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Administrative medical assisting 5th by lindh chapter09

Chapter 9

Emergency Procedures and First Aid

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Recognizing an Emergency
• Definition
– Any instance in which individual suddenly
becomes ill and requires immediate attention

• Signs of emergencies
– Use your senses; be sensitive for strange behavior

• First aid
– Designed to render immediate and temporary care
to persons injured before arrival of health care
practitioner


© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Recognizing an Emergency
• Emergency situations:







Choking and breathing crises
Chest pain
Bleeding
Shock
Stroke
Poisoning

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Recognizing an Emergency
• Emergency situations:






Burns
Wounds
Sudden illnesses (fainting/falling)
Illnesses related to heat and cold
Fractures

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.




Recognizing an Emergency
• Act quickly
• Assess nature of
situation
• Screen situation
• Assess patient
Check for universal
emergency medical
identification >>

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Recognizing an Emergency

• Primary survey
– ABCDEs: Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability,
Expose and Evaluate

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Recognizing an Emergency
• Using the 911 or EMS system
– Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system: local
network of police, fire, medical personnel trained
to respond to emergency situations
– Network activated by calling 911

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Recognizing an Emergency
• While waiting for EMS to arrive, check
for following signs:






Degree of responsiveness
Airway/breathing ability
Heartbeat (rate and rhythm)
Bleeding
Signs of shock

• Monitor vital signs
• Keep patient warm
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Recognizing an Emergency
• Good Samaritan laws
– Provide some degree of legal protection to health
care professional who offers first aid
– Generally protect off-duty health care
professionals
– Primary principle of first aid is to prevent further
injury
– Conditions of law vary from state to state

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Recognizing an Emergency
• Blood, body fluids, disease transmission
– Always protect yourself and the patient
– Establish and follow strict guidelines
– Follow Standard Precautions

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Preparing for an Emergency
• Develop in-office handbook of policies
and procedures
• Keep telephone numbers for local EMS
and poison control center posted
• All personnel trained in first aid and
CPR

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Preparing for an Emergency
• Proper documentation after any
emergency situation
• Keep office environment safe
– Floors and corridors clean
– Wipe up spills immediately to prevent falls
– Medications out of sight

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Preparing for an Emergency
• Medical crash
tray or cart
– Carefully controlled
inventory of supplies
and equipment
– Supplies customized to
facility and type of
emergencies
frequently encountered
– List of general supplies

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Shock
– Condition in which circulatory system is not
providing enough blood to all parts of body,
causing body’s organs to fail to function properly
– Always life-threatening
– Activate EMS

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Shock
– Learn to recognize signs and symptoms
– Defined by categories or by underlying cause








Cardiogenic
Hypovolemic
Neurogenic
Anaphylactic
Septic
Respiratory
Traumatic

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Treatment for shock
– Shock is progressive; if not treated immediately,
most types can be life threatening
– Treat underlying causative factors
– Activate EMS

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Wounds
– Closed





Have no break in skin
Do not usually present emergency situation
Bruise, contusion, hematoma common
RICE and MICE procedures: Rest or Movement, Ice,
Compression, Elevation

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Wounds
– Open
• Minor tears in skin or more serious breaks
• All represent opportunity for infection
• Tetanus injection may be indicated

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Wounds
– Types of open wounds






Abrasions
Avulsions
Incisions
Lacerations
Punctures

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Use of tourniquets in emergency care
– “Constriction band” now substituted for tourniquet
and is widely used
– Applied tightly enough to stem rapid loss of blood
but loosely enough to allow small amount of blood
to continue to flow
– If bleeding controlled, direct pressure still best
method to handle blood loss

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Dressings and bandages
– Critical to dress and bandage open wound to
curtail infection
– Dressings
• Sterile gauze pads placed directly on wound

– Bandages
• Nonsterile wraps placed over dressings

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Dressings and bandages
– Bandage application can take many shapes and
forms, depending on type of injury and injury site
– Avoid too tight or too loose a wrap

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Types of
bandages
– Spiral
– Figure-eight
Tubular gauze bandage >>

Commercial arm sling >>

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Burns
– Caused by heat, chemicals, explosions, electricity,
solar radiation
– Critical burns can be life threatening and require
immediate medical attention





Breathing difficulty
Cover more than one body part
Head, neck, hands, feet, genitals
Any burns to child or older adult (other than minor burns)

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Common Emergencies
• Burns
– Degrees of burns
• First-degree
– Superficial; top layer of skin
• Second-degree
– Skin red and blisters appear; very painful
• Third-degree
– Affect or destroy all layers of tissue; fat, muscles,
bones, nerves
– Can look charred or brown
– Great pain or, if nerve endings destroyed, burn may be
painless
© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


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