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Reference guide to world literature vol2


Reference Guide to

WORLD

LITERATURE
THIRD EDITION

VOLUME 2


Reference Guide to

WORLD

LITERATURE
THIRD EDITION

Volume 2
WORKS
INDEX


EDITORS

SARAH PENDERGAST
and

TOM PENDERGAST


ST. JAMES REFERENCE GUIDES
American Literature
English Literature, 3 vols.
French Literature, 2 vols.
Holocaust Literature
Short Fiction
World Literature, 2 vols.


Reference Guide to World Literature, 3rd edition
Sara and Tom Pendergast

Project Editor
Kristin Hart
Editorial
Erin Bealmear, Joann Cerrito, Jim Craddock,
Stephen Cusack, Miranda H. Ferrara, Peter

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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG NUMBER
Reference guide to world literature / editors, Sara Pendergast, Tom
Pendergast.— 3rd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 1-55862-490-2 (hardcover : set) — ISBN 1-55862-491-0 (v. 1) —
ISBN 1-55862-492-9 (v. 2)
1. Literature—History and criticism. I. Pendergast, Sara. II.
Pendergast, Tom.
PN524.R44 2003
809—dc21
2002015410

ISBN: 1-55862-490-2

Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


CONTENTS
EDITOR’S NOTE

vii

INTRODUCTION

ix

ADVISERS

xi

CONTRIBUTORS

xiii

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WRITERS AND WORKS

xvii

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF WRITERS

xxv

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WORKS

xxxi

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF WORKS

xxxvii

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE AUTHORS A-Z
REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE WORKS A-Z

1
1125

NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORS

1591

LANGUAGE INDEX

1615

TITLE INDEX

1623


EDITOR’S NOTE
You are holding in your hands the third edition of the Reference Guide to World Literature, the second edition of which was
published in 1995 and was itself an updated and expanded edition of Great Foreign Language Writers, published in 1984.
Expanding on the coverage of these earlier works, the present edition contains some 1100 entries, divided nearly evenly between
entries on writers and literary works. The scope of the Reference Guide spans recorded history and reaches up to the present.
The Reference Guide to World Literature contains two distinct types of entries: those covering the work of an author and those
covering a literary work. Each author entry begins with a biographical summary of the subject and includes details (where known) of
the author’s birth, education and training, military service, family, career, awards, honors, and honorary degrees. Then follows a
selected list of publications by the author, and a selected list of bibliographical and critical works about the author. Finally, each
author entry contains a signed critical essay which assesses the author’s work, reputation, and influence. Each entry on a literary
work contains a brief header indicating the author and date of creation and a signed critical essay. In the case that the author of the
literary work is unknown, an introductory section provides information about the known circumstances of the work’s creation and a
brief listing of critical studies about the work.
The publications section of the author entries attempts to account for all separately published books by the author, including
translations into English. Broadsheets, single sermons and lectures, minor pamphlets, exhibition catalogs, etc., are omitted. Dates
refer to the first publication in book form unless indicated otherwise; we have attempted to list the actual year of publication, which
is sometimes different from the date given on the title page. Reprints of works including facsimile editions are generally not listed
unless they involve a revision of the title. Titles are given in modern spelling and are often in ‘‘short’’ form. They are always in italic,
except for those that are literal (i.e. non-published) translations, which appear in square brackets. The publication list may contain
some or all of the following categories:
Collections: This contains a selection of ‘‘standard’’ editions, including the most recent collection of the complete
works and of the individual genres (verse, plays, fiction, etc.). For those collections published after the author’s death,
only those that have some editorial authority are cited.
Fiction: Where it is not made apparent by the title, collections of short fiction are indicated by the inclusion of
‘‘stories’’ in parentheses after the title.
Verse: This includes collections and individual poems that were published in book form, listed chronologically by date
of publication.
Plays: This includes original plays, adaptations, and other works for the stage (libretti, ballet scenarios, etc.). Dates for
both publication and production are given. Titles are arranged chronologically by date of first performance or date of
first publication, whichever is earliest. Published English translations are listed, but not those of individual productions.
Screenplays/Television Plays/Radio Plays: These categories include original works and adaptations for these media,
listed by date of release or first broadcast.
Other: This includes publications that do not fit readily into the above categories, principally miscellanies and
nonfiction writing, such as journalism, essays, theoretical works, travel writing, memoirs, letters, etc.
A separate section contains selected works about the author. This section may contain one or both of the following categories:
Bibliography: This includes published works relating to primary and secondary literature. General bibliographies of
literary periods, genres, or counties, etc., are rarely listed.
Critical Studies: This includes critical works and biographies of the subject, listed in chronological order of
publication. This section concentrates on book-length studies in English published after 1945, although in a few cases
selected earlier material is cited. Where there is a noticeable scarcity of critical works in English, publications written in
the subject’s own language are included. On occasion articles, usually written in English, have also been listed.
vii


EDITOR’S NOTE

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

This book concludes with a Title Index to the publications lists. This contains titles of all works listed in the fiction, verse, and plays
sections of each entry including titles in the writer’s original language and English translations, as well as selected important works
of nonfiction.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
A reference work such as this is the product of many hands. Our thanks begin with Steven Serafin, whose guiding hand in selecting
advisers and entries and whose expertise with the languages represented in this collection were indispensable. We would like to
thank our advisers for their skill and expertise in selecting suitable entrants to include in this edition. Thanks also to the authors of the
entries; many of these authors are the acknowledged authorities on their subject, and their expertise and acumen can be clearly seen
in their thoughtful introductions to each of the subjects. We would like to thank our copyeditors, Jennifer Wallace and Michael
Najjar, as well as our contacts/friends Kristin Hart and Peter Gareffa at St. James Press. Finally, we would like to thank all those at
St. James Press whose names we do not know, but who help turn the electronic files that we work with into the reality that you
hold today.

viii


INTRODUCTION
In his letters dating from the second century AD, the Roman orator and statesman Pliny the Younger wrote of finding solace in poetry
as a means to embrace the uncertainties of life and to accept, albeit reluctantly, the inevitability of death. ‘‘Literature,’’ he said, ‘‘is
both my joy and my comfort: it can add to every happiness and there is no sorrow it cannot console.’’ The poet took refuge in his
work and sought to communicate to others the depth of his emotion and the expanse of his intellect. It is through literature that we
embrace our potential and acknowledge our limitations, and it was undoubtedly this presence of mind and spirit that forged the first
attempts at literary expression and that continues in our own time to define the essence and value of artistic endeavor.
The growth and development of literature is most often viewed as a reflection of history, mapping the evolution of human culture
and serving in its earliest renderings as either documentation or eulogy: to record for posterity or to sing praise and exaltation. It was
a task assigned to the scribe not the artist, but in time the purpose and practice of literature would evolve in form and meaning to
where the telling of the tale became as important as the tale itself. The nature of literature broadened in scope and objective to
provide entertainment as well as instruction. As a result, the reader found pleasure in literature as the imagination unfolded in stories
of gods and monsters, the death of kings, and the making of legend. If we believe as posited by philosopher Bernard Berenson that
literature is ‘‘the autobiography of humanity,’’ then we come to better know ourselves by knowing those who came before us and
those with whom we share our existence. In effect, literature becomes a means to examine and to understand the differences, as well
as the similarities, among peoples, languages, and societies. It serves to engage our expectation, to enrich our sensibilities, and to
elevate our perception of self-awareness and identity.
Designed as a complement to the St. James Reference Guides to American and British literatures, the third edition of the Reference
Guide to World Literature represents a comprehensive and authoritative survey to literatures written in languages other than English
from the earliest known manuscripts to the works of present-day writers of international stature. Merging East and West, the ancient
with the contemporary, the Reference Guide provides a broad spectrum of world literature extending from the anonymous prose and
verse of the Vedas, the sacred texts of Hinduism, originating in the third millennium BC, to the ancient Sumerian epic of Gilgamesh;
from the Hebrew texts of the Old Testament to The Iliad of Homer; from the Golden Age of Greek drama to the Indian folk epic the
Mahābhārata; from the Confessions of St. Augustine to the classical poetry of the Tang dynasty; from The Conference of the Birds
by the Persian poet Farid al-Din Attār to The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighiera; from The Praise of Folly by Desiderius Erasmus to
Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes; from Molière’s Don Juan to Goethe’s Faust; from realism and naturalism to the advent of
modernism; from existentialism to the theater of the absurd; from postmodernism to the literature of the new millennium.
The present edition provides expanded coverage of literatures in less represented languages, the primary focus being Arabic,
Chinese, and Japanese, as well as previously unrepresented languages including Albanian, Estonian, Indonesian, Kurdish, and Thai.
Writers from the Arab world added to the edition include the pre-Islamic poet Imru’ al-Qays, the poetess al-Khansā’, the classical
poet al-Mutanabbī, the Andalusian poet Ibn Khafājah, and the Sufi poets Ibn al-Fārid and Ibn al-‘Arabī and contemporary authors
such as the Iranian novelist and short-story writer Jalal Al-e Ahmad, the Egyptian short-story writer and dramatist Yūsuf Idrīs, and
the Syrian-Lebanese poet Adūnīs. Chinese authors include the Ming dynasty dramatist Tang Xianzu, the novelist Ding Ling, and
dramatist, novelist, and Nobel laureate Gao Xingjian. Japanese authors include poets Miyazawa Kenji, Hagiwara Sakutaro, and
Nishiwaki Junzaburo and novelists Lao She, Shimazaki Toson, Shiga Naoya, Ibuse Masuji, and Abe Kobo.
Authors writing in previously unrepresented languages include the Albanian novelist and poet Ismail Kadaré, the Estonian poet Jaan
Kaplinski and the poet and novelist Jaan Kross, the Indonesian novelist Pramoedya Ananta Toer and the poet Chairil Anwar, the
Kurdish poet Abdulla Goran, and the Thai novelist Siburapha. Authors from previously underrepresented literatures include East
and Central European writers such as the dramatist Václav Havel, the novelist Ivan Klíma, and the novelist Milan Kundera, writing
in Czech; the short-story writer and poet Tadeusz Borowski, and the poet and dramatist Tadeusz Różewicz, writing in Polish;
francophone and lusophone writers from North, East, and West Africa including the Moroccan novelist and poet Tahar Ben Jelloun
and the novelist Abdelkebir Khatibi, the Tunisian novelist Albert Memmi, and the Ivorian novelist Ahmadou Kourouma, writing in
French, and Mozambican poet José Craveirinha, writing in Portuguese.
This edition is also noteworthy for its expanded coverage of contemporary women writers, including the Lebanese novelist Evelyne
Accad, the Algerian novelist Assia Djebar, and the Canadian poet and novelist Nicole Brossard, writing in French; the Chilean
novelist Isabel Allende, the Nicaraguan poet and novelist Gioconda Belli, and the Argentinian novelist Luisa Valenzuela, writing in
Spanish; the Polish poet and Nobel laureate Wisława Szymborska; the Indian novelist Qurratulain Hyder, writing in Urdu; the
ix


INTRODUCTION

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

Italian novelist Francesca Duranti; the Russian novelist Tatyana Tolstaya; the Japanese novelist Tsushima Yuko; and the Chinese
short-story writer and novelist Li Ang. Within the context of the social and political transformation from the postwar twentieth
century to the present, the increasing representation and contribution of women on an international basis has redefined the scope and
dimension of world literature. Other major contemporary authors include the Martinican novelist Patrick Chamoiseau, writing in
French; the Hungarian novelist and short-story writer Péter Esterházy, the Danish novelist Peter Høeg; the Chinese poet Bei Dao
and the novelists Mo Yan and Su Tong; and the Japanese novelist Murakami Haruki.
Literature in the new millennium is complex as it is convoluted, informed by diverse and elements: postmodernism, multiculturalism, and
global diaspora. Yet it is the voice of Pliny the Younger that resonates to remind us of the true essence of literary endeavor: to bring
joy and comfort; to provide inspiration and understanding; to justify our being; and to bear witness on the times in which we live. As
noted by author Salman Rushdie, ‘‘Literature is where I go to explore the highest and lowest places in human society and in the
human spirit, where I hope to find not absolute truth but the truth of the tale, of the imagination and of the heart.’’
—Steven R. Serafin
Hunter College of the City University of New York

x


ADVISERS
Roger Allen
University of Pennsylvania

Peter Hutchinson
Trinity Hall, Cambridge

Alison Bailey
University of London

R.S. McGregor
University of Cambridge

Christopher Cairns
University College, Wales

A.B. McMillin
University of London

Marvin Carlson
CUNY, New York

David O’Connell
Georgia State University

Ruby Cohn
University of California, Davis

P.A. Odber de Baubeta
University of Birmingham

Bogdan Czaykowski
University of British Columbia
James Diggle
Queen’s College, Cambridge
David William Foster
Arizona State University
Michael Freeman
University of Leicester
Janet Garton
University of East Anglia, Norwich

Jerzy Peterkiewicz
London
Christopher R. Pike
University of Keele
Girdar Rathi
New Delhi
Sven H. Rossel
University of Vienna
Steven Serafin
Hunter College, CUNY, New York

Howard Goldblatt
University of Notre Dame

G. Singh
formerly of Queen’s
University, Belfast

Theo Hermans
University College, London

Peter Skrine
University of Bristol

Hosea Hirata
Tufts University

Daniel Weissbort
University of Iowa

xi


CONTRIBUTORS
Donald Adamson
Peter F. Ainsworth
Robin Aizlewood
Ahmed Ali
Margrethe Alexandroni
Hans Christian Andersen
J.K. Anderson
D.J. Andrews
Alireza Anushiravani
Brigitte Edith Zapp Archibald
A. James Arnold
William Arrowsmith
B. Ashbrook
Keith Aspley
Stuart Atkins
Howard Atkinson
Harry Aveling
Peter Avery
K.P. Bahadur
Ehrhard Bahr
D.R. Shackleton Bailey
David M. Bain
Barry Baldwin
Aida A. Bamia
Alan F. Bance
Gabrielle Barfoot
John Barsby
Peter I. Barta
Susan Bassnett
Edward Batley
Roderick Beaton
Janine Beichman
David Bell
Ian A. Bell
Thomas G. Bergin
Alan Best
Binghong Lu
Sandra Blane
Elizabeth Bobrick
Joan Booth
Paul W. Borgeson, Jr.
Patrick Brady
Denis Brass
Gerard J. Brault
S.H. Braund
Peter Broome
Michael Brophy
Catherine Savage Brosman
Gordon Brotherston
Jennifer Brown
Penny Brown
Dorothy Bryson
A.W. Bulloch
Alan Bullock
B. Burns

J.M. Buscall
Alessandro Cancian
Francisco Carenas
Steven D. Carter
Anthony J. Cascardi
Remo Catani
Philip Cavendish
Mary Ann Caws
Andrea C. Cervi
C. Chadwick
Roland A. Champagne
Linda H. Chance
Tom Cheeseman
Ying-Ying Chein
Diana Chlebek
Erik C. Christensen
Mirna Cicioni
John R. Clark
Stephen Clark
Shirley Clarke
David Coad
Michael Collie
Desmond J. Conacher
David Constantine
Ray Cooke
Thomas L. Cooksey
Neil Cornwell
C.D.N. Costa
Sally McMullen (Croft)
Carmen Cross
G.P. Cubbin
Jan Čulík
James M. Curtis
G.F. Cushing
Edmund Cusick
Adam Czerniawski
Lóránt Czigány
James N. Davidson
Catherine Davies
Santiago Daydi-Tolson
René de Costa
Alan Deighton
John Dickie
Sheila J. Dickson
C.E.J. Dolamore
Ken Dowden
Sam Driver
John Dunkley
Osman Durrani
Gwynne Edwards
Stanislaw Eile
Sarah Ekdawi
Robert Elsie

Herman Ermolaev
Jo Evans
Michael Falchikov
Nancy Kanach Fehsenfeld
Jane Fenoulhet
Alvaro Fernández-Bravo
Bruno Ferraro
John Fletcher
John L. Flood
A.P. Foulkes
Wallace Fowlie
Frank J. Frost
Barbara P. Fulks
Michael A. Fuller
David Gascoyne
John Gatt-Rutter
Tina Gianoulis
Margaret Gibson
Robert Gibson
Mary E. Giles
Donald Gilman
Nahum N. Glatzer
John Gledson
Gary Godfrey
Ingeborg M. Goesll
Marketa Goetz-Stankiewicz
Janet N. Gold
Sander M. Goldberg
George Gömöri
D.C.R.A. Goonetilleke
Colin Graham
Peter J. Graves
Roger Green
R.P.H. Green
Claire E. Gruzelier
Albert E. Gurganus
Oscar A. Haac
David T. Haberly
Brigid Haines
Igor Hájek
David M. Halperin
P.T. Harries
Nigel Harris
Patricia Harry
John Hart
Thomas R. Hart
E.C. Hawkesworth
Ronald Hayman
Patrick Heenan
John Hibberd
James Higgins
David Hill
Sabine Hillen

xiii


CONTRIBUTORS

Ian Hilton
Hosea Hirata
Keith Hitchins
Leighton Hodson
Th. Emil Homerin
Edward Waters Hood
Louise Hopkins
Thomas K. Hubbard
Lothar Huber
William M. Hutchins
Lois Boe Hyslop
Margaret C. Ives
David Jackson
Tony James
Regina Janes
D.E. Jenkinson
Lewis Jillings
Jeffrey Johnson
D. Mervyn Jones
Roger Jones
W. Glyn Jones
Bożena Karwowska
Brian Keith-Smith
Hanaa Kilany
Rachel Killick
J.H. King
Peter King
Robert Kirsner
W.J.S. Kirton
Charles Klopp
A.V. Knowles
Wulf Koepke
Jack Kolbert
Kathleen L. Komar
Linn Bratteteig Konrad
David Konstan
Myrto Konstantarakos
Charles Kwong
F.J. Lamport
Jordan Lancaster
Pierre J. Lapaire
David H.J. Larmour
Rex W. Last
Dan Latimer
Renate Latimer
John Lee
Mabel Lee
André Lefevere
Harry Levin
Silvano Levy
Virginia L. Lewis
Dian Li
Emanuele Licastro
Sylvia Li-Chun Lin
Maria Manuel Lisboa
Heather Lloyd

xiv

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

Rosemary Lloyd
Ladislaus Löb
Rosa Lombardi
Jacqueline Long
Dagmar C.G. Lorenz
Andrea Loselle
Gregory L. Lucente
David S. Luft
Torborg Lundell
Christopher Lupke
J.F. Marfany
Gaetana Marrone
Heitor Martins
David Maskell
Eve Mason
Haydn Mason
Derek Maus
Gita May
Jane McAdoo
E.A. McCobb
Patrick McCarthy
A. McDermott
David McDuff
Richard J.A. McGregor
Martin L. McLaughlin
Alexander G. McKay
Keith McMahon
Arnold McMillin
Rory McTurk
Gordon McVay
A.J. Meech
Siegfried Mews
Vasa D. Mihailovich
Michael J. Mikós
Gary B. Miles
Paul Allen Miller
Kristina Milnor
Earl Miner
John Douglas Minyard
Masao Miyoshi
Matthew Mizenko
Edward Moran
Nicole Mosher
Warren Motte
Anna Lydia Motto
Vanna Motta
Kenneth Muir
Brian Murdoch
S.M. Murk-Jansen
Brian Murphy
Walter Musolino
William E. Naff
Susan Napier
Frank J. Nisetich
Paul Norlen
R.J. Oakley
Jeanne A. Ojala

Tom O’Neill
Dayna Oscherwitz
Seija Paddon
Cecil Parrott
Alan K.G. Paterson
Georgina Paul
D. Keith Peacock
Noel A. Peacock
Roger Pearson
Janet Pérez
Elli Philokyprou
Donald Peter Alexander Pirie
David Platton
Gordon Pocock
Beth Pollack
Valentina Polukhina
Charles A. Porter
Oralia Preble-Niemi
Michael P. Predmore
Nicole Prunster
Joseph Pucci
Judith Purver
Dušan Puvačić
Olga Ragusa
Ana M. Ranero
Judy Rawson
J.H. Reid
Robert Reid
John H. Reilly
Barbara Reynolds
Hugh Ridley
Norma Rinsler
Colin Riordan
Michael Robinson
Philip E.J. Robinson
David Rock
Eamonn Rodgers
Margaret Rogister
Michele Valerie Ronnick
Hugh Rorrison
Wendy Rosslyn
John Rothenberg
Andrew Rothwell
Donald Roy
Lisa M. Ruch
R.B. Rutherford
William Merritt Sale, III
Thomas Salumets
Jeffrey L. Sammons
N.K. Sandars
L. Natalie Sandomirsky
Gerlinde Ulm Sanford
Hélène N. Sanko
Kumiko Sato
Barbara Saunders
Barry P. Scherr
Gerd K. Schneider


REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

Thomas Schnellbächer
Irene Scobbie
Mary Scott
Edward Seidensticker
Dorothy S. Severin
Sabina Sharkey
Jocelyn Sharlet
Ruth Sharman
Barnett Shaw
David Shaw
Faiza W. Shereen
Emi Shimokawa
Shoichi Saeki
David Sices
Tony Simoes da Silva
John D. Simons
Colin Smethurst
Christopher Smith
Natalie Smith
Sarah Cox Smith
David Smyth
J. Kelly Sowards
Ronald Speirs
James Russell Stamm
Noel Stanley
Roy Starrs
Paul Starkey
C.C. Stathatos
Susan Isabel Stein
Carl Steiner
R.H. Stephenson
Eric Sterling
Mary E. Stewart

Alexander Stillmark
Elisabeth C. Stopp
Ian C. Storey
Matthew Strecher
Sarah Strong
J.R. Stubbs
Arrigo V. Subiotto
Mary Sugar
Henry W. Sullivan
Helena Szépe
Elzbieta Szoka
John E. Tailby
Myron Taylor
Anna-Marie Taylor
Philip Thody
David Thomas
Judith Thurman
Shawkat M. Toorawa
Robert M. Torrance
Tamara Trojanowska
Andrew T. Tsubaki
Sabine Vanacker
Rolf Venner
Hugo J. Verani
Maïr Verthuy
Robert Vilain
Pascale Voilley
Frank W. Walbank
Bruce Walker

CONTRIBUTORS

Albert H. Wallace
George Walsh
J. Michael Walton
Edward Wasiolek
Bruce Watson
Shawncey J. Webb
David Welsh
Alfred D. White
Sally A. White-Wallis
Kenneth S. Whitton
Juliet Wigmore
Faith Wigzell
Mark Williams
Rhys Williams
Jason Wilson
Jerry Phillips Winfield
Michael Winkler
A.J. Woodman
M.J. Woods
Tim Woods
James B. Woodward
A. Colin Wright
Barbara Wright
Elizabeth Wright
Xiaobin Yang
John D. Yohannan
Howard T. Young
Robin Young
Magdalena J. Zaborowska
G. Zanker
Jeanne Morgan Zarucchi

xv


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WRITERS AND WORKS
Abe Kōbō
The Woman in the Dunes
Evelyne Accad
Arthur Adamov
Professor Taranne
Adonis
Aeschylus
The Oresteia
The Persians
Prometheus Bound
The Seven Against Thebes
The Suppliant Maidens
S. Y. Agnon
Demetrio Aguilera Malta
Anna Akhmatova
Poem Without a Hero
Requiem
Akutagawa Ryūnosuke
al-Qasim ibn ‘Ali Abu Muhammad
al-Basri al-Hariri
al-Khansa’
Ahmad ibn al-Husayn Abu al-Tayyib
al-Ju’fi al-Kindi al-Mutanabbi
Imru’ al-Qays
Alain-Fournier
The Wanderer
Rafael Alberti
Jalâl Âl-e Ahmad
Plagued by the West
Vicente Aleixandre
Vittorio Alfieri
Saul
Dante Alighieri
The Divine Comedy
The New Life
Isabel Allende
The House of the Spirits
Jorge Amado
Anacreon
Hans Christian Andersen
“The Emperor’s New Clothes”
“The Snow Queen”
Carlos Drummond de Andrade
Mário de Andrade
Ivo Andrić
The Bridge on the Drina
Jerzy Andrzejewski
Ashes and Diamonds
Jean Anouilh
Antigone
Chairil Anwar
Guillaume Apollinaire
“La Chanson du mal-aimé”
“Zone”
Apollonius of Rhodes

Lucius Apuleius
Cupid and Psyche
Louis Aragon
Le Crève-coeur
Paris Peasant
Reinaldo Arenas
Pietro Aretino
La Cortigiana
José María Arguedas
Deep Rivers
Manlio Argueta
Ludovico Ariosto
Orlando Furioso
Aristophanes
The Birds
The Clouds
The Frogs
Lysistrata
Aristotle
Bettina von Arnim
Antonin Artaud
The Theatre and its Double
Miguel Ángel Asturias
The President
Farid al-Din Abu Hamid
Mohammad Attār
The Conference of the Birds
Aucassin and Nicolette
St. Augustine
The City of God
Confessions, Book I
Marcus Aurelius
Meditations
Decimus Magnus Ausonius
The Mosella
Marcel Aymé
Isaak Babel
Red Cavalry
Ingeborg Bachmann
Bai Juyi
Honoré de Balzac
Cousin Bette
Eugenie Grandet
Lost Illusions
Le Père Goriot
Henri Barbusse
Under Fire: The Story of a Squad
Bashō
Giorgio Bassani
Charles Baudelaire
“Spleen”
“To The Reader”
“Windows”
Beaumarchais
The Barber of Seville

Simone de Beauvoir
The Mandarins
The Second Sex
Samuel Beckett
Endgame
Molloy, Malone Dies, The
Unnamable
Waiting for Godot
Bei Dao
Gioconda Belli
Andrei Belyi
Petersburg
Pietro Bembo
Tahar Ben Jelloun
Gottfried Benn
“Palau”
Georges Bernanos
Thomas Bernhard
The Lime Works
Ugo Betti
Bhagavadgītā
The Bible
Willem Bilderdijk
Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
Peasant Tales
Aleksandr Blok
The Twelve
Johannes Bobrowski
Giovanni Boccaccio
“The Ninth Tale of the Fifth Day
of The Decameron”
Boethius
The Consolation of Philosophy
Nicolas Boileau
The Art Of Poetry
Heinrich Böll
Group Portrait with Lady
The Lost Honor of
Katharina Blum
Jorge Luis Borges
“Death and the Compass”
Tadeusz Borowski
Sebastian Brant
The Ship of Fools
Robert Brasillach
Bertolt Brecht
Baal
The Caucasian Chalk Circle
The Good Person of Szechwan
The Life of Galileo
Mother Courage and her
Children
The Threepenny Opera
Gerbrand Adriaensz Bredero

xvii


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WRITERS AND WORKS

Clemens Brentano
The Story of Just Caspar and
Fair Annie
André Breton
“Free Union”
Mad Love
Ode to Charles Fourier
Hermann Broch
The Death of Virgil
The Sleepwalkers
Iosif Brodskii
A Part of Speech
Nicole Brossard
Giordano Bruno
Georg Büchner
Danton’s Death
Woyzcek
Mikhail Bulgakov
The Master and Margarita
The White Guard
Ivan Alekseevich Bunin
The Gentleman from San
Francisco
Dino Buzzati
Vasil Bykaw
The Ordeal
Julius Caesar
Pedro Calderón de la Barca
The Great Stage of the World
Life is a Dream
Callimachus
Aetia
Hecale
Italo Calvino
If on a Winter’s Night a
Traveller
Luís de Camões
The Lusiads
Tommaso Campanella
Albert Camus
The Fall
The Outsider
The Plague
Elias Canetti
Auto-da-Fé
Karel Čapek
The Insect Play
R.U.R.
Ernesto Cardenal
Giosuè Carducci
Alejo Carpentier
The Kingdom Of This World
The Lost Steps
Carlo Cassola
Rosario Castellanos
Baldassarre Castiglione
Catullus
Poem 85
Three Poems: 2, 63, and 76

xviii

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

C. P. Cavafy
“Waiting for the Barbarians”
Guido Cavalcanti
Camilo José Cela
Pascual Duarte’s Family
Paul Celan
“Death Fugue”
Louis-Ferdinand Céline
Journey to the End of the Night
Blaise Cendrars
Luis Cernuda
Miguel de Cervantes
Don Quixote
Adelbert von Chamisso
Peter Schlemihl
Patrick Chamoiseau
René Char
Vicomte de Chateaubriand
Memoirs
René
Anton Chekhov
The Cherry Orchard
“The Lady with a Dog”
The Seagull
The Three Sisters
Uncle Vanya
Chikamatsu Monzaemon
Chrétien de Troyes
Erec and Énide
Lancelot
Christine De Pizan (or Pisan)
The Book of The City of Ladies
Cicero
In Defence of Marcus
Caelius Rufus
On Old Age
On The Commonwealth
Paul Claudel
The Satin Slipper
Claudian
The Rape of Proserpine
Hugo Claus
Jean Cocteau
The Holy Terrors
The Infernal Machine
Colette
Chéri
Vittoria Colonna
Pierre Corneille
The Cid
The Theatrical Illusion
Julio Cortázar
Louis Marie Anne Couperus
José Craveirinha
Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac
Voyages to the Moon and the Sun
Gabriele D’Annunzio
The Flame
Francesca Da Rimini
“Rain in the Pine Forest”

Daphnis and Chloe
Rubén Darío
“Mía”
Dazai Osamu
Eduardo De Filippo
Filumena Marturano
Grazia Deledda
Demosthenes
On the Crown
René Depestre
Denis Diderot
Jacques The Fatalist
The Test of Virtue
Isak Dinesen
Ding Ling
Assia Djebar
Fantasia: An Algerian Cavalcade
Alfred Döblin
Berlin Alexanderplatz
Heimito von Doderer
Die Strudlhofstiege
Fedor Dostoevskii
The Brothers Karamazov
Crime and Punishment
The Devils
The Idiot
Notes from the Underground
Bernardo Dovizi da Bibbina
The Dream of the Red Chamber
Annette von Droste-Hülshoff
The Jew’s Beech Tree
Joachim Du Bellay
“Heureux Qui, Comme Ulysse, a
Fait Un Beau Voyage”
Du Fu
Alexandre Dumas fils
Camille
Alexandre Dumas père
The Three Musketeers
Francesca Duranti
Marguerite Duras
Friedrich Dürrenmatt
The Physicists
The Visit
José Maria de Eça de Queirós
Umberto Eco
The Name of the Rose
Egils Saga
Günter Eich
Joseph von Eichendorff
Memoirs of a Good-for-Nothing
Mircea Eliade
Paul Éluard
“You the only one”
Odysseus Elytis
Endō Shūsaku
Silence
Quintus Ennius
Baron József Eötvös
The Village Notary


REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

Epic of Gilgamesh
Desiderius Erasmus
The Colloquies
The Praise of Folly
Sergei Aleksandrovich Esenin
Péter Esterházy
Euripides
Electra
Hippolytus
Ion
Medea
Orestes
The Trojan Women
Evgenii Evtushenko
Abu‘l Qāsim Ferdowsi
Georges Feydeau
A Flea in her Ear
Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovary
Sentimental Education
“A Simple Heart”
Theodor Fontane
Before the Storm
Effi Briest
Denis Fonvizin
The Minor
Caroline de la Motte Fouqué
Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué
Anatole France
The Gods Are Athirst
Gilberto Freyre
Max Frisch
Andorra
The Fire Raisers
I’m Not Stiller
Jean Froissart
Carlos Fuentes
Gao Xingjian
Federico García Lorca
Blood Wedding
The House of Bernarda Alba
Yerma
Gabriel García Márquez
Love in the Time of Cholera
One Hundred Years of Solitude
Théophile Gautier
“Art”
Jean Genet
The Balcony
The Maids
Guido Gezelle
Asadullāh Khān Ghālib
André Gide
The Counterfeiters
The Immoralist
Natalia Ginzburg
Voices in the Evening
Jean Giono
The Hussar On The Roof

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WRITERS AND WORKS

Jean Giraudoux
The Madwoman of Chaillot
Tiger At The Gates
José María Gironella
Edouard Glissant
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Elective Affinities
Faust
Goetz of Berlichingen with the
Iron Hand
The Sufferings of Young Werther
Torquato Tasso
Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship
Nikolai Gogol’
Dead Souls
“Diary of a Madman”
The Government Inspector
Golden Lotus
Carlo Goldoni
The Comic Theatre
The Mistress of the Inn
Ivan Goll
Witold Gombrowicz
Ferdydurke
Ivan Goncharov
Oblomov
Edmond and Jules de Goncourt
Luis de Góngora
Abdulla Goran
Maksim Gor’kii
The Lower Depths
“Twenty-Six Men and a Girl”
Gottfried von Strassburg
Jeremias Gotthelf
Christian Dietrich Grabbe
Günter Grass
The Tin Drum
Aleksandr Griboedov
Woes of Wit
Franz Grillparzer
Family Strife in Hapsburg
The Waves of Sea and Love
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
“Hansel and Gretel”
Hans Jakob Christoffel von
Grimmelshausen
Andreas Gryphius
Guillaume de Machaut
Jorge Guillén
Nicolás Guillén
João Guimarães Rosa
Hadewijch
Hafiz
Hagiwara Sakutarō
Knut Hamsun
Hunger
Hartmann von Aue
Jaroslav Hašek
The Good Soldier Švejk and His
Fortunes In the World War

Gerhart Hauptmann
The Weavers
Václav Havel
Friedrich Hebbel
Maria Magdalena
Heinrich Heine
“The Homecoming”
William Heinesen
Dorothea Rosa Herliany
José Hernández
The Gaucho Martín Fierro
Herodotus
Hesiod
Hermann Hesse
The Glass Bead Game
Siddhartha
Steppenwolf
Fritz Hochwälder
Peter Høeg
E. T. A. Hoffmann
The Devil’s Elixirs
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
Andreas
The Difficult Man
The Tower
Ludvig Holberg
Friedrich Hölderlin
“Bread and Wine”
Miroslav Holub
Homer
The Iliad
The Odyssey
Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft
Horace
Odes Book I, Poem 5
Odes Book IV, Poem 7
The Poetic Art
Ödön von Horváth
Tales from the Vienna Woods
Huang Chunming
Victor Hugo
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame
Les Misérables
Constantijn Huygens
Joris-Karl Huysmans
Qurratulain Hyder
Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-Arabi
‘Umar Ibn al-Fârid
Ibrahim ibn Abi al-Fath Abu Ishaq
Ibn Khafajah
Henrik Ibsen
Brand
A Doll’s House
Ghosts
Hedda Gabler
The Master Builder
Peer Gynt
The Wild Duck
Ibuse Masuji
Yusuf Idris

xix


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WRITERS AND WORKS

Ihara Saikaku
Gyula Illyés
“A Sentence For Tyranny”
Eugène Ionesco
The Bald Prima Donna
Rhinoceros
Ishigaki Rin
Max Jacob
Alfred Jarry
Ubu Rex
Johannes V. Jensen
St. Jerome
Journey to the West
Juan Ramón Jiménez
Platero and I
St. John of the Cross
Uwe Johnson
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
Ernst Jünger
Juvenal
Satire 10
Kabīr
Ismail Kadare
Franz Kafka
The Castle
The Metamorphosis
The Trial
Georg Kaiser
The Gas Trilogy: The Coral (Die
Koralle), Gas I, GasII
Kalevala
Kālidāsa
The Cloud Messenger
Śakuntalā
Jaan Kaplinski
Kawabata Yasunari
Snow Country
Nikos Kazantzakis
The Last Temptation
Gottfried Keller
Kenkō
Abdelkebir Khatibi
Velimir Khlebnikov
“Incantation by Laughter”
Søren Kierkegaard
Danilo Kiš
Heinrich von Kleist
The Broken Jug
Michael Kohlhaas
The Prince of Homburg
Ivan Klíma
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock
Jan Kochanowski
Ahmadou Kourouma
Zygmunt Krasiński
Miroslav Krleža
Jaan Kross
Maria Kuncewicz
Milan Kundera

xx

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

Jean de La Fontaine
Fables
François La Rochefoucauld
Maxims
Choderlos de Laclos
Les Liaisons dangereuses
Madame de Lafayette
Jules Laforgue
The Last Poems
Pär Lagerkvist
Selma Lagerlöf
Gösta Berling’s Saga
Alphonse de Lamartine
Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa
Lao She
Rickshaw Boy
Compte de Lautréamont
Halldór Laxness
Lazarillo de Tormes
Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz
The Tutor
Siegfried Lenz
The German Lesson
Giacomo Leopardi
“The Broom”
“The Infinite”
“To Himself”
Mikhail Lermontov
A Hero Of Our Time
Alain-René Lesage
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Minna Von Barnhelm
Nathan The Wise
Carlo Levi
Christ Stopped at Eboli
Primo Levi
The Periodic Table
José Lezama Lima
Li Ang
Li Bai
“Hard is the Road to Shu”
“Invitation to Wine”
Väinö Linna
Clarice Lispector
The Little Clay Cart
Livy
Ivar Lo-Johansson
Lu Xun
Lucan
Lucian
Lucretius
Martin Luther
“Ein Feste Burg”
The Mabinogion
Antonio Machado
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis
Dom Casmurro
The Posthumous Memoirs of
Braz Cubas

Niccolò Machiavelli
The Mandrake
The Prince
Maurice Maeterlinck
The Blue Bird
The Intruder
Mahābhārata
Naguib Mahfouz
Vladimir Maiakovskii
About This
The Bedbug
Cloud in Trousers
Stéphane Mallarmé
L’Après-midi d’un faune
Un coup de dés jamais n’abolira
le Hasard
Hérodiade
Ses purs ongles très haut dédiant
leur onyx
André Malraux
Man’s Fate
Osip Mandel’shtam
Heinrich Mann
The Blue Angel
Thomas Mann
Buddenbrooks: The Decline of
a Family
Confessions of Felix Krull,
Confidence Man
Death in Venice
Doctor Faustus
The Magic Mountain
Alessandro Manzoni
The Betrothed
Leopoldo Marechal
Marguerite de Navarre
Marie de France
Guigamor
Marivaux
The False Confessions
The Game of Love and Chance
A Matter of Dispute
José Martí
Martial
“Epigrams”
Roger Martin Du Gard
Masaoka Shiki
Guy de Maupassant
“L’Abandonné”
“The Necklace”
Pierre and Jean
François Mauriac
Thérèse
Albert Memmi
The Pillar of Salt
Menander
The Grouch
Prosper Mérimée
Pietro Metastasio
Conrad Ferdinand Meyer


REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

Henri Michaux
Adam Mickiewicz
Pan Tadeusz
Czesław Miłosz
Mīrā Bāī
Mishima Yukio
Gabriela Mistral
Miyazawa Kenji
Mo Yan
Molière
The Conceited Young Ladies
Don Juan
The Hypochondriac
The Misanthrope
The Miser
Tartuffe
Ferenc Molnár
Michel de Montaigne
“Apology for Raymond Sebond”
“On the Power of the
Imagination”
“On Vanity”
Eugenio Montale
Cuttlefish Bones
“The Storm”
Elsa Morante
House of Liars
Alberto Moravia
The Time of Indifference
Ōgai Mori
Eduard Mörike
Multatuli
Murakami Haruki
Murasaki Shikibu
Robert Musil
The Man Without Qualities
Young Törless
Alfred de Musset
Lorenzaccio
Natsume Sōseki
Pablo Neruda
“Arte Poética”
Tentativa del hombre infinito
Gérard de Nerval
Johann Nepomuk Nestroy
Nibelungenlied
Friedrich Nietzsche
The Birth of Tragedy
Thus Spoke Zarathustra
Martinus Nijhoff
Nishiwaki Junzaburō
Njáls Saga
Cees Nooteboom
Cyprian Kamil Norwid
Novalis
Hymns to the Night
Ōe Kenzaburō
Yuri Olesha
Envy

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WRITERS AND WORKS

Omar Khayyam
The Rubaiyat
On the Sublime
Paul van Ostaijen
Ovid
The Art of Love
Loves
Metamorphoses
Amos Oz
Marcel Pagnol
Kostes Palamas
Emilia Pardo Bazán
Blaise Pascal
Pier Paolo Pasolini
Boris Pasternak
Doctor Zhivago
Cesare Pavese
The Moon and the Bonfires
Milorad Pavić
Miodrag Pavlović
Octavio Paz
Sun Stone
Georges Perec
Life A User’s Manual
Ramón Pérez de Ayala
Benito Pérez Galdós
Charles Perrault
Persius
Fernando Pessoa
Sándor Petőfi
Petrarch
“Sonnet 90”
Petronius
Boris Pil’niak
Pindar
Olympian One
Pythian Odes Four and Five
Luigi Pirandello
Henry IV
Six Characters in Search of
an Author
Plato
Phaedrus
The Republic
The Symposium
Plautus
Amphitryo
The Brothers Menaechmus
The Pot of Gold
Plutarch
Lives of Lysander and Sulla
The Poetic Edda
Polybius
Francis Ponge
The Voice of Things
Vasko Popa
Vasco Pratolini
Jacques Prévert
Abbé Prévost
Manon Lescaut

Sextus Propertius
Marcel Proust
Against Sainte-Beuve
Remembrance of Things Past
Aurelius Clemens Prudentius
Bolesław Prus
Manuel Puig
Kiss of the Spider Woman
Aleksandr Pushkin
The Bronze Horseman
Eugene Onegin
Salvatore Quasimodo
Rachel de Queiroz
Raymond Queneau
The Blue Flowers
Zazie
Quintilian
François Rabelais
Gargantua and Pantagruel
Jean Racine
Athalie
Bajazet
Bérénice
Phaedra
Raymond Radiguet
The Devil in the Flesh
Miklós Radnóti
Rāmāya a
Erich Maria Remarque
All Quiet on the Western Front
Rendra
Rainer Maria Rilke
Seventh Duino Elegy
Sonnets to Orpheus
Arthur Rimbaud
“Alchimie du verbe”
“Le Bateau ivre”
“Fleurs”
Yannis Ritsos
Alain Robbe-Grillet
In the Labyrinth
The Voyeur
Nélson Rodrigues
Fernando de Rojas
Romain Rolland
The Romance of the Rose
Pierre de Ronsard
“Hymn to Autumn”
“Ode to Michel de l’Hospital”
“Quand vous serez bien
vieille . . .”
Edmond Rostand
Cyrano De Bergerac
Joseph Roth
The Radetzky March
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
The Confessions
Emile
The Reveries of a Solitary
The Social Contract

xxi


ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WRITERS AND WORKS

Claude Roy
Gabrielle Roy
Tadeusz Różewicz
Juan Rulfo
Jalalu’d-Din Muhammad Rumi
Ruzzante [or Ruzante]
Umberto Saba
Hans Sachs
The Wandering Scholar in
Paradise
Nelly Sachs
Marquis de Sade
Justine
Shaikh Muslih-al-Din Sa‘di
Rose Garden
Juan José Saer
Saigyō
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Night Flight
Saint-John Perse
Seamarks
Sallust
George Sand
Lélia
Jacopo Sannazaro
Sappho
Fragment 1 [“Address to
Aphrodite”]
Fragment 31 [“Declaration of
Love for a Young Girl”]
Nathalie Sarraute
Tropisms
Jean-Paul Sartre
The Age Of Reason
The Flies
Nausea
No Exit
Paul Scarron
Friedrich von Schiller
Don-Carlos
Mary Stuart
Ode to Joy
Wallenstein
William Tell
August Wilhelm and Friedrich von
Schlegel
Arthur Schnitzler
Professor Bernhardi
La Ronde
Bruno Schulz
Leonardo Sciascia
Eugène Scribe
George Seferis
Mythistorima
Ramón J. Sender
Seneca
Oedipus
Thyestes
Shiga Naoya
Shimazaki Haruki

xxii

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

Mikhail Sholokhov
Siburapha
Henryk Sienkiewicz
Angelos Sikelianos
“The Sacred Way”
Ignazio Silone
Bread and Wine
Fontamara
Georges Simenon
Antonio Skármeta
Juliusz Słowacki
Edith Södergran
Sasha Sokolov
A School for Fools
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Cancer Ward
One Day in the Life of Ivan
Denisovich
The Song of Roland
Sophocles
Ajax
Antigone
Electra
Oedipus at Colonus
Oedipus the King
Philoctetes
Women of Trachis
Madame de Staël
Gaspara Stampa
Stendhal
The Charterhouse of Parma
Scarlet and Black
Carl Sternheim
Adalbert Stifter
“Abdias”
Indian Summer
“Rock Crystal”
Theodor Storm
Immensee
The White Horseman
August Strindberg
The Ghost Sonata
Miss Julie
Snorri Sturluson
The Prose Edda
The Saga of King Óláf the Saint
Su Shi
Su Tong
Rice
Suetonius
Sūrdās
Italo Svevo
Confessions of Zeno
Wisława Szymborska
Tacitus
Annals
Rabindranath Tagore
The Tale of the Campaign Of Igor
Tang Xianzu
The Peony Pavilion

Tanizaki Jun’ichiro
Some Prefer Nettles
Tao Qian
Torquato Tasso
Aminta
Jerusalem Delivered
Tawfiq al-Hakim
Terence
The Brothers
The Eunuch
Phormio
Theocritus
“Idyll” I
“Idyll” IV
“Idyll” VII
Theophrastus
Characters
The Thousand and One Nights
Thucydides
Albius Tibillus
Ludwig Tieck
Tirso de Molina
The Trickster of Seville
Pramoedya Ananta Toer
The Fugitive
Ernst Toller
Tatyana Tolstaya
Lev Tolstoi
Anna Karenina
The Death Of Ivan Ilyich
The Kreutzer Sonata
War And Peace
Miguel Torga
Georg Trakl
“Grodek”
Iurii Trifonov
Tsushima Yuko
Marina Tsvetaeva
Gosvami Tulsīdās
Ivan Turgenev
Fathers and Sons
First Love
A Month in the Country
Miguel de Unamuno
The Christ of Velazquez
Mist
Sigrid Undset
Kristin Lavransdatter
Giuseppe Ungaretti
“Sirens”
Upanishads
Honoré d’Urfé
Luisa Valenzuela
Paul Valéry
“Le Cimetière marin”
“La Jeune Parque”
Ramón del Valle-Inclán
César Vallejo
“Considerando en frio”
“The Eternal Dice”


REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

Mario Vargas Llosa
The Vedas
Lope de Vega Carpio
Fuenteovejuna
Justice without Revenge
Peribáñez and the
Comendador of Ocaña
Giovanni Verga
The House by the Medlar Tree
Master Don Gesualdo
Paul Verlaine
“L’Angoisse”
“Art Poétique”
“Il pleure dans mon coeur . . .”
Jules Verne
Around The World In
Eighty Days
Tarjei Vesaas
Simon Vestdijk
Boris Vian
Gil Vicente
Auto da Barca do Inferno, Auto
da Barca do Purgatório,
Autoda Barca da Glória
Farsa de Inês Pereira
Alfred de Vigny
Chatterton
Military Servitude and Grandeur
“Moses”

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF WRITERS AND WORKS

François Villon
“Ballade des dames du
temps jadis”
“Ballade des Pendus”
Dev Virahsawmy
Virgil
The Aeneid
Georgics
Elio Vittorini
Conversation in Sicily
Voltaire
Candide
Philosophical Dictionary
Poem on the Disaster of Lisbon
Zadig
Joost van den Vondel
Mihály Vörösmarty
Walther von der Vogelweide
Water Margin
Frank Wedekind
The Lulu Plays
Spring Awakening
Peter Weiss
The Investigation
Marat/Sade
Sándor Weöres
Franz Werfel

Christoph Martin Wieland
Elie Wiesel
Stanisław Witkiewicz
Christa Wolf
Wolfram von Eschenbach
Parzival
Titurel
Willehalm
Stanisław Wyspiański
Xenophon
Xiao Hong
A. B. Yehoshua
Mr. Mani
Yosano Akiko
Marguerite Yourcenar
Memoirs of Hadrian
Evgenii Zamiatin
We
Zeami
Émile Zola
L’Assommoir
The Earth
Germinal
Mikhail Mikhailovich Zoshchenko
Count Miklós Zrínyi
Carl Zuckmayer

xxiii


CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF WRITERS
fl. 8th century BC(?)
fl. c. 700 BC
c. 612 BC– ?
c. 570 BC–c. 475 BC
525/524 BC–456 BC
518/522 BC–438/446 BC
c. 496 BC–406 BC
484 BC–420 BC
480/485 BC–c. 406 BC
c. 460 BC–c. 399 BC
c. 450 BC–c. 385 BC
c. 431 BC–c. 354 BC
c. 429 BC–347 BC
384 BC–322 BC
384 BC–322 BC
c. 370 BC–c. 287 BC
c. 342 BC–c. 295 BC
c. 300 BC– ?
c. 254 BC–c. 184 BC
fl. 250 BC
fl. 250 BC
239 BC–169 BC
c. 200 BC–c. 118 BC
c. 190 BC–159 BC
106 BC–43 BC
c. 100 BC–44 BC
c. 99 BC–c. 55 BC
86 BC–35 BC
c. 84 BC–c. 54 BC
70 BC–19 BC
65 BC–8 BC
64/59 BC–AD 12/17
c. 57 BC–19/18 BC
57/50 BC–c. 16 BC
43 BC–AD 17
c. 4 BC–AD 65
c. AD 30–c. AD 104
AD 34–AD 62
c. AD 35–c. AD 100
AD 39–AD 65
c. AD 46–c. AD 120
AD 50–AD 130
c. AD 56–c. AD 116
d. AD 66
c. AD 69–AD 160
c. AD 120–after AD 180
AD 121–AD 180
c. AD 123–after 163 AD
2nd/3rd century AD
c. AD 310–c. AD 395
fl. late 4th century AD
c. AD 347–AD 420
AD 348–AD 405
AD 354–AD 430
AD 365–427
fl. c. AD 400

Homer
Hesiod
Sappho
Anacreon
Aeschylus
Pindar
Sophocles
Herodotus
Euripides
Thucydides
Aristophanes
Xenophon
Plato
Aristotle
Demosthenes
Theophrastus
Menander
Theocritus
Plautus
Apollonius
Callimachus
Ennius
Polybius
Terence
Cicero
Caesar
Lucretius
Sallust
Catullus
Virgil
Horace
Livy
Tibullus
Propertius
Ovid
Seneca
Martial
Persius
Quintilian
Lucan
Plutarch
Juvenal
Tacitus
Petronius
Suetonius
Lucian
Aurelius
Apuleius
Longus
Ausonius
Claudian
St. Jerome
Prudentius
St. Augustine
Tao Qian
Kālidāsa

c. AD 480–AD 524
c. 497–545
c. 575–646
701/705–762
712–770
772–846
c. 915–965
c. 935–c. 1020
c. 978– ?
1037–1101
1048–1131
1054–1122
c. 1058–1139
c. 1118–1190
c. 1130–1220/1231
1160–1210/1220
c. 1165–1240
fl. c. 1170
c. 1170–c. 1230
1179–1241
c. 1181–1235
fl. late 12th century
fl. 1195–1220
fl. c. 1200
1207–1273
1209–1292
fl. c. 1250
c. 1255–1300
1265–1321
c. 1283–1352
c. 1300(?)–1377
1304–1374
1313–1375
1325/26–1389/90
c. 1337– ?
1363–1443
c. 1365–c. 1430
c. 1430– ?
1456–1530
1457–1521
c. 1465–c. 1536
1467–1536
1469–1527
1470–1520
1470–1547
1474–1533
1478/c. 1530–1583/1610
1478–1529
1483–1546
1483(?)–1553
1492–1547
1492–1549
1492–1556
1494–1576
c. 1495–1542
1498–1546/47

Boethius
Imru Al-Qays
Al-Khansa’
Li Bai
Du Fu
Bai Juyi
Al-Mutanabbi
Abu‘l Qāsim Ferdowsi
Murasaki Shikibu
Su Shi
Omar Khayyam
Al-Hariri
Ibn Khafajah
Saigyo
Farid al-Din Attār
Hartmann von Aue
Ibn Al-‘Arabi
Chrétien de Troyes
Walther von der Vogelweide
Snorri Sturluson
Ibn Al-Farid
Marie de France
Wolfram von Eschenbach
Gottfried von Strassburg
Jalalu’d-Din Rumi
Muslih-al-Din Sa‘di
Hadewijch
Guido Cavalcanti
Dante Alighieri
Kenko
Guillaume de Machaut
Petrarch
Giovanni Boccaccio
Shams al-Din Muhammad Hafiz
Jean Froissart
Zeami
Christine de Pizan
François Villon
Jacopo Sannazaro
Sebastian Brant
Gil Vicente
Desiderius Erasmus
Niccolò Machiavelli
Bernardo Dovizi da Bibbiena
Pietro Bembo
Ludovico Ariosto
Sūrdās
Baldassarre Castiglione
Martin Luther
François Rabelais
Vittoria Colonna
Marguerite de Navarre
Pietro Aretino
Hans Sachs
Ruzzante
Mīrā Bāī

xxv


CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF WRITERS

d. 1518
15221566
c. 15241554
1524/251580
15241585
15301584
15321623
15331592
15441595
15481600
15501616
1567(?)1625
15681639
15811647
15851618
15871679
15961687
16061684
16101660
16131680
16161664
16191655
16201664
16211695
16221673
16221676
16231662
16281703
16341693
16361711
16391699
16421693
16441694
16511695
16531725
16681747
16841754
16881763
16941778
16971763
16981782
17071793
17121778
17131784
17241803
17291781
17321799
17331813
17401814
17411803
17451792
17491803
17491832
17511792
17561831
17591805
17661817
17671845
17681848

xxvi

Kabr
Joachim Du Bellay
Gaspara Stampa
Luớs de Camừes
Pierre de Ronsard
Jan Kochanowski
Tulsds
Michel de Montaigne
Torquato Tasso
Giordano Bruno
Tang Xianzu
Honorộ dUrfộ
Tommaso Campanella
Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft
Gerbrandt Bredero
Joost van den Vondel
Constantijn Huygens
Pierre Corneille
Paul Scarron
Franỗois La Rochefoucauld
Andreas Gryphius
Cyrano de Bergerac
Count Miklús Zrớnyi
Jean de La Fontaine
Moliốre
Hans Jakob Christoffel von
Grimmelshausen
Blaise Pascal
Charles Perrault
Madame de Lafayette
Nicolas Boileau
Jean Racine
Ihara Saikaku
Bash
Sor Juana Inộs de la Cruz
Chikamatsu Monzaemon
Alain-Renộ Lesage
Ludvig Holberg
Marivaux
Voltaire
Abbộ Prộvost
Pietro Metastasio
Carlo Goldoni
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Denis Diderot
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Beaumarchais
Christoph Martin Wieland
Marquis de Sade
Choderlos de Laclos
Denis Fonvizin
Vittorio Aleri
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz
Willem Bilderdijk
Friedrich von Schiller
Madame de Staởl
August Wilhelm von Schlegel
Chateaubriand

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

17701843
17721801
17721829
17731853
1775(?)1831
17761822
17771811
17771843
17781842
17811838
17831842
17851859
17851863
17851873
17861859
17881857
17901869
17911861
17911872
17951829
17971848
17971854
17971856
17971863
17971869
17981837
17981855
17991837
17991850
18001855
18011836
18011862
18021870
18021885
18031870
18031899
18041875
18041876
18051868
18051875
18081855
18091849
18091852
18101857
18111872
18121859
18121891
18131837
c. 18131855
18131863
18131871
18141841
18171888
18181883
18191890
18191898
18201881
18211867
18211880
18211881

Friedrich Hửlderlin
Novalis
Friedrich von Schlegel
Ludwig Tieck
Caroline de la Motte Fouquộ
E.T.A. Hoffmann
Heinrich von Kleist
Friedrich de la Motte Fouquộ
Clemens Brentano
Adelbert von Chamisso
Stendhal
Bettina von Arnim
Jacob Grimm
Alessandro Manzoni
Wilhelm Grimm
Joseph von Eichendorff
Alphonse de Larmartine
Eugốne Scribe
Franz Grillparzer
Aleksandr Griboedov
Annette von Droste-Hỹlshoff
Jeremias Gotthelf
Heinrich Heine
Alfred de Vigny
Asadullh Khn Ghlib
Giacomo Leopardi
Adam Mickiewicz
Aleksandr Pushkin
Honorộ de Balzac
Mihỏly Vửrửsmarty
Christian Dietrich Grabbe
Johann Nepomuk Nestroy
Alexandre Dumas pốre
Victor Hugo
Prosper Mộrimộe
Guido Gezelle
Eduard Mửrike
George Sand
Adalbert Stifter
Hans Christian Andersen
Gộrard de Nerval
Juliusz Slowacki
Nikolai Gogol
Alfred de Musset
Thộophile Gautier
Zygmunt Krasiski
Ivan Goncharov
Georg Bỹchner
Sứren Kierkegaard
Friedrich Hebbel
Baron Júszef Eửtvửs
Mikhail Lermontov
Theodor Storm
Ivan Turgenev
Gottfried Keller
Theodor Fontane
Multatuli
Charles Baudelaire
Gustave Flaubert
Fedor Dostoevskii


REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

c. 1821–1883
1822–1896
1823–1849
1824–1895
1825–1898
1828–1905
1828–1906
1828–1910
1830–1870
1832–1910
1834–1886
1835–1907
1839–1908
1840–1902
1840–1922
1842–1898
1844–1896
1844–1900
1844–1924
1845–1900
1846–1870
1846–1916
1847–1912
1848–1907
1849–1912
1850–1893
1853–1995
1854–1891
1858–1940
1859–1943
1859–1952
1860–1887
1860–1904
1861–1928
1861–1941
1862–1921
1862–1922
1862–1931
1862–1944
1862–1946
1862–1949
1863–1923
1863–1933
1863–1938
1864–1918
1866–1944
1867–1902
1867–1916
1867–1916
1867–1936
1868–1918
1868–1936
1868–1955
1869–1907
1869–1951
1870–1953
1871–1922
1871–1936
1871–1945
1871–1950

Cyprian Kamil Norwid
Edmond Goncourt
Sándor Petöfi
Alexandre Dumas fils
Conrad Ferdinand Meyer
Jules Verne
Henrik Ibsen
Lev Tolstoi
Jules Goncourt
Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
José Hernández
Giosuè Carducci
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis
Émile Zola
Giovanni Verga
Stéphane Mallarmé
Paul Verlaine
Friedrich Nietzsche
Anatole France
José Maria de Eça de Queirós
Comte de Lautréamont
Henryk Sienkiewicz
Bolesław Prus
Joris-Karl Huysmans
August Strindberg
Guy de Maupassant
José Martí
Arthur Rimbaud
Selma Lagerlöf
Kostes Palamas
Knut Hamsun
Jules Laforgue
Anton Chekhov
Italo Svevo
Rabindranath Tagore
Georges Feydeau
Mori Ogai
Arthur Schnitzler
Jean Giraudoux
Gerhart Hauptmann
Maurice Maeterlinck
Louis Couperus
C. P. Cavafy
Gabriele D’Annunzio
Frank Wedekind
Romain Rolland
Masaoka Shiki
Rubén Darío
Natsume Sōseki
Luigi Pirandello
Edmond Rostand
Maksim Gor’kii
Paul Claudel
Stanisław Wyspiański
André Gide
Ivan Bunin
Marcel Proust
Grazia Deledda
Paul Valéry
Heinrich Mann

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF WRITERS

1872–1943
1873–1907
1873–1950
1873–1935
1873–1954
1874–1929
1875–1926
1875–1955
1876–1944
1877–1962
1878–1942
1878–1942
1878–1945
1878–1952
1878–1957
1880–1918
1880–1921
1880–1934
1880–1942
1881–1936
1881–1958
1882–1949
1883–1923
1883–1924
1883–1957
1883–1957
1883–1971
1884–1937
1884–1951
1885–1922
1885–1939
1885–1962
1885–1970
1886–1914
1886–1942
1886–1951
1886–1956
1886–1965
1887–1914
1887–1961
1887–1975
1888–1935
1888–1948
1888–1970
1888–1970
1889–1957
1889–1963
1889–1966
1889–1984
1890–1938
1890–1945
1890–1960
1891–1938
1891–1940
1891–1950
1891–1970
1891–1974
1892–1923
1892–1927
1892–1938

Shimazaki Toson
Alfred Jarry
Johannes V. Jensen
Henri Barbusse
Colette
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
Rainer Maria Rilke
Thomas Mann
Max Jacob
Hermann Hesse
Carl Sternheim
Yosano Akiko
Georg Kaiser
Ferenc Molnár
Alfred Döblin
Guillaume Apollinaire
Aleksandr Blok
Andrei Belyi
Robert Musil
Lu Xun
Roger Martin du Gard
Sigrid Undset
Jaroslav Hašek
Franz Kafka
Nikos Kazantzakis
Umberto Saba
Shiga Naoya
Evgenii Zamiatin
Angelo Sikelianos
Velimir Khlebnikov
Stanisław Witkiewicz
Isak Dinesen
François Mauriac
Alain-Fournier
Hagiwara Sakutaro
Hermann Broch
Gottfried Benn
Tanizaki Jun’ichiro
Georg Trakl
Blaise Cendrars
Saint-John Perse
Fernando Pessoa
Georges Bernanos
S.Y. Agnon
Giuseppe Ungaretti
Gabriela Mistral
Jean Cocteau
Anna Akhmatova
Henri Michaux
Karel Čapek
Franz Werfel
Boris Pasternak
Osip Mandel’shtam
Mikhail Bulgakov
Ivan Goll
Nelly Sachs
Pär Lagerkvist
Edith Södergran
Akutagawa Ryunosuke
César Vallejo

xxvii


CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF WRITERS

1892–1941
1892–1942
1892–1953
1892–1975
1893–1930
1893–1939
1893–1945
1893–1981
1894–1938
1894–1939
1894–1941(?)
1894–1961
1894–1982
1895–1925
1895–1952
1895–1958
1895–1960
1895–1970
1895–1974
1895–1989
1895–1998
1896–1928
1896–1933
1896–1948
1896–1953
1896–1957
1896–1966
1896–1966
1896–1977
1896–1981
1897–1970
1897–1982
1898–1956
1898–1970
1898–1971
1898–1987
1898–1993
1899–1966
1899–1972
1899–1974
1899–1986
1899–1988
1900–1944
1900–1970
1900–1971
1900–1977
1900–1978
1900–1984
1900–1987
1900–1991
1900–1999
1901–1938
1901–1968
1901–1976
1901–1990
1902–1967
1902–1975
1902–1983
1902–1987
1902–1989

xxviii

Marina Tsvetaeva
Bruno Schulz
Ugo Betti
Ivo Andrić
Vladimir Maiakovskii
Ernst Toller
Mario de Andrade
Miroslav Krleža
Boris Pil’niak
Joseph Roth
Isaak Babel
Louis-Ferdinand Céline
Nishiwaki Junzaburo
Sergei Esenin
Paul Éluard
Mikhail Mikhailovich Zoshchenko
Iurii Olesha
Jean Giono
Marcel Pagnol
Maria Kuncewicz
Ernst Jünger
Paul van Ostaijen
Miyazawa Kenji
Antonin Artaud
Martinus Nijhoff
Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa
André Breton
Heimito von Doderer
Carl Zuckmayer
Eugenio Montale
Tarjei Vesaas
Louis Aragon
Bertolt Brecht
Erich Maria Remarque
Simon Vestdijk
Tawfiq al-Hakim
Ibuse Masuji
Lao She
Kawabata Yasunari
Miguel Ángel Asturias
Jorge Luis Borges
Francis Ponge
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Leopoldo Marechal
George Seferis
Jacques Prévert
Ignazio Silone
Eduardo De Filippo
Gilberto Freyre
William Heinesen
Nathalie Sarraute
Ödön von Horváth
Salvatore Quasimodo
André Malraux
Ivar Lo-Johansson
Marcel Aymé
Carlo Levi
Gyula Illyés
Carlos Drummond de Andrade
Nicolás Guillén

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WORLD LITERATURE, 3rd EDITION

1902–1998
1903–1923
1903–1976
1903–1987
1903–1989
1904–1962
1904–1969
1904–1973
1904–1980
1905–1974
1905–1980
1905–1984
1905–1994
1906–1972
1906–1989
1907–1968
1907–1972
1907–1986
1907–1988
1907–1990
1907–1995
1908–1950
1908–1966
1908–1967
1908–1970
1908–1986
1909–1944
1909–1945
1909–1948
1909–1981
1909–1983
1909–1983
1909–1990
1909–1994
1910–1976
1910–1986
1910–1987
1910–
1911–1942
1911–1969
1911–1986
1911–1991
1911–1996
1911–
1911–
1912–1980
1912–1985
1912–2001
1913–1960
1913–1989
1913–1991
1914–1984
1914–1996
1914–1998
1915–1997
1916–1982
1916–1991
1916–2000
1917–1965
1917–1985

Halldór Laxness
Raymond Radiguet
Raymond Queneau
Marguerite Yourcenar
Georges Simenon
Abdulla Goran
Witold Gombrowicz
Pablo Neruda
Alejo Carpentier
Siburapha
Jean-Paul Sartre
Mikhail Sholokhov
Elias Canetti
Dino Buzzati
Samuel Beckett
Ding Ling
Gnter Eich
Mircea Eliade
René Char
Alberto Moravia
Miguel Torga
Cesare Pavese
Elio Vittorini
João Guimarães Rosa
Arthur Adamov
Simone de Beauvoir
Miklós Radnóti
Robert Brasillach
Dazai Osamu
Demetrio Aguilera Malta
Jerzy Andrzejewski
Gabrielle Roy
Yannis Ritsos
Eugène Ionesco
José Lezama Lima
Jean Genet
Jean Anhouilh
Rachel de Queiroz
Xiao Hong
José Mariá Arguedas
Fritz Hochwälder
Max Frisch
Odysseus Elytis
Naguib Mahfouz
Czesław Miłosz
Nélson Rodrigues
Elsa Morante
Jorge Amado
Albert Camus
Sándor Weöres
Vasco Pratolini
Julio Cortázar
Marguerite Duras
Octavio Paz
Claude Roy
Peter Weiss
Natalia Ginzburg
Giorgio Bassani
Johannes Bobrowski
Heinrich Böll


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