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Management a practical introduction 3rd kinicky chapter 12

Management
A Practical Introduction
Third Edition
Angelo Kinicki &
Brian K. Williams

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Chapter 12: Motivating Employees

Achieving Superior Performance
in the Workplace
Motivating for Performance
What Motivates Employees?
Do Rewards Work?
How Should Jobs Be Designed?
What Incentives Should Be Used
Does Compensation Motivate?
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
2



12.1 Motivating For Performance
 Motivation: may be defined as the psychological
processes that arouse and direct goal-directed
behavior.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese
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12.1 Motivating For Performance
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
The psychological processes that arouse and direct
goal-directed behavior is motivation
In a simple model of motivation, people have needs
that motivate them to perform specific behaviors for
which they receive rewards that feed back and satisfy
the original needs
Rewards can be extrinsic (the payoff a person
receives from others for performing a particular task),
or intrinsic (the satisfaction a person receives from
performing the particular task itself)
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
4


Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Rewards
Extrinsic =
Outside
Recognitio
n
Promotion
s

Gifts


Intrinsic =
Inside
Feeling of
Job Well
Prid
Done
e

Sense of
Achieveme
nt

Praise

Salary
Increase

Status

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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12.1 Motivating For Performance
Figure 12.1: A Simple Model Of Motivation

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
6


12.1 Motivating For Performance
WHY IS MOTIVATION IMPORTANT?
It is important to motivate people to
 -join your organization
 -stay with your organization
 -show up for work at your organization
 -perform better for your organization
 -do extra for your organization
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
7


12.2 Content Perspectives
On Employee Motivation
WHAT KINDS OF NEEDS MOTIVATE
EMPLOYEES?
Theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people are
content perspectives or need-based perspectives
-where needs are defined as physiological or psychological
deficiencies that arouse behavior
Three content perspectives are Maslow’s hierarchy of
needs, McClelland’s acquired needs theory, and Herzberg’s
two-factor theory
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
8


12.2 Content Perspectives
On Employee Motivation
1. Abraham Maslow put forth the hierarchy of needs theory
which proposes that people are motivated by five levels of
needs:
At the most basic level, people try to fulfill physiological
needs (basic human needs like food, clothing, and shelter)
Next, are safety needs (physical safety, emotional security,
avoidance of violence)
Then, belongingness needs (love, friendship, affection)
Next, esteem needs (self-respect, status, reputation,
recognition, and self-confidence)
Finally, self-actualization needs (self-fulfillment increasing
competence, using abilities to the fullest)
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
9


12.2 Content Perspectives
On Employee Motivation
Figure 12.2: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
10


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: What the
Organization Can Do

5. SelfOffer adequate ventilation, heat,
actualization
water, base pay
needs

5. Selfactualization
needs
4. Esteem Needs
3. Belongingness Needs
2. Safety Needs
1. Physiological Needs

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese
11


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: What the
Organization Can Do (Cont.)

5. Selfactualization
needs

Offer safe working conditions, job
security, health and retirement
benefits

4. Esteem Needs
3. Belongingness Needs
2. Safety Needs
1. Physiological Needs

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese
12


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: What the
Organization Can Do (Cont.)

Offer interaction with others,
participation in workgroup, good5. Selfrelations with supervisors actualization
needs
5. Selfactualization
needs
4. Esteem Needs
3. Belongingness Needs
2. Safety Needs
1. Physiological Needs

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese
13


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: What the
Organization Can Do (Cont.)
Offer recognition, status,
challenges, merit pay, employee
participation in making decisions

5. Selfactualization
needs
4. Esteem Needs
3. Belongingness Needs
2. Safety Needs
1. Physiological Needs

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese
14


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: What the
Organization Can Do (Cont.)
Offer training, creativity,
promotions, employee control
over jobs
5. Selfactualization
needs
5. Selfactualization
needs
4. Esteem Needs
3. Belongingness Needs
2. Safety Needs
1. Physiological Needs
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese
15


Rules of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Unsatisfied
SelfActualizati
on
Esteem
Needs
Social Needs
(Belongingness)
Safety Needs
Physiological
Needs
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
16

Satisfie
d


Chapter 12: Motivating Employees
CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
Which of the following is not one of Maslow’s needs?
A) psychological needs
B) esteem needs
C) self-actualization needs
D) safety needs
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
17


Chapter 12: Motivating Employees
CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
Love, friendship, and affect needs are part of which
of Maslow’s five needs?
A) belongingness needs
B) esteem needs
C) self-actualization needs
D) safety needs
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
18


12.2 Content Perspectives
On Employee Motivation
2. David McClelland proposed the acquired needs theory
which argues that three needs (achievement, power, and
affiliation) are major motivators in the workplace
The three needs are associated with different sets of work
preferences
People with a high need for achievement excel in technical
fields that require creativity and individual skills
People who have a high need for power will do well in jobs
where they can control others and be publicly applauded for
their accomplishments
People with a high need for affiliation prefer work where
personal relationships and social approval are important
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
19


Needs Theories: McClelland


Acquired Needs Theory: states that three needs are
major motives determining people’s behavior in the
workplace:
 Need for achievement – desire to excel
 Need for affiliation – desire for friendly relations with
other people
 Need for power – desire to be responsible for other
people, to influence their behavior, or to control them
 Negative power – personal power
 Positive power – institutional power

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese
20


McClelland’s Three Needs

Achievement Affiliation

5. “well-balanced
SelfA
individual”
actualization
needs

Power
Achievement Affiliation

A “control freak”

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Power

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese
21


12.2 Content Perspectives
On Employee Motivation
3. Frederick Hertzberg proposed that work
satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two
different factors:
Lower level needs are usually handled through
hygiene factors (factors associated with job
dissatisfaction like salary and working conditions)
Higher level needs are associated with motivating
factors (factors associated with job satisfaction)
So, managers should eliminate dissatisfaction, then
focus on encouraging motivation
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
22


Herzberg’s Two-Factor Concept








Job-Related

Job Environment

(Motivators)

(Hygiene Factors)

Achievement
Recognition
Work Itself
Growth/Advancement
Responsibility
Peer Relationships

• Working Conditions
• Salary
• Policy &
Administration
• Supervision

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
23


12.2 Content Perspectives
On Employee Motivation

Figure 12.4:
Hertzberg’s TwoFactor Theory:
Satisfaction Versus
Dissatisfaction

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
24


A Comparison of Needs Theories:
Maslow, Herzberg, and McClelland
Maslow
Higher
level
needs

Lower
level
needs

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Self-actualization

Herzberg
5.
Selfactualization
needs

Motivating factors

McClelland
Achievement

Esteem

Power

Belongingness

Affiliation

Safety
Physiological

Hygiene factors

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights rese
25


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