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Management a practical introduction 3rd kinicky chapter 15

Management
A Practical Introduction
Third Edition
Angelo Kinicki &
Brian K. Williams

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Chapter 15: Interpersonal &
Organizational Communication

Mastering the Exchange of
Information
The Communication Process
Barriers to Communication
How Managers Fit into the Process
Communication in the Information Age
Improving Communication Effectiveness

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin



15.1 The Communication Process:
What It Is, How It Works
WHY DO WE NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE
COMMUNICATION PROCESS?
Communication is the transfer of information and
understanding from one person to another
Good communication skills, both written and oral,
are essential to success
One study found that managers spend over 80
percent of their day communicating
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.1 The Communication Process:
What It Is, How It Works
Communication is a process
The sender is the person wanting to share information,
called a message, and the receiver is the person for whom the
message is intended
Messages have to be encoded (translated into
understandable symbols or language)
Then, messages have to be decoded (interpreted and made
sense of)
The pathway by which a message travels is the medium
Feedback is the receiver’s reaction to the sender’s message
Any disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a
message is noise
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


The Communication Process

Basic Model

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction
3e ©2008,


McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006
The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc. All rights rese


15.1 The Communication Process:
What It Is, How It Works
Figure 15.1: The Communication Process

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


The Communication Process
Expanded Model

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction
3e ©2008,
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006
The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc. All rights rese


The Communication Process
What
assignment do
you mean?

Did you finish
your
assignment?

Noise!
Noise!

Sender

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Receiver

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction
3e ©2008,
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006
The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc. All rights rese


15.1 The Communication Process:
What It Is, How It Works
HOW DO MANAGERS KNOW WHICH TYPE OF
COMMUNICATION TOOL TO USE?
Managers need to know how to use the right type of
communication tool for a given situation
How well a particular medium conveys information and
promotes learning is referred to as media richness
Media are positioned along a continuum ranging from high
media richness (face-to-face communication) to low media
richness (impersonal written media like newsletters)
In nonroutine situations, a rich medium works best
In routine situations, a lean medium works better
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


The Selecting the Right Media

High Media Richness
(Best for nonroutine,
ambiguous situations)

Face-to-face
presence

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Videoconferencing

Low Media Richness
(Best for routine, clear
situations)

Telephone

Personal written
media (e-mail,
memos, letters)

Impersonal
written media
(newsletters,
fliers, general
reports)

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction
3e ©2008,
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006
The McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc. All rights rese


Chapter 15: Interpersonal &
Organizational Communication
CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
The pathway by which a message travels is called
A) encoding
B) decoding
C) the medium
D) feedback
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.2 Barriers To Communication
WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS TO
COMMUNICATION?
Communication barriers are anything that
interferes with accurate communication between two
people
There are three types of barriers:
1. Physical barriers include things like time-zone
differences, office walls, and crashed computers
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.2 Barriers To Communication
2. Semantic barriers occur when words can be
interpreted in different ways
Does “right away” mean today, tomorrow, in the
next hour?
The problem is intensified when jargon
(terminology specific to a particular profession or
group) is used
3. There are nine personal barriers that contribute to
miscommunication:
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.2 Barriers To Communication
-variable skills in communicating effectively
Some people are naturally better communicators
than others
-variations in how information is processed &
interpreted
People use different frames of reference and
experiences to interpret information
-variations in trustworthiness & credibility
Communication is often flawed when there is a lack
of trust between the sender and receiver
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.2 Barriers To Communication
-oversized egos
Egos influence how we treat each other and how
receptive we are to be influenced by others
-faulty listening skills
Sometimes, people simply fail to listen properly
-tendency to judge others’ messages
People judge others’ statements from their own
point of view
-inability to listen with understanding
It can be hard to put yourself in someone’s else’s
shoes and really listen
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.2 Barriers To Communication
-stereotypes & prejudices
Stereotypes consist of oversimplified beliefs about
a certain group of people and can influence
communication
-nonverbal communication
Gestures and facial expressions are an important
part of communication

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.2 Barriers To Communication
WHAT IS NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION?
Messages sent outside of the written or spoken word is
nonverbal communication
Nonverbal communication can be expressed through:
1. Interpersonal space (how close or far away one should be
when communicating) is a source of misunderstandings
Some cultures stand much closer than others
2. Interpretations of facial expressions like smiling can differ
across cultures
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.2 Barriers To Communication
3. Eye contact signals the beginning and end of
conversations, expresses emotions, monitors feedback, and
can express the type of relationship between the people
communicating
4. Body movements and gestures are culture specific, so
interpreting them can be difficult
5. Norms for touching vary significantly by country
6. Setting
The setting in which the communication takes place
influences how it is received
7. Time
Keeping people waiting, not providing adequate time for
tasks, and so on are all ways that time becomes a form of
nonverbal communication
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.2 Barriers To Communication
ARE THERE DIFFERENCES IN HOW MEN &
WOMEN COMMUNICATE?
There are a number of general differences in how
men and women communicate
Men tend to be more direct and blunt, women have
a softer approach, for example
Similarly, men tend to be stingy with praise while
women hand out lots of compliments
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.3 How Managers Ft Into The
Communications Process
HOW DO MANAGERS USE THE DIFFERENT
CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION?
There are both formal and informal channels of
communication
Formal communication channels follow the chain of
command and are recognized as official
There are three types of formal communications:
vertical, horizontal, and external
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.3 How Managers Ft Into The
Communications Process
1. Vertical communication flows up and down the
organizational hierarchy
Downward communication flows from a higher level to a
lower level while upward communication flows from a lower
level to a high level
2. Horizontal communication flows within and between work
units - its main purpose is coordination
Horizontal communication is encouraged through the use of
committees, task forces, and matrix structures
3. External communication flows between people inside and
outside the organization
It involves people like customers, suppliers, and
shareholders
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.3 How Managers Ft Into The
Communications Process
Informal communication channels develop outside
the formal structure and do not follow the chain of
command
Two informal channels are the grapevine (the
unofficial communication system of the informal
organization) and management-by-wandering around
(a manager literally walking around and talking with
people across all lines of authority)

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.4 Communication In
The Information Age
HOW CAN MANAGERS USE INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY TO COMMUNICATE?
Information technology can allow managers to communicate
more effectively
There are several types of information technology including:
1. The internet, intranets, & extranets
The Internet is a network of computer networks
Two private uses of the Internet are intranets (an
organization’s private Internet) and extranets (an extended
intranet that connects internal employees with selected
customers, suppliers, and other strategic partners)
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.4 Communication In
The Information Age
2. E-mail
E-mail (electronic mail that is sent via the Internet) reduces
the cost of distributing information, increases teamwork,
reduces paper costs, and increases flexibility
However, it can also lead to wasted time dealing with spam
(unsolicited jokes and junk mail), information overload, and
neglect of other media
3. Videoconferencing
Videoconferencing or teleconferencing uses video and audio
links along with computers to enable people in different
locations to see, hear, and talk with each other
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


15.4 Communication In
The Information Age
4. Group Support Systems
Group support systems use state-of-the-art
computer software and hardware to help people work
better together
They allow people to share information without time
or space constraints
Companies with these systems can create virtual
teams

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


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