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1. Demonstrate the role that accounting and financial
information play for a business and its stakeholders.
2. Identify the different disciplines within the accounting
3. List the steps in the accounting cycle, distinguish
between accounting and bookkeeping, and explain
how computers are used in accounting.
4. Explain how the major financial statements differ.
5. Demonstrate the application of ratio analysis in
reporting financial information.
• Served in the Marines and
used his G.I. Bill to study
• Completed an
for veterans and launched
• He credits his knowledge of
accounting with the growth
of his business.
NAME that COMPANY
Accounting software makes financial information
available whenever the organization needs it.
We specialize in software that addresses the
accounting needs of small businesses that are
often very different from major corporations.
Name that company!
• Accounting Recording, classifying, summarizing
and interpreting of financial events and transactions in
an organization to provide interested parties needed
• Outside parties like employees, owners,
creditors, unions, investors and the government
make use of a firm’s accounting information.
The ACCOUNTING SYSTEM
• Managerial Accounting Provides information
and analysis to managers inside the organization to
assist them in decision making.
• Managerial accounting is involved with:
- Costs of production
- Costs of marketing
- Preparation and control of budgets
- Minimizing tax liabilities
USERS of ACCOUNTING
• Financial Accounting Financial information and
analyses are generated for people primarily outside
the organization. Outside users are interested in these
- Is the organization profitable?
- Is it able to pay its bills?
- How much debt does it owe?
• Annual Report A yearly statement of the financial
condition, progress, and expectations of the firm.
HOW to READ
an ANNUAL REPORT
• Key things to watch for and read:
analysis of operations
- Balance sheet
- Income statement
- Statement of cash
- Auditor’s opinion
PUBLIC vs. PRIVATE
• Private Accountants Work in a single firm,
government agency, or nonprofit organization.
• Public Accountants Provide accounting services
to individuals or businesses.
• Certified Public Accountants (CPAs)
Accountants who have passed a series of
examinations established by the
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AI
and met a states requirements for education and
WAYS to IMPROVE
Source: www.soxlaw.com, accessed November 2014.
• DoddFrank Wall Street Reform and Consumer
Protection Act increased financial regulation by
increasing the power of the Public Company
Accounting Oversight Board.
• Act was brought on by the recent financial crisis.
Photo Credit: Nancy Pelosi
AUDITING CHECKS ACCURACY
• Auditing Reviewing and evaluating the information
used to prepare a company’s financial statements.
• Independent Audit An evaluation and unbiased
opinion about the accuracy of a company’s financial
• Certified Internal Auditors (CIAs) Accountants
who have a bachelor’s degree and two years of
experience in internal auditing and pass an exam
administered by the Institute of Internal Auditors.
MR. AUDITOR, ELEMENTARY
• Fraud damages businesses, no matter the size.
• The SEC has committed itself to fighting fraud but not
all auditors and CPAs are trained in finding fraud.
• Colleges are offering advanced degrees in forensic
accounting to meet the upcoming demand for these
• Tax Accountants Accountants trained in tax law
and are responsible for preparing tax returns or
developing tax strategies.
• Government and Notfor
Support for organizations
whose purpose is not
generating a profit, but
serving others according to a
duly approved budget.
• What’s the key difference between managerial
and financial accounting?
• How’s the job of a private accountant different
from that of a public accountant?
• What’s the job of an auditor? What’s an
The ACCOUNTING CYCLE
• Accounting Cycle A sixstep procedure that
results in the preparation and analysis of the major
• Bookkeeping The recording of business
transactions. Bookkeepers divide a firm’s
transactions into meaningful categories and post
them into a record book or computer program called
• DoubleEntry Bookkeeping Bookkeepers
record all transactions in two places so they can
check one list of transactions against the other for
• Ledger A specialized
accounting book or
program where all
information is in one place.
• Trial Balance A
summary of all the
information in the account
TECHNOLOGY and ACCOUNTING
instantly and from
• Intuit’s QuickBooks
address the specific
needs of small
• How is the job of the bookkeeper different from
• What’s the purpose of accounting journals and a
• Why does a bookkeeper prepare a trial balance?
• How has computer software helped businesses
in maintaining and compiling accounting
• Financial Statement A summary of all the
financial transactions that have occurred over a
• Key financial statements of
- Balance sheet
- Income statement
- Statement of cash flows