very ambitious, you know, really keen to

it _____ for yourself.
h Many big companies


executives remaining single, preferring them to
Check on page 78.

b Jack and Jill have

, I think. I

haven't seen them together for a long while.
c Grammar exercises should try to help students,



d It's a funny-tasting wine at first, but I think you'll
find it




e The children had been missing school secretly for

Professional people earn a lot. Put on the other hand

days before their parents

they have to work hard for their money. Take the case

what was happening.

of GFs, for example. Taking Into account their morning

f I used to like pop music, but I've

and afternoon surgeries, and their visiting rounds,

it now.

they work far longer days than most people.

g You should have seen how ridiculous he looked;
we just

_____ when he came in.

h It was love at first sight. They

b • developing countries/capacity/create wealth/but
• Brazil
• largest/economies/world/but/huge export
earnings/used/pay/interest/foreign debt

each other the day they met.
i To teach grammar, it's not enough to understand
it; somehow you've got to



your students as well.
j Well, there are certain regulations, but I'm sure
you can

them with the help of a

good accountant.
Check on page 78.


• apparently/difficult/reasonably-priced
accommodation/London/short notice
• German students/letter/London/Unit 1
• having/ Euston station/1 lpm/still/found/place/
stay/half-an-hour's/Yellow Pages

Supporting a statement: guided writing
11 Below are four sets of information. Each set
• a generalisation
• an example
• supporting information
Write sentences using the examples and
supporting information to support the
generalisations. Use two or three sentences as
necessary. The first one has been done for you.
a • professional people earn a lot/but/hand/work
hard/their money

d • European young people/tending/stay/home/
have/easy life/instead/own
• German law student/The stay at home kids
• four-room apartment/yet/cook/,/mother/washes/

• GPs
• taking/account morning and evening surgeries/
doing their rounds/work far longer day/most


Organising Your Learning:
Teaching yourself vocabulary
The vocabulary sections in your Coursebook aim to
teach you new words and expressions, and exposure to
English will expand your passive vocabulary.
However, continuously expanding your active
vocabulary is something you will probably have to
work on yourself by a process of conscious learning.
This section will give you some ideas.
1 Sources of new vocabulary
If you are studying in Britain, you are surrounded by
English. However, your long-term learning will most
likely be done in your own country. Which of the
following sources of new vocabulary are available to
you there?
books newspapers magazines
English-language videos BBC World Service
radio English-language TV programmes
native speakers other proficient speakers of English
Which do you actively use for expanding your
vocabulary? What are the advantages of each?
2 Selecting vocabulary to learn
Criteria for choosing items to learn are very personal,
but it seems to be true that choosing words for
ourselves makes them easier to learn. Try to pick up a
few items whenever you read or listen to English.
3 Recording vocabulary
A proper file (or small 'Filofax') is best for storing
vocabulary, because pages can be added where you like
or thrown away when they are no longer needed.
Items can be recorded with all or any of the following:
a translation (but be careful, as with bilingual
an explanation (not too long)
a phonemic transcription (if the pronunciation is
an example sentence, making the meaning and
features of form clear (e.g. Prevent he didn't want to
stay, but I prevented him from leaving) How do you
record the items you collect?


A single word-list will soon become too long to work
on and review. Instead, open a variety of smaller lists,
according to, for example, topic (e.g. rock music,
sport, finance, winter) the type of item (e.g.
compounds like landscape, landlord, landmark) items
having a common aspect of meaning (e.g. gasp, stare,
amazing, beyond belief)
Lists like these are more effective because:
• items on short lists are more prominent
• items on meaningful lists are linked, and
remembered together
• reviewing can be more methodical
• a topic list with very few items shows there is a gap
in your knowledge
• in deciding where to list a new item you think
more about its rneaning(s)
• when reviewing, you can have ideas for new lists,
and duplicate or transfer existing items to them. In
doing this, you think again about the meaning of
items, and consolidate your learning. The bubble
puzzle opposite shows how this can work.
Bubble puzzle
The bubbles opposite contain eight lists. The word
overthrow is common to bubbles B, C and D, so it
appears on all three lists. The bubbles are linked in a
chain by other words which are common to more than
one list. For example, bubbles F and G are linked by
to fall for someone.

Place the vocabulary items given in the correct
bubbles. Items linking bubbles will appear on each list,
in positions shown by the arrows.
a throwback to fall ill fiance overdraft
to break up poll to throw out to pay off
overcoat nuclear waste to overturn
to fall to pieces rate of interest fiasco
constituency bizarre budget deficit
to overtake MP fall-out to fancy
power station
Check on page 79.

4 Reviewing, retention and consolidation
Make a regular time for reviewing your word-store,
and exchange ideas with other learners. Below are
some suggestions.
• Arrange your lists with the words in one column,
and the definitions etc in another. Cover each
column in turn and test yourself on what is in the
• Write problem items on a separate list, and give
this special attention.
• Put problem items on cards with the item on the
back and an example sentence (with a gap for the
word) on the front. Work through the pack
testing yourself. Put ones you know on one side.
Peep at the ones you get wrong, and put them
back at the bottom of the pack, until you have
remembered all of them.
• Write problem items on slips of paper and stick
them on your wall where you will keep seeing
• Pick four or five items at random, and write a
sentence containing them all. Associating items
in a sentence context makes them easier to recall.
• Try to find 'mediating words' which (ink the
English item with its equivalent in your language.
For example, an English learner might find donate
a helpful link between give and the French word
dormer, or that camping was helpful in recalling o
campo, the Portuguese word for countryside.
• Teach words to fellow learners and ask them to
test you on your lists.
• Use items you are fairly sure about in extended
writing for your teacher.

Organising Your Learning:

b New lists are suggested by several of the items in
the bubbles. What lists might include the
MP to fall ill H-bomb overtake overcoat
Check on page 79.

Setting a grammar research agenda
At more advanced levels, it is sometimes difficult
to see where you can make improvements in your
English, even though you know it isn't (quite) perfect.
This can make you feel you can't progress any more.
One solution to this problem is to use your
corrected written work to help you analyse your
performance in English. Probably the only time your


teacher can give your English her undivided attention
is when marking and correcting your extended
writing. Use this attention, and treat your returned
homework as a basis for grammar research.
Another idea is to ask your teacher (or others, if
you are in Britain) to correct you as you speak, or to
note down important errors and give you feedback
later. Alternatively, record yourself speaking
unrehearsed, and listen critically to the recording.
Genuine (not careless) errors show you what you
need to research and practise. Study the errors, and set
up an ongoing agenda of problem areas to be tackled,
either with your grammar or by asking your teacher or
another student. In this way, you know you're making
progress, because every problem you deal with means
another improvement in your English.

1 The following twenty sentences are genuine
examples of English from advanced students. Each
contains one or more errors, underlined. Correct
the errors.
a There are by far too many qualified lawyers,
for this it's hard to find work.
b I went to an Italian-speaking school, to that my
mother could help me with my work in case I
needed it.
c I'm glad to hear that some of that I said was of
d I'd rather you correct my errors, please, and can't
it be a good idea to do a dictation every week?
e Certificates prove you're really good jn something.
f It seems sometimes almost impossible to keep pace
with the others.
g It's the first time I have to correct my own writing.
h I don't see any reason to go again with the class to
the computer room.
i That is easy to be understood.
j When I'll be back in Switzerland I'll have a
holiday, and after 111 enter university to study law.
k I'm not used to wtiting neither in English or in
I After this, I could go to university, whereas I did a
secretarial course instead.
m After graduated, I had spent 3 months in Paris to



perfect my French that I have studied for the
previous 6 years.
At the following weekends I hope to see as much
as possible from England.
I just have finished my studies in Germany.
In case of needing advice, can I ask you after
Whatever we'll do I'm sure it will be useful.
I rather talk than studying always grammar,
I arrived back to Spain and began working in a
multinational company which head office was at
my home town.
I never had seen a so beautiful place as that.

Check on page 79.
2 Below are fifteen areas for further grammar
research, based on the sentences. {Some of these
will be dealt with in your Coursebook). Beside
each item, write the letter(s) of the sentences in
exercise 1 in which the relevant errors appear.
word order
future tenses
sequences and time expressions
logical connectors
in case
too, enough, so, such
relative clauses and what clauses
the first time
adjective and i


present tenses in future
subordinate clauses

present perfect/past simple
Check on page 79.













Ability in the past
could, couldn't, could have, able to, had managed to
1 In the following story, convert can + infinitive to
an appropriate past form, affirmative or negative.
My first English lesson
It was a rainy evening, and it was a long time since the last car had passed. We were trying to hitchhike from Salonika to
London, because we (1 can afford)

. the bus. We'd only got fifty miles that day, our third, and I (2 can see) _ _ _ _ us

getting to the Austrian border that night. The previous night had been spent in a misty dripping wood, with nothing to eat
or drink. Jackie (3 can sleep)

a bit, but I hadn't slept at all. Perhaps I (4 can do).

, if I hadn't been so worried.

Suddenly we saw a car's headlights coming towards us. We rushed down to the edge of the road, hoping we (5 can make)
it stop. We (6 can see)______it wasn't going very fast. The driver didn't see us at first, but the car was going so slowly
that we (7 can run)

alongside it waving for a few seconds, and finally we (8 can make)

something we (9 can understand)

it stop. The driver said

Never mind, he was smiling! It was a tiny car, but we (10 can get)

our stuff

inside. Great! But after a few minutes, the car turned up a narrow track, and stopped. We all got out into the rain. He smiled,
and spoke again, before walking away into the darkness. I (11 can believe)
before. If only I (12 can speak)

it. We were in an even worse position than

the language!

We (13 can make out) ______ small houses nearby, but no lights. If someone had been about, we (14 can offer)
money to take us in, perhaps, but there was no one. I (15 can feel)

water trickling down my neck. There was a haystack

nearby. That might offer shelter! We started digging into it, but after a few minutes all we (16 can achieve)
virtual destruction of the haystack. Not (17 can make)

was the

any shelter at all for ourselves, we huddled in the rain, thinly

covered by wet hay, our misery complete.
We heard a voice. A boy was leaning over a fence, smiling and beckoning to us. We followed him to a nearby house, of a



very simple, rustic appearance. He led us inside, and with the words 'mother' and 'eat' pointed to a shy, tough-looking lady,
and a table. We sat, and presently the boy brought bread, salt, tomatoes, and hot milk. 1(18 can weep)
boy sat with us and tried to start a conversation. I (19 can understand).
he (20 can continue)

with relief! The

that he had once studied English at school, but

with his studies.

They had decided that we should have his mother's bedroom. We tried to refuse it, but they insisted very firmly, and were
clearly proud (21 can offer)

it to us.

We slept well, and after breakfast, the boy asked politely if 1(22 can give).
- early that morning he (23 can arrange)
something, and I think I (24 can help)
to eat on the way. We (25 can hardly find)

him an English lesson, before we went

a lift to the nearest town for us. So for an hour or two I tried to teach him
. him a bit. As we were leaving they gave us a bag with bread and tomatoes in,
words to thank them, but the boy said they were happy (26 can offer)

us their hospitality.

Check on page 79.
Compound words
2 Use your dictionaries to discover compound words
which have the following meanings.
out compounds
out-of-date (adjective)
combination of clothes worn together
regular expenditure (noun)
strange, bizarre, very different from the
normal (adjective)
a statement of the main facts or points
remote and private, far from other places
up compounds
improve, raise to a higher quality (verb)
sudden total change in a lifestyle, (noun)
the cost of maintaining a property
rebellion by ordinary people (noun)
tense, irritable or nervous (adjective)
improvement, especially in terms of
statistics (noun)
3 Put one of the above compounds into each of the
gaps below.
a I earn quite a lot, but my _____ are so high that I
never seem to have any spare money.

b Take it easy, what are you so


c Moving abroad is going to mean a real


our lives.
d To be a successful political party, we must throw

ideas and become truly modern.

e That's a nice

you're wearing.

f The government spent millions on


nuclear capability.
g Good news! There's been a slight

in our

sales figures.
h Young British people often behave and dress in
ways intended to shock older people.
i The _____ was repressed by troops.
j Unable to afford the _____ of their country
houses, the British 'upper classes' often open them
to the paying public.
k People in

villages are often cut off when

there is heavy snow.
1 This is a rough ______ of my plan, not a detailed
Check on page 79.



4 Put prepositions in the gaps in the following letter.

Dear Friend
Your concern for the people of South Africa has been and continues to he 1


importance in their struggle against apartheid. It has helped to sustain them 2

decades of

brutal repression and through the long night of poverty and deprivation. You have given
tangible solidarity, 3

which many thousands 4

people - men, women and children -

would, be utterly destitute and the gaols in South Africa even more crowded than they are
But there is a new situation. Organisations and people are unbanned and able to operate.
Censorship has been lifted and human rights organisations are anxious to take 5

much of

the work that, for the past forty years, has been done by Defence and Aid. It will take some
time 6

these structures to be fully effective - estimates are 7

least one or two years.

Meanwhile the work of Defence and Aid remains crucial.
We must not fail in this last lap of the struggle; we cannot abandon so suddenly the
thousands of people who depend 8

us. The situation demands more, not less, support. To

fulfil only the existing commitments, based on our present caseload, a minimum of £550,000
per month is needed.
Legal Defence
1990 has seen a sharp rise 9

the number 10

political cases. We hope that this

number will decline but there is no sign of this yet. The notorious Internal Security Act is still
being implemented and people continue to be arrested and detained. Reports of torture and
assaults in prison continue.
The latest figures from IDAF are of a 4,333 caseload involving 34,686 individuals - and
many of those in prison have families that need support.
There are still 50 people 11_

sentence of death whose cases are 18

review. If their

sentences are confirmed, money will be needed for their appeals. IDAF has successfully funded
the appeal of the Delmas Three, and the death sentences have been quashed. This is a hopeful
precedent. Currently under review is the case of the Upington 14 - the case in which the
accused were sentenced 13

death 14_

being part of a crowd where a murder took

place. The court found only one of the 14 guilty 1 5 _
sentenced to death 16

the grounds 17

the murder but the other 13 were

'Common Purpose'. . . The needs are



overwhelming and, for the first time 18
been compelled to refuse to take 19

. our history, IDAF, because of lack of funds, has
the greatly increased number of cases involving

charges of Public Violence which arise 20

the situation in the townships. There are also a

large number of related civil actions 21
fund these cases is a cause 22

the police for death and injury. Our inability to

deep regret. We cannot emphasise too strongly how

urgently your support is needed if we are not only to continue but to increase the humanitarian
support we have worked to provide . . .
We have always felt that because of Britain's close political and economic links 33


Africa we have a special responsibility in this area of great human need. The people of Britain
have been wonderfully generous 24

their recognition of this special need and special

We urge you to maintain and extend your support at this crucial time 25

apartheid has

finally been relegated to the past, and South Africa is truly democratic and free.
We look forward to hearing from you.
With our best wishes
Sincerely yours

Check on page 80.
Language register in making complaints

5 Below are two dialogues. Each concerns the same
complaint in a restaurant, but in one the customer
and the manager are polite to each other, and in
the other they are extremely rude. The dialogues
have been mixed together and everything put in
the wrong order. Paying attention to the
politeness of the language, decide which parts
belong to each dialogue. Write the letters in the
correct order in the grid below.
a Manager: Not at all, sir. One moment, sir, and
I'll bring the menu.
b Manager: Just let me look at the ribs, all right?
It's you who's making the trouble. Well, they
look all right to me. What's wrong with them?
c Customer: You're the manager, I suppose.
d Customer: Yes, please. Thank you very much,
and I'm sorry to cause any inconvenience.


e Manager: Well, sir, I'm sorry you feel that way.
Naturally, I'll be glad to return them to our
kitchen. Can I offer to bring you the menu
f Manager: I am, sir. What can I do for you?
g Customer: These spare ribs are no good, there's
no meat on them,
h Manager: One steak. It'll take as long as it takes.
We're very busy.
i Customer: What's wrong with them? Look, I eat
here a lot, and I'm telling you they're rubbish.
Just look at them! There's no way I'm paying
for that!
j Manager: Good evening, can I be of any help?
k Customer: Don't tell me I'm talking rubbish. Are
you looking for trouble or something?
1 Manager: Hello.
m Customer: Well, it's about these spare ribs. There
doesn't seem to be very much meat on them,
I'm afraid.


Writing an evaluation: guided writing

n Customer: Good evening. Sorry to bother you,
but are you the manager?
o Manager: Hmm. Well, sir, I must say they seem
very similar to the spare ribs we usually serve,
p Manager: Yeah, what do you want?
q Customer: You see, I do actually eat here
regularly, and they definitely don't seem to be
the same quality as usual. Not quite as meaty.
r Manager: Look, just keep your voice down, will
you? OK, I'll take them back. What do you
want instead?
s Customer: Give me a steak, and hurry it up, I
haven't got all day.
t Manager: Rubbish. Let's have a look at them.
u Customer: Certainly. I don't like to complain,
but as you can see...
v Manager: I'm sorry to hear that, sir. May I see

7 Study the information about flats in London on
page 157 ofyourCoursebook.
a Note the way connecting expressions are used in
the following evaluation of the first flat.
It's true that it's got some advantages. It's selfcontained, to start with, and there's quite a bit of
space, considering there are two bedrooms, a sitting
room — even if it is a small one - a kitchen and a
bathroom. You've also got the use of a big garden.
So it would be a comfortable place to live,
compared with some places. On top of that, it's got a

TV, which is good if you're going to spend time
indoors. On the other hand, it's a long way from the
centre - in fact it's even a long way from the
tube station - and it hasn't got a telephone. So
you'd tend to be a bit isolated, and probably
wouldn't have much of a social life. What's more,
at £100 a week, it's not cheap.'

Polite dialogue

This is basically a negative evaluation, because the
problems are mentioned last. The speaker is not
recommending the flat.

Rude Dialogue
6 By reference to the dialogues, convert the impolite
expressions below to their polite equivalents.
first one has been done for you.
a What do you want?






b Rewrite the evaluation, putting the information in
a different order so that the final judgement is
more positive. The following skeleton will help,
but you must provide the connecting expressions.
some problems


tube station
b There's no meat on them.





sitting room
c You're the manager, I suppose.

long way





social life

two bedrooms



some places

Check against the possible answer on page 80.
d OK, I'll take them back.

e Just look at them!


Choose one of the other flats, and write two
balanced evaluations, one in favour of it and one

f What do you want instead?


Organising Your Learning:
Speaking (1)
How do you s a y . . . ?
You probably still find that in certain situations or at
certain points in conversations you just don't know
the English way of saying what you want to express. In
these situations, do you:
I give up trying to say it?
• express your meaning in another way, by using a
greater number of simpler words, or a structure
which doesn't say exactly what you mean?
• translate from your own language word-forword, (producing some very peculiar English)?
Whatever your reaction, you would probably like to
find yourself in fewer of these situations, and find the
exact structure, word, or expression when you need it.
One way of setting about this positively is to carry a
small notebook with you whenever you can, and
quickly note down the problem when you meet it, or
shortly afterwards. Alternatively, some learners,
especially those studying in their own countries, find it
fun to imagine conversations, and identify potential
problems in this way. If you do this regularly, you will
quickly build up a list of things you want to know. The
list can be in the form of:
• situations (e.g. 'What do I say when . . . ? ' )
• questions in English (e.g. 'What's a polite way of
• words, structures or expressions written in your
own language, in clear contexts, to be
reformulated in English.
Ask your teacher or fellow learners to help you. If you
are studying in Britain, perhaps your host family can
help. When you have found answers to your questions,
write example sentences or mini-dialogues in your file,
and have these checked as well.


1 An advanced learner of English has noted down
the following situations and wants to know what
is usually said. Any ideas?
a I've been chatting politely to someone I don't
know, say in a bus, and now it's my stop. What do
I say as I leave?
b Someone I know has failed an important exam. I
meet them in a public place and want to
sympathise. After saying 'hello' and so on, how do
I start?
c I'm annoyed because I've come to a terrible party.
'I regret having come' is too formal, so what do I
say to the person I'm with?
d I keep meeting the same acquaintance in a
shopping centre - it's now the third time in
twenty minutes. What can I say in a light-hearted
way, because it's almost getting embarrassing?
e How do I recommend a film, for example, very
Check on page 80.
2 A student studying in Britain asked the following
questions. Can you answer them?
a 'I wish I knew,' means I'm sorry that I don't know,
now, in the present. What do I say if it was
something I wished yesterday? 'I wished I knew' or
'I wished I had known.'
b I was invited to dinner and took some flowers for
the hostess. She seemed pleased, but she said 'Oh,
you shouldn't have.' I didn't understand. Did she
mean I'd done something wrong?
c 'It didn't live up to expectations,' means that
something wasn't as good as expected. Could I say
'English weather didn't live up to my fears',
because it wasn't as bad as I'd feared?
Check on page 80.

Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay