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business english 2e by mary chapter 02

2
Sentences

MARY ELLEN GUFFEY AND CAROLYN M. SEEFER

BUSINESS
ENGLISH
12e

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management
system for classroom use.
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L E A R N I N G

O U T C O M E S

▶.


Recognize basic sentence elements including subjects and predicates.

▶.

Differentiate among phrases, dependent clauses, and independent
clauses.

▶.

Understand how to use simple, compound, complex, and compoundcomplex sentences.

▶.

Identify four basic sentence patterns.

▶.

Punctuate statements, questions, commands, and exclamations.

▶.

Use techniques to avoid three basic sentence faults: fragments,
comma splices, and run-on sentences.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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2


Sentence Elements

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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3



Sentence
Sentence: A group of words that:





Contains a subject
Includes a predicate
Expresses a complete thought

Sentence
Subject

Elements

Predicate

Completeness
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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© Larysa Ray/Shutterstock

4


Sentence
Elements

Subject

Simple subject: a noun or a pronoun that tells who or what the
sentence is about

Complete subject: includes all modifiers

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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5


Four Tips for Locating Subjects

To locate a sentence subject, ask Who or what is being discussed?
The manager hires all new employees.
Who is being discussed?

Training programs educate new employees.
What is being discussed?

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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6


Four Tips for Locating Subjects

Ignore prepositional phrases.
The manager of the program for all new

hires in our division

called a meeting.
Who is being discussed?
Where are the prepositional

phrases?

Sentences may have multiple subjects.
The president, controller, and
supervisor gave their approval.
Who is being discussed?
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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7


Four Tips for Locating Subjects

Reword inverted sentences to locate the subject.
Sitting in the front row is Rachel.
Who is being discussed?
Reword: Rachel is sitting in the

front row.

Did any other candidates qualify?
Who is being discussed?

Reword: Other candidates did

qualify?

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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8


Sentence
Elements

Predicate

Simple predicate: a verb or verb phrase that tells or asks what
the subject is doing or what is being done to the subject

Complete predicate: includes modifiers, objects, and
complements

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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© Larysa Ray/Shutterstock

9


TRY
TRY YOUR
YOUR SKILL
SKILL

In this sentence what is the

1. Simple subject?
2. Complete subject?
3. Simple predicate?
4. Complete predicate?

manager (simple subject)
A manager from ComStar (complete
subject)
has been calling (simple predicate)
has been calling you (complete
predicate)

A manager from ComStar has been calling
you.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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10


Sentence
Elements

Completeness

In addition to having subjects and predicates, sentences must be complete.
Examples:
Two technology companies merged. (This sentence has a subject and a
predicate and is complete.)

Which explains the jump in stock price. (This fragment, broken off from
another sentence, is incomplete and doesn’t make sense.)

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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11


Recognizing Phrases and Clauses
Complete
Sentences

Phrases

Clauses

Phrase: a group of related words WITHOUT a subject and a verb

Kim came to the interview in the morning. She had been told to
arrive at 10 a.m. (These sentences have five different phrases. Can
you find them?)

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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12


Recognizing Phrases and Clauses
Complete
Sentences

Phrases

Clauses

Clause: a group of related words WITH a

subject and a verb
Independent clauses can stand alone.
Dependent clauses rely on independent
clauses for their meaning. Cannot stand alone.
When she arrived, she introduced herself. If she was afraid,
she didn’t show it. (Which clauses are independent?
Dependent?)

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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13


Sentence Varieties

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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14


Four Sentence Varieties

Simple sentence: has one independent clause―that is, one
clause that can stand alone

Each interviewee sent a résumé.

Compound sentence: has two or more independent clauses.

Kim spent many hours preparing her résumé, and she
practiced her answers to typical interview questions.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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15


Four Sentence Varieties

Complex sentence: has one independent clause and one
dependent clause

When Kim arrived for the interview, she introduced herself to
the receptionist.



Compound-complex sentence: has two or more

independent clauses and one dependent clause

Because she had prepared well, Kim felt confident; she
answered all questions fully and enthusiastically.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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16


Sentence Patterns

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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17


Pattern No. 1:



This is the most basic sentence
pattern

Subject-Verb



The subject is followed by its
verb.

EXAMPLES

Charlie called.
She is working.
All employees work.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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18


Pattern No. 2:



Subject-Action Verb-Object

The subject is followed by an action verb and
its direct object.



The object usually answers the questions
What? and Whom?

EXAMPLES

ComStar created an Instagram account.
A law office hired her.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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19


Pattern No. 3:
Subject-Linking Verb-



The subject is followed by a linking verb
and its complement.

Complement

Complement



Noun, pronoun, or adjective that renames
or describes the subject



Completes the meaning of the subject

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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20


Complement Examples

Pattern No. 3:
Subject-Linking Verb-Complement

Our receptionist is Patricia. (Noun complement)
The winner of the award is he. (Pronoun complement)
Their website is attractive. (Adjective complement)

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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21


Pattern No. 4:



Verbs may occasionally precede subjects.

Inverted Order

EXAMPLES

Chairing the committee is Renee Cornell.
There are three items we should discuss.
Here is my business card.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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22


TRY
TRY YOUR
YOUR SKILL
SKILL

Rearrange these inverted sentences to
place them in normal subject-verb order.

1. Serving on the task force is Cathy Formusa. 1.
2. There are two candidates we are considering
for the position.

2.

Cathy Formusa is serving on the task
force.
We are considering two candidates for
the position.

3. Here is your authorization form.
3.

Your authorization form is here.

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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23


Sentence
Punctuation

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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24


Statements

Punctuating Four

Exclamations

Sentence

Questions

Types

Commands

© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning
© 2017 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.
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25


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