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business english 2e by mary chapter 13

1
3

Capitalization

MARY ELLEN GUFFEY AND CAROLYN M.
SEEFER

BUSINES
S
ENGLISH
12e

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a
publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license
distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected
website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
© Larysa Ray/Shutterstock. © Valeri Potapova/Shutterstock.


LEARNING

OUTCOMES

Level 1
▶ Properly capitalize sentence
beginnings, the pronoun I,
proper nouns, and proper
adjectives.
▶ Determine when to
capitalize geographic
locations, organization
names, academic courses
and degrees, and seasons.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. © Larysa Ray/Shutterstock

2


Basic Rules of
Capitalization
 Beginning of a Sentence
 The Pronoun I
 Proper Nouns
 Proper Adjectives
 Geographic Locations
 Organization Names
 Academic Courses and Degrees
 Seasons
©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,


duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
whole or
or in
in part,
part, except
except for
for use
use as
as permitted
permitted in
in a
a license distributed with a
license distributed
with a certain
product
or otherwise on
a password-protected
website
or school-approved
learning
management
for classroom
use. ©
certain
product or service
or otherwise
onora service
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3


 Beginning of a Sentence
 Capitalize the first letter of a word
beginning a sentence.
The Web has changed the way we
do business.
Companies today have many
social media tools at their fingertips
for marketing, communication,
and recruiting.

©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
whole or
or in
in part,
part, except
except for
for use
use as
as permitted
permitted in
in a
a license distributed with a
license distributed
with a certain
product
or otherwise on
a password-protected
website
or school-approved
learning
management
for classroom
use. ©
certain
product or service
or otherwise
onora service
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website
or school-approved
learning
management system
for classroom
use.system
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4


 The Pronoun I
 Capitalize the pronoun I, no matter
where it appears or how it is used in
a sentence.
I’m surprised that I’ve never seen
this movie before.
If I were you, I’d accept
the job offer.

©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
whole or
or in
in part,
part, except
except for
for use
use as
as permitted
permitted in
in a
a license distributed with a
license distributed
with a certain
product
or otherwise on
a password-protected
website
or school-approved
learning
management
for classroom
use. ©
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product or service
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onora service
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website
or school-approved
learning
management system
for classroom
use.system
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Ray/Shutterstock
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5


 Proper Nouns


Capitalize proper nouns, including the
specific names of persons, places,
schools, streets, parks, buildings,
holidays, events, months, days,
nicknames, agreements, websites,
software programs, apps, games,
historical periods, and so forth.



Do NOT capitalize common nouns that
make general references.
Gulf Oil Company

Gulf gasoline

Amazon.com website UC Davis
campus
©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
whole or
or in
in part,
part, except
except for
for use
use as
as permitted
permitted in
in a
a license distributed with a
license distributed
with a certain
product
or otherwise on
a password-protected
website
or school-approved
learning
management
for classroom
use. ©
certain
product or service
or otherwise
onora service
password-protected
website
or school-approved
learning
management system
for classroom
use.system
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Ray/Shutterstock
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6


 Proper Adjectives
 Capitalize most adjectives that are
derived from proper nouns.
European economy
Japanese imports
Victorian attitudes
Boston baked beans
Internet legislation
French doors
©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
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copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
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in part,
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except for
for use
use as
as permitted
permitted in
in a
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license distributed
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7


 Proper Adjectives
 Do NOT capitalize those adjectives
originally derived from proper nouns
that have become common
adjectives through usage.
manila folders
india ink
charlie horse

french fries
diesel engine
china dishes

©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
whole or
or in
in part,
part, except
except for
for use
use as
as permitted
permitted in
in a
a license distributed with a
license distributed
with a certain
product
or otherwise on
a password-protected
website
or school-approved
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8


How can you
tell which
proper
adjectives are
no longer
capitalized?

When in
doubt, consult
a dictionary or
reference manual.
©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
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in part,
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for use
use as
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permitted in
in a
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license distributed
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9


 Geographic Locations
 Capitalize the names of specific
places such as continents, countries,
states, cities, counties, mountains,
valleys, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans,
geographic regions, neighborhoods,
and subdivisions.
Washington, DC Mediterranean
Sea
Monroe County
Kansas City

Mt. St. Helens

Harlem

©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
whole or
or in
in part,
part, except
except for
for use
use as
as permitted
permitted in
in a
a license distributed with a
license distributed
with a certain
product
or otherwise on
a password-protected
website
or school-approved
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for classroom
use. ©
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product or service
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website
or school-approved
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Ray/Shutterstock
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10


 Geographic Locations
 Do NOT capitalize the words city,
county, or state when they precede
geographic locations unless they are
part of the official geographical
name or unless they are used by a
governing body as part of an official
name.
city of Baltimore

county of Forsyth
state of Florida
©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
whole or
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in part,
part, except
except for
for use
use as
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permitted in
in a
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license distributed
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11


 Organization Names
 Capitalize the principal words in the
names of all business, civic,
educational, government, labor,
military, philanthropic, political,
professional, religious, sports, and
social organizations.

American Booksellers Association
JPMorgan Chase
Emory University
United States Navy

©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
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in whole
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in part,
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except for
for use
use as
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in a
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license distributed
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12


 Organization Names
 Capitalize the article the only when
it is part of an organization’s official
name.
The Walt Disney Company

The George Washington University

 When military terms are used alone,
they are considered generic and are
not capitalized.
The army and navy are both recruiting
on campus today.
©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
whole or
or in
in part,
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except for
for use
use as
as permitted
permitted in
in a
a license distributed with a
license distributed
with a certain
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for classroom
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website
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Ray/Shutterstock
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13


 Organization Names


Do NOT capitalize words such as company,
committee, association, and board when
they are used to replace full organization
names in informal documents.
It appears that the company is making a
profit. (Informal document)

©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
whole or
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in part,
part, except
except for
for use
use as
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14


 Organization Names


If words such as company, committee,
association, and board are preceded by
the word the and are used in formal or legal
documents (contracts, bylaws, minutes),
they may be capitalized.
As legal agent of the
Company, I am authorized
to make purchases.
(Formal document)

©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
be scanned,
scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
posted to
to a
a publicly
publicly accessible
accessible website,
website, in
in whole
whole or
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in part,
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except for
for use
use as
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15


 Academic Courses and
Degrees


Capitalize the names of numbered
courses and specific course titles.



Do NOT capitalize the names of
academic subject areas unless they
contain a proper noun.
This semester I’m taking Marketing 260
and Finance 330.
This semester I’m taking marketing and
finance classes.
I enjoy studying history and Spanish.

©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
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copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
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16


 Academic Courses and
Degrees


Capitalize abbreviations of academic
degrees whether they stand alone or
follow individuals’ names.



Do NOT capitalize general references to
degrees unless they are used after and
in conjunction with an individual’s
name.
Janet G. Adams, EdD, is a professor at
Minnesota State University.

Paige Baker holds a master’s degree in
accounting.
©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
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scanned, copied
copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
or posted
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to a
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17


 Seasons
 Do NOT capitalize seasons unless
they are combined with a year in
promotional material or with a
specific title, such as a school term.
We hire clerks in the fall and winter
only.
Anthropologie will begin its Spring
2017 sale tomorrow.
Justin just registered for the Fall
2018 semester at NYU.
©
© 2017
2017 Cengage
Cengage Learning®.
Learning®. May
May not
not be
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copied or
or duplicated,
duplicated, or
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to a
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accessible website,
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in whole
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in a
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18


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Make any
necessary
corrections to
capitalization.

1. The university of
Michigan is offering full
Scholarships.
The University of
Michigan is offering full
scholarships.
Proper Noun/Common
Noun

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. © Larysa Ray/Shutterstock
Larysa Ray/Shutterstock

19


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Make any
necessary
corrections to
capitalization.

2. Brooke and i saw many
victorian homes in
Alameda county.
Brooke and I saw many
Victorian homes in
Alameda County.
The Pronoun I /Proper
Adjective/Geographic
Location

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. © Larysa Ray/Shutterstock
Larysa Ray/Shutterstock

20


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Make any
necessary
corrections to
capitalization.

3. Located north of san
francisco is the County
of Marin.
Located north of San
Francisco is the county
of Marin.
Geographic Locations

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. © Larysa Ray/Shutterstock
Larysa Ray/Shutterstock

21


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Make any
necessary
corrections to
capitalization.

4. Last Spring they installed
italian marble in their
entryway.
Last spring they
installed Italian marble
in their entryway.
Season/Proper Adjective

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. © Larysa Ray/Shutterstock
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22


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Make any
necessary
corrections to
capitalization.

5. Do you want French
fries or chinese chicken
salad?
Do you want french
fries or Chinese chicken
salad?
Common Adjective/Proper
Adjective

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. © Larysa Ray/Shutterstock
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23


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Make any
necessary
corrections to
capitalization.

6. The united states postal
service offers Online bill
paying.
The United States
Postal Service offers
online bill paying.
Organization
Name/Common Noun

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. © Larysa Ray/Shutterstock
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24


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Make any
necessary
corrections to
capitalization.

7. She plans to take Math
and Psychology courses
next semester.
She plans to take math
and psychology courses
next semester.
Academic Courses

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. © Larysa Ray/Shutterstock
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25


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