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business english 2e by mary chapter 05

5
Verbs

MARY ELLEN GUFFEY AND CAROLYN M.
SEEFER

BUSINES
S
ENGLISH
12e

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a
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LEARNING
OUTCOMES


Level 1
▶ Identify transitive,
intransitive, linking, and
helping verbs.
▶ Recognize the functions and
uses of active- and passivevoice verbs.
▶ Use correctly verbs in the
present, past, and future
tenses.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
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2


Three Types of Verbs
 Action

 Linking

Action Verbs:
Tell what a subject
does, including
physical and mental
actions.

 Helping

Mark Zuckerberg
created the
Facebook site.
(Physical action)
He wants people of
all ages to use this
social networking site.
(Mental action)

©
© 2017


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3


Action Verbs: Two Kinds
 Action
Action Verbs:
Can be transitive or
intransitive
Transitive Verb:
Expresses an action
toward a person or thing;
requires a direct object
(noun or pronoun) to
complete its meaning

The committee
developed
guidelines for its
task.
(The transitive verb
developed directs
action toward its
object guidelines.)

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4


Action Verbs: Two Kinds
 Action
Action Verbs:
Can be transitive or
intransitive
Intransitive Verb:
Expresses action but
does not require an
object to complete its
meaning

Kim Collins works
for a large
marketing firm.
(The noun firm is
the object of the
preposition for, not
an object of the
verb works.)

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5


TRY YOUR
SKILL

What are the
transitive
verbs and
their objects
in these
sentences?

1. McDonald’s gave
coupons to the winners.
2. The winners ate free
Big Macs.
3. Please run the program
a second time.
4. Place your trash in the
bin.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
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6


TRY YOUR
SKILL

What are the
5. Greg listened carefully
intransitive
to the proposal.
verbs in these
6. I worked at that job for
sentences?
nine years.
7. Before the test Jackie
studied very hard.
8. She sang out of tune.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
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7


Three Types of Verbs
 Action

 Linking

Linking Verbs:
“Link” or join the subject
to its complement
Complement:
A noun, pronoun, or
adjective that
renames
or describes the subject

 Helping

Betty Ray is the new
vice president.
(The linking verb is
joins the
complement vice
president to the
subject.)

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8


Three Types of Verbs
 Linking

Some linking verbs are
derived from the verb to
be: am, is, are, was,
were, be, being, been.
Others are words that
describe sense
experiences: feel,
appear, taste, seem,
sound, smell, etc.

The engine sounds
good.
(The linking verb
sounds joins the
complement good,
which is an
adjective that
describes the
subject engine.)

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9


TRY YOUR
SKILL

What are the
linking verbs
and
complements
in these
sentences?

1. The caller could have
been Jeremy.
2. It was he who called
yesterday.
3. Sheila felt bad about
the news.
4. Max looks sharp in his
new suit.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
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10


Three Types of Verbs
 Action

 Linking

Helping Verbs:
Added to main verbs to
create verb phrases
Common Helping
Verbs:
Forms of to be
Forms of to have
Forms of to do
Can, must, ought,
might, could, will, etc.

 Helping

Kim Collins is
applying for a new
job.
(The helping verb is
plus the main verb
applying create a
verb phrase.)

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11


TRY YOUR
SKILL

What are the
1. The applicant could
helping verbs
have arrived earlier.
and main
2. It can be difficult to
verbs in these
accept change.
sentences?
3. Susan has run a mile in
less than seven
minutes.
4. Ben must learn his new
job duties.
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
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12


Verb Voices: Two
Categories of Transitive
Verbs
 Active Voice

 Passive Voice

Active Voice:
When the verb expresses an action directed
by the subject toward the object of the verb

 Writing that uses active-voice verbs is clear,
direct, and forceful.
 Active voice is called the voice of
business
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13


Verb Voices: Two
Categories of Transitive
Verbs
 Active Voice

 Passive Voice

Passive Voice:
When the action of a transitive verb is directed
toward the subject




Passive-voice verbs may be used to disguise
the “doer” or agent of an action. They may also
be used when indirectness is desired.
Passive voice is called the voice of tact.

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14


Active Voice v. Passive
Voice
Active Voice

We answer e-mail
messages within 24
hours.
DataPro expanded
its
operations in the
Southwest.
Mr. Lee
miscalculated
current operating
expenses.

Passive Voice

E-mail messages are
answered within 24
hours.
Operations in the
Southwest were
expanded.
Current operating
expenses were
miscalculated.

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15


TRY YOUR
SKILL

What are the
1. The bank stopped
active-voice
payment on the check
verbs and
last week.
passive-voice
verbs in these 2. Taylor discovered the
losses.
sentences?
3. The losses were
discovered last week.
4. Statements were issued
for all past-due

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
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16


Primary Tenses of Verbs
PresentTense Verbs

Past-Tense
Verbs

Express
current or
habitual
actions

Show
completed
actions

FutureTense
Verbs
Show
actions that
are
expected to
occur at a
later time

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17


Primary Tenses of Verbs
PresentTense Verbs

Past-Tense
Verbs

The tense you
see in the
dictionary

Generally
formed by
adding d or
ed to the
present tense
of regular
verbs

FutureTense
Verbs
Formed by
adding will or
shall to the
present tense
of the verb

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18


Primary Tenses of Verbs
Examples
PresentTense Verbs

Past-Tense
Verbs

Halle works
in the
Marketing
Department.

She
worked
late
yesterday.

FutureTense
Verbs
She will
work on
that project
next week.

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19


Challenges Using Primary
Tenses
 Third-person singular verbs require an
-s ending. This -s ending is not added to
other singular verbs.
First-person singular:
I enjoy tackling challenging projects.

Second-person singular:
You enjoy taking long walks after dinner.

Third-person singular:
He enjoys playing baseball with his son.
Brianna enjoys skiing in the winter.
Our dog enjoys eating our leftovers.
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20


Challenges Using Primary
Tenses
 Timeless Facts: use present-tense verbs,
even if the verbs occur with other pasttense verbs.
What is (not was) the name of the person who
called me yesterday?

 Verbs changing form: watch for verbs
ending in y and some with the final
consonant doubled.
Sonia hurried (not hurryed) to catch the train.
What important events occurred (not
occured) last year?
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21


TRY YOUR
SKILL

1. You (plan, plans) to apply
Select the
for the position, don’t you?
correct verb to
2. He (plan, plans) to apply
complete
for the position too.
these
3. What (is, was) your maiden
sentences.

name?

4. We (tryed, tried) our best
to accommodate everyone.
5. She (refered, referred) to
her earlier message.
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
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22


LEARNING
OUTCOMES

Level 2
▶ Recognize and use correctly
participles, gerunds, and
infinitives.
▶ Identify and remedy dangling
verbal phrases and other
misplaced modifiers.
▶ Understand and apply the
subjunctive mood correctly.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a
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23


Present and Past
Participles
 To be able to use verbs correctly,
you must recognize present
participles and past participles.
Both participles form verb
Helper(s) + Main Verb = Verb
phrases.
Phrase

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24


 Present Participle
 Present participle: formed by
adding ing to the present part of the
verb
 When used in a sentence, the present
participle is generally preceded by
some form of the helping verb to be
Theis,
contract
is lying
on the
(am,
are, was,
were,
be,desk.
been).
We are analyzing both proposals.

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25


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