How It Affects Business
Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
ECONOMICS: WHAT IS IT?
Economics -- The study of how society employs resources to produce goods and
services for distribution among various groups and individuals.
The MAJOR BRANCHES of
Macroeconomics -- Concentrates on the operation of a nation’s economy as a whole.
Microeconomics -- Concentrates on the behavior of people and organizations in
markets for particular products or services.
Resource Development -- The
study of how to increase resources
and create conditions that will make
better use of them.
Too many people
THOMAS MALTHUS and
the DISMAL SCIENCE
Malthus believed that if the rich had most of the wealth and the poor had most of the
population, resources would run out.
This belief led the writer Thomas Carlyle to call economics “The Dismal Science.”
Neo-Malthusians believe there are too many people in the world and believe the
answer is radical birth control.
Adam Smith (1776)
Freedom is vital
Adam Smith & the Creation of
ADAM SMITH the
FATHER of ECONOMICS
Smith believed that:
Freedom was vital to any economy’s survival.
Freedom to own land or property
and the right to keep the profits of a
business is essential.
People will work hard if they believe
they will be rewarded.
The INVISIBLE HAND THEORY
Invisible Hand -- When self-directed gain leads to social and economic benefits for the
As people improve their own situation in life, they help the economy prosper through
the production of goods, services and ideas.
INVISIBLE HAND THEORY
A farmer earns money by selling his crops.
To earn more, the farmer hires farmhands to
produce more crops.
When the farmer produces more, there is plenty of
food for the community.
The farmer helped his employees and his community
while helping himself.
Three Economic Systems
Three Economic Systems
Capitalism -- All or most of the land, factories and stores are owned by individuals, not
the government, and operated for profit.
Countries with capitalist foundations:
The Foundations of Capitalism
FOUR BASIC RIGHTS
The right to own private property.
The right to own a business and keep all that
The right to freedom of competition.
The right to freedom of choice.
Free Market -- Decisions about what and how much to produce are made by the market.
Consumers send signals about what they like and how they like it.
Price tells companies how much of a product they should produce. If something is
wanted but hard to get, the price will rise until more products are available.
Supply and Demand
Supply -- The quantities of products businesses are willing to sell at different prices.
Demand -- The quantities of products consumers are willing to buy at different prices.
Market Price (Equilibrium Point) -- Determined by supply and demand, this is the