Tải bản đầy đủ

Management a practical introduction 3rd kinicky chapter 02

Management
A Practical Introduction
Third Edition
Angelo Kinicki &
Brian K. Williams

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Chapter 2: Management Theory

Essential Background For
Managers
 How We Got To Where We Are Today
 Classical Viewpoint
 Behavioral Viewpoint
 Quantitative Viewpoint
 Systems Viewpoint
 Contingency Viewpoint
 The Learning Organization
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2


2.1 Evolving Viewpoints: How We Got To
Today’s Management Outlook
WHY STUDY MANAGEMENT THEORIES?
Understanding theoretical perspectives of
management:
helps us understand the present
provides a guide to action
provides a source of new ideas
gives clues to the meaning of managers’ ideas
gives clues to the meaning of outside events
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
3


2.1 Evolving Viewpoints: How We Got To
Today’s Management Outlook
Two perspectives of management are:
the historical which includes three views—
classical, behavioral, and quantitative
the contemporary which includes three views—
systems, contingency, and quality-management

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
4


2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific &
Administrative Management
Figure 2.1: The Historical Perspective

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
5


2.1 Evolving Viewpoints: How We Got To
Today’s Management Outlook
IS MANAGEMENT AN ART OR A SCIENCE?


Management is both an art and a science
Evidence based management involves:
observing events and gathering facts
posing solutions or explanations based on those
facts
making predictions of future events
testing predictions under systematic conditions
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
6


Chapter 2: Management Theory
CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
Which of the following is a contemporary perspective
of management?
A) behavioral
B) classical
C) contingency
D) quantitative
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
7


Chapter 2: Management Theory
CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
Which of the following is a contemporary perspective
of management?
A) behavioral
B) classical
C) contingency
D) quantitative
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
8


2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific &
Administrative Management
WHAT IS THE CLASSICAL VIEWPOINT?
The classical view of management emphasizes
finding ways to manage work more efficiently using
two approaches:
scientific - emphasizes the scientific study of work
methods to improve productivity
administrative - concerned with managing the
total organization
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
9


Scientific Management

Frederick Taylor
Time-Motion

Gantt Charts
Gilbreths
Principle of
Motion Economy

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
10


2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific &
Administrative Management
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and Frederick W. Taylor
pioneered scientific management (emphasized the
study or work methods to improve the productivity of
individual workers)
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth focused on improving
efficiency, and popularized their ideas in the book
(and later, the movie), ‘Cheaper by the Dozen’

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
11


2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific &
Administrative Management
Frederick Taylor believed that managers could
eliminate underachievement, which he called
soldiering, by
1. evaluating a task scientifically
2. matching worker ability with the task
3. providing training and incentives
4. using scientific principles to plan work methods
and make it easier for workers to do their jobs

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
12


Administrative Management
HENRI FAYOL
MAX WEBER

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
13


2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific &
Administrative Management
Administrative management was pioneered by
Henri Fayol and Max Weber, and is concerned with
managing the total organization
Fayol identified the major functions of
management: planning, organizing, leading,
controlling, and coordinating
Weber believed that an organization should have:
a well-defined hierarchy of authority, formal rules and
procedures, a clear division of labor, impersonality,
and careers based on merit
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
14


Fayol’s Principles
of Organization
Unity of
Command
Hierarchy of
Authority
Division of Labor

Degree of
Centralization
Communication
Channels
Order

Subordination of Equity
Individual Interest
Esprit de Corps
Authority
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
15


Weber’s
Organizational Principles
Job Descriptions
Written Rules, decision
guidelines, and policies
Consistent Procedures,
Regulations, Policies
Staffing/Promotions based
on Qualifications
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
16


2.2 Classical Viewpoint: Scientific &
Administrative Management
THE PROBLEM WITH THE CLASSICAL
VIEWPOINT: TOO MECHANISTIC
The classical theory essentially argued that by
applying the scientific method, time and motion
studies, and job specialization, productivity could be
raised
However, this view may be too mechanistic
because it fails to consider human needs
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
17


2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism,
Human Relations, & Behavioral Science
WHAT IS THE BEHAVIORAL VIEWPOINT?
The behavioral viewpoint of management
emphasized the importance of understanding human
behavior and of motivating employees toward
achievement
This perspective was developed over three phases:
early behaviorism, the human relations
movement, and behavioral science
Behavioral theory was pioneered by Hugo
Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett, and Elton Mayo
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
18


2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism,
Human Relations, & Behavioral Science
Munsterberg believed that psychologists could
contribute to industry by:
1. studying jobs and identifying people suited to them
2. identifying the psychological conditions under
which employees do their best work
3. devising management strategies to encourage
employees to follow management’s interests

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
19


2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism,
Human Relations, & Behavioral Science
Follett believed that:
1. organizations should operate as communities with
managers and employees working cooperatively
2. organizations should resolve conflicts through
integration where managers and workers talked over
differences
3. managers should be facilitators, and workers
should control the work process

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
20


2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism,
Human Relations, & Behavioral Science
Mayo developed a theory known as the
Hawthorne Effect which suggested that
employees worked harder if they felt that
managers cared about their welfare and paid
attention to them

Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
21


2.3 Behavioral Viewpoint: Behaviorism,
Human Relations, & Behavioral Science
Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor pioneered the
human relations movement which proposed that better
human relations could increase worker productivity
Maslow argued that people are motivated by a hierarchy of
human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and selfactualization
McGregor theorized that a manager’s attitudes toward
employees could either be Theory X (pessimistic, negative), or
Theory Y (optimistic, positive)
Understanding the theory can help managers avoid attitudes
that become self-fulfilling prophecies
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
22


Chapter 2: Management Theory
CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
Understanding human resource behavior and motivating
employees toward achievement is part of the
A) classical viewpoint
B) administrative viewpoint
C) management science viewpoint
D) behavioral viewpoint
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
23


Chapter 2: Management Theory
CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
Understanding human resource behavior and motivating
employees toward achievement is part of the
A) classical viewpoint
B) administrative viewpoint
C) management science viewpoint
D) behavioral viewpoint
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
24


Chapter 2: Management Theory
CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
Who argued that people are motivated by a hierarchy
of human needs?
A) Fayol
B) Maslow
C) Gilbreth
D) Mayo
Kinicki/Williams, Management: A Practical Introduction 3e ©2008, McGraw-Hill/Irwin
25


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×