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Management a practical introduction 3rd kinicky chapter 11

Management
A Practical Introduction
Third Edition
Angelo Kinicki &
Brian K. Williams

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Chapter 11: Managing Individual
Differences & Behavior

Supervising People as People
Values, attitudes, & behavior
Dealing with work-related attitudes &
behavior
Personality & individual behavior
Perception & individual behavior
Workplace stress

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2


11.1 Values, Attitudes, & Behavior
HOW DO INDIVIDUAL VALUES AND
ATTITUDES AFFECT PEOPLE’S ACTIONS?
Organizational behavior (OB) is dedicated to
better understanding and managing people at work
OB focuses on individual behavior and group
behavior and tries to help managers explain
behavior and predict behavior
Abstract ideals that guide one’s thinking and
behavior across all situations are values
For managers, values are the things for which
people are willing to work hard
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
3


Manager’s Toolbox
Leading Younger Workers in Attaining Job Satisfaction





By 2010 U.S. will have 8M more jobs than workers to do them
Companies will have to learn how to keep younger workers
Less trusting of authority in general and want success now
Suggestions on how to manage younger workers:
 Make training an obsession
 Allow them independent learning while creating bonds with
mentors
 Teach people by showing them their results
 Provide frequent feedback
 Provide frequent rewards for great performance

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


4 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Organizational Behavior



Organizational Behavior (OB): which is
dedicated to better understanding and
management of people at work.



Tries to help managers not only explain
workplace behavior, but also how to
predict it



Looks at:


Individual Behavior: values, attitudes, personality, perception,
and learning



Group Behavior: norms, roles, and teams

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
5 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Values & Attitudes
 Values: are abstract ideas that guide one’s
thinking and behavior across all situations.
 Fairly well set in early teens and dictate lifelong
behavior patterns
 Willing to work hard for
 Can be reshaped by significant life-altering events
 Compensation, recognition, and status – common
values in the workplace
 Younger workers may value balance between work
and life
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
6 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Values & Attitudes

 Attitudes: learned predispositions
toward given objects.
 Values are abstract ideals that are directed toward
all objects, people, or events
 Attitudes are beliefs and feelings that are directed
toward specific objects, people, or events
 Employees’ attitudes toward their jobs are stable
over time

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
7 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


11.1 Values, Attitudes, & Behavior
Attitudes have three components:
-the affective component consists of the
feelings or emotions one has about a situation
-the cognitive component consists of the
beliefs and knowledge one has about a situation
-the behavioral component (also known as the
intentional component) refers to how one
intends or expects to behave toward a situation
Together, values and attitudes influence
workplace behavior (actions and judgments)

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
8


The Three Components of Attitudes
1. Affective: consists of feelings or emotions one
has about a situation – “I feel.”


“I really like working from home.”

2. Cognitive: consists of the beliefs and
knowledge one has about a situation – “I
believe.”


“The tallest building in the world is in Chicago.” (wrong)

3. Behavioral (a.k.a. the intentional component):
refers to how one intends or expects to
behave toward a situation – “ I intend.”


McGraw-Hill/Irwin

“I intend to fill out my expense report tomorrow.”

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
9 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Examples of the Three Components
Affective

I hate people who talk on cell phones in restaurants
I hate putting on a suit for work
I really like working from home
I like commuting be train because I have time for myself
I don’t like working in office cubicles because they don’t have
doors so there’s no privacy

Cognitive

I can’t appoint Herschel because creative people don’t make
good administrators

The tallest building in the world is in Chicago

Behavioral

I intend to fill out my expense report tomorrow
I’m going to turn over a new leaf at New Year’s and stop eating
junk food

I’m going to try to avoid John because he’s a Democrat
I’m never going to talk to George because he’s a Republican
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
10 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


11.1 Values, Attitudes, & Behavior
The term cognitive dissonance was proposed by
Leon Festinger to describe the psychological
discomfort a person experiences between his or her
cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior
How people deal with the discomfort depends on
the importance of the elements creating dissonance,
how much control they have over the matters that
create dissonance, and what rewards are at stake
To reduce cognitive dissonance, people, change
their attitude and/or behavior, belittle the
importance of the inconsistent behavior, find
consonant elements that outweigh the dissonant
ones
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
12


11.2 Work Related Attitudes & Behaviors
Managers Need To Deal With
DO MANAGERS NEED TO PAY ATTENTION TO
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES?
Managers need to be aware that attitudes affect
behavior—a happy employee will perform better
Managers need to be particularly interested in job
satisfaction, job involvement, organizational
commitment, and organizational citizenship
1. The extent to which a person feels positively or
negatively about various aspects of their work is
their job satisfaction
Job satisfaction usually depends on things like
work, pay, promotions, co-workers, and supervision
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
13


11.2 Work Related Attitudes & Behaviors
Managers Need To Deal With
2. The extent to which people identify with or are
personally involved with their job is job
involvement
Satisfying work environments are likely to
promote job involvement
3. Organizational commitment reflects the extent
to which an employee identifies with an
organization and is committed to its goals
There is a strong relationship between
organizational commitment and job satisfaction
4. Employee behaviors that are not directly
part of employees’ job descriptions - that exceed
their work-role requirements are called
organizational citizenship behaviors
There is a positive relationship between
organizational citizenship and job satisfaction
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
14


11.2 Work Related Attitudes & Behaviors
Managers Need To Deal With
Managers need to manage two
behaviors: performance and productivity,
and absenteeism and turnover
The method a manager uses to evaluate
performance must match the job being
done
Absenteeism (when an employee doesn’t
show up for work) is related to job
dissatisfaction
Absenteeism may be a precursor to
turnover (when employees leave their
jobs)
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
16


11.3 Personality & Individual Behavior
WHY ARE PERSONALITIES IMPORTANT?
Personalities (stable psychological traits
and behavioral attributes that give people
their identity) are important for managers
to understand because they affect how
people perceive and act
The Big Five personality dimensions are
extroversion, agreeableness,
conscientiousness, emotional stability, and
openness to experience
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
17


11.3 Personality & Individual Behavior
where:
 -extroversion refers to how outgoing, talkative,
sociable, and assertive a person is
 -agreeableness refers to how trusting, goodnatured, cooperative, and soft-hearted, and
persistent one is
 -conscientiousness refers to how dependable,
responsible, achievement-oriented, and
persistent one is
 -emotional stability refers to how relaxed,
secure, and unworried one is
 -openness to experience refers to how
intellectual, imaginative, curious, and broadminded one is
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
18


Cautions About Using Personality
Tests in the Workplace



Use professionals



Don’t hire on the basis of personality tests
alone



Be alert for gender, racial and ethnic bias

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
19 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


11.3 Personality & Individual Behavior
DO PERSONALITY TESTS PREDICT
BEHAVIOR IN THE WORKPLACE?
Extroversion (an outgoing personality) has been
associated with management success
Conscientiousness (a dependable personality) is
strongly correlated with job performance and
training performance
An individual who scores well on
conscientiousness is probably a good worker and
may have a proactive personality (be more apt to
take initiative and persevere to influence the
environment)
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
22


Five Important Traits in Organizations
1. Locus of Control “I am/am not the master
of my fate.” : indicates how much people
believe they control their fate through
their own efforts.
 Internal Locus of Control – you believe you control
your own fate
 Probably resist close management supervision
 External Locus of Control – you believe external
forces control you
 Do better in highly structured jobs requiring
greater compliance
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
23 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Five Important Traits in Organizations
2. Self-efficacy – “I can/cannot do this
task.” : belief in one’s personal ability to
do a task.
 Involves your personal belief that you have what it
takes to succeed.
 High expectations are linked with all kinds of
positives
 Low self-efficacy associated with learned
helplessness – the debilitating lack of faith in one’s
ability to control one’s environment.

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
24 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Five Important Traits in Organizations
2. Self-efficacy (cont.)
 Job assignments
 Complex, challenging, and autonomous jobs
enhance people’s perceptions of their self-efficacy
 Boring, tedious jobs generally do the opposite
 Developing self-efficacy
 Employees with low self-efficacy need lots of
constructive pointers and positive feedback
 Expectations can be improved through guided
experiences, mentoring, and role modeling

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
25 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Five Important Traits in Organizations
3. Self-esteem – “I like/dislike myself.” : extent
to which people like or dislike themselves.
 People with high self-esteem
 More apt to handle failure better and to take on
more tasks
 When faced with pressure situations become more
egotistical and boastful
 People with low self-esteem
 When confronted with failure, have primarily
negative thoughts
 More dependent on others and less likely to take
independent positions
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
26 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Ways Managers Can Boost Employee SelfEsteem


Reinforce employee’s positive attributes and
skills



Provide positive feedback whenever possible



Break larger projects into smaller tasks and
projects



Express confidence in employees’ abilities to
complete their tasks



Provide coaching whenever employees are seen
to be struggling to complete tasks

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
27 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Five Important Traits in Organizations
4. Self-monitoring – “I’m fairly able/unable to
adapt my behavior to others.” : the extent to
which people are able to observe their own
behavior and adapt it to external situations.
 Some high self-monitors are criticized for being
chameleons
 Low self-monitors are often insensitive to others
 People in top management are more apt to be selfmonitors able to play different roles
 Positive relationship between high self-monitoring and
career success
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
28 © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Five Important Traits in Organizations
5. Emotional intelligence is the ability to
cope, empathize with others, and be selfmotivated
The traits of emotional intelligence are
self awareness, self-management, social
awareness, and relationship management

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
34


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