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business english 2e by mary chapter 07

7
Adjectives
and Adverbs
MARY ELLEN GUFFEY AND CAROLYN M.
SEEFER

BUSINES
S
ENGLISH
12e

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LEARNING
OUTCOMES


Level 1
▶ Decide whether to use
adjectives or adverbs in
sentences.
▶ Form the comparative and
superlative degrees of
regular and irregular
adjectives and adverbs.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
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2


Basic Functions of
Adjectives and Adverbs
 When to Use Adjectives
 When to Use Adverbs
 Comparatives and Superlatives:
Regular Adjectives and Adverbs
 Comparatives and Superlatives:
Irregular Adjectives and Adverbs

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2017 Cengage
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3


 When to Use Adjectives
 Use adjectives to describe or limit
nouns and pronouns.
She has a yellow sportscar.
The company released an exciting
product.

 Use adjectives (not adverbs)
following linking verbs.
Her engine sounds loud (not loudly).
She felt bad (not badly) about the
noise.
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4


 When to Use Adverbs
 Use adverbs (not adjectives) to
describe or limit verbs, adjectives,
and other adverbs.
 Use adverbs following action
verbs.
Don’t take her comments personally
(not personal).
The engine runs smoothly
(not smooth).

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5


 Comparatives and
Superlatives: Regular
Adjectives
Positive

Short
Adjective
s

big
clever
high
quiet
easy
pretty

Comparativ
e

bigger
cleverer
higher
quieter
easier*
prettier*

Superlative

biggest
cleverest
highest
quietest
easiest*
prettiest*

*Note: If the word ends in y, change the y to i.
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6


 Comparatives and
Superlatives: Regular
Adjectives
Comparativ
e

Superlative

more/less
beautiful
more/less
efficient efficient
more/less
useful
useful

most/least
beautiful
most/least
efficient
most/least
useful

Positive

Longer
Adjective
s

beautif
ul

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7


 Comparatives and
Superlatives: Regular
Adverbs
Positive

Comparativ
e

Superlative

Short
Adverbs

fast
quick

faster
quicker

fastest
quickest

Longer
Adverbs

slowly

more/less
slowly
more/less
carefully
more/less
costly

most/least
slowly
most/least
carefully
most/least
costly

carefull
y
costly

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8


 Comparatives and
Superlatives: Irregular
Adjectives and Adverbs
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Adjective
s

bad
good
little

worse
better
less

worst
best
least

Adverbs

badly
many
much
well

worse
more
more
better

worst
most
most
best

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9


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Choose the
correct
word(s) to
complete
these
sentences.

1. Of the two finalists, we
chose the (better/best).
2. Please use the
(quietest/most quiet)
(either is
office for the interview.
OK)

3. Deborah is the
(efficientest/most
efficient) paralegal at
the firm.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
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10


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Choose the
correct
word(s) to
complete
these
sentences.

4. Our profits are
(higher/more higher)
than they were last
year.
5. My supervisor is
(patienter/more patient)
than yours.
6. Of the three candidates,
Juan is definitely the
(better/best).

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
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11


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Choose the
correct
word(s) to
complete
these
sentences.

7. Ted speaks (more
confident/more
confidently) since he
took a speech course.
8. This machine prints
(faster/more faster)
than our old printer did.
9. Stacy ran the (most
fast/fastest) in the race.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
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12


TRY YOUR
SKILL

Choose the
correct
word(s) to
complete
these
sentences.

10. In his speech course,
Ted learned to speak
(more slower/more
slowly).
11. Time passed
(slow/slowly) on the
plane.
12. Jeff felt (bad/badly)
about his low test score.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use. ©
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13


LEARNING
OUTCOMES

Level 2
▶ Use articles, demonstrative
adjectives, possessive
adjectives, compound
adjectives, and independent
adjectives correctly.
▶ Avoid double negatives.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
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14


Modifiers That Deserve
Special Attention
 Articles
 Demonstrative Adjectives
 Possessive Adjectives
 Compound Adjectives
 Independent Adjectives
 Double Negatives

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15


 Articles
 For ease in pronunciation, use the
article an before singular nouns
beginning with vowel sounds.
an
an
an
an

office
excellent idea
honor (h is not sounded)
unnecessary report

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16


 Articles
 Use the article a before singular
nouns beginning with consonant
sounds.
a building
a house
a one-day leave (o sounds like
consonant w)
a utility (u sounds like
consonant y)
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17


 Articles
 Use the article the before singular
or plural nouns beginning with
consonant or vowel sounds.
the
the
the
the
the

president
board room
decisions
actions
unique characteristics

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18


 Demonstrative Adjectives
 Use the singular demonstrative
adjectives this and that with
This brand
of paper is excellent.
singular
nouns.
That kind of employee is
valued.

 Use the plural demonstrative
adjectives these and those with
plural nouns.

These brands of paper are cheaper.
These kinds of employees are hard to
find.

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19


 Possessive Adjectives
 Some possessive pronouns serve
as possessive adjectives when
they describe nouns.
My job is challenging.
We received your application.
His wife was transferred to Boston.
We have made our decision.
Hint: Notice that possessive adjectives
come before the nouns they are
describing.
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20


 Compound Adjectives
 Words joined together to form a single
adjective before a noun should be
hyphenated.
This is a one-of-a-kind offer.
(BUT: This offer is one of a kind.)
Our five-year-old company is
thriving.
(BUT: Our company is five years
old.)
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21


 Compound Adjectives
 A few compound adjectives contain
permanent hyphens, regardless of
where they are in a sentence.
Examples of these words are firstclass, well-known, and up-to-date.
Consult your dictionary for guidance.
We need up-to-date transcripts for
admission.
Her technology credentials are up-todate.

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22


 Compound Adjectives
 Do not hyphenate ly-ending adverbs
preceding nouns.
The newly opened clinic
is on Third Street.
Our recently hired intern
is impressive

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23


 Compound Adjectives:
Does a Hyphen Really
Matter?
1. Which is correct?

In normal times the company
employs a hundred odd workers.
OR

In normal times the company
employs a hundred-odd workers.

See the difference?
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24


 Independent Adjectives
 Two or more consecutive adjectives
that independently modify a noun
should be separated by commas.
 No comma is needed unless the
word and can be inserted between
Headjectives.
bought a newer, better laptop.
the
(Read “newer and better” laptop.)

He is driving a tiny sports car. (No
comma needed because we would
not say “tiny and sports car.”)
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25


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