Tải bản đầy đủ

Administrative medical assisting 5th by lindh chapter03

Chapter 3

History of Medicine

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Cultural Heritage in Medicine
• Role of culture and ethnic heritage in
health care
• Patient may refuse medication based
on cultural tradition
• Religion, magic, and science play a part
in the history of medicine
– Do they still today?

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.



Cultural Heritage in Medicine
• Beliefs of Mesopotamians
– Illness was punishment by gods

• Beliefs of Ancient Egyptians
– Body was system of channels that came together at rectum
and became easily clogged

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Cultural Heritage in Medicine
• Beliefs of Ancient Chinese
– Monitored pulse in wrist
– Cure the spirit
– Nourish the body
– Give medications
– Treat the whole body
– Use acupuncture and moxibustion
– Today’s practitioners agree ancient Chinese treatments are
still excellent guidelines

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Medical Specialists in History
History’s specialists
• Witch doctors
• Medicine men and
women
• Shamans
• Healing priests
• Physicians

Today’s specialists
• Spiritual advisors
• Social workers
• Counselors


• Teachers
• Physicians

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Medical Specialists in History
• Beliefs and methods of ancient healers
– All healers drew upon some power beyond themselves
– Mind-altering drugs were used by many ancient healers
– Ancient healers’ needs were supplied by their tribe

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Medical Specialists in History
• Today term “provider” or “practitioner”
often used
• Some payment expected for medical
services rendered
• Some cultures punished unsuccessful
physicians by forcing them to treat the
poor

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


History of Medical Education
• Christianity
– Emphasis placed on soul rather than body
– Monks controlled medicine
– St. Benedict of Nursia forbade the study of medicine
– Christianity controlled medical care for 500 years

• Islam
– Preserved classical learning and encouraged medical study

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


History of Medical Education
• 9th century
– Medical universities began in Italy and France

• Renaissance
– Physicians licensed
– Art and science more closely related

• Michelangelo and da Vinci
– Used dissection to draw anatomy

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


History of Attitudes Toward Illness
• Punishment by the gods for mortal sin
– Isolation and abandonment

• Good Samaritan
– Concern for the sick

• Native Americans
– Sick treated kindly
– Suicide during famine was form of bravery

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


History of Attitudes Toward Illness
• Eskimos
– Put elderly on ice floes

• Romans and Greeks
– Disposed of the ill or deformed
– Unwanted infants disposed of quickly or left to die

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


History of Attitudes Toward Illness
• Today’s attitudes
– We debate right to choose life or death and death with
dignity or physician-assisted death
– People fear illness they perceive as threatening, such as
AIDS

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Historical Medical Treatments
• Ancient Egyptians
– Used urine to test for pregnancy

• Ming Dynasty
– “The Great Herbal” established
• Identifies more than 1800 plants, animal substances,
minerals, and metals with medicinal properties

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Historical Medical Treatments
• Early medical treatments often crude
– Physicians’ staples
• Rhubarb, senna, bitter apple, turpentine, camphor,
mercury
– Some physicians did not wash instruments used in treating
the ill
– Diseases that existed
• Malaria, diphtheria, tuberculosis, typhoid, leprosy
– Death toll from smallpox was high

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Historical Medical Treatments
• Edward Jenner discovered smallpox
vaccination
• 19th century
– Medicine progressed rapidly
• Anesthesia discovered to alleviate pain during surgery
• Discovered some bacteria cause disease
• Importance of asepsis to reduce risk of infection

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Historical Medical Treatments
• Louis Pasteur

The father of preventive
medicine >>

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Historical Medical Treatments
• Joseph Lister
– Revolutionized surgery by sterilizing instruments and
washing physician’s hands with antiseptic spray

• Robert Koch
– Changed the way health departments cared for persons with
infectious disease with his work in isolating bacteria

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Historical Medical Treatments
• Early 20th century
– Many infectious diseases and epidemics became curable
– Life expectancy increased
– Antibiotics discovered
– Salk and Sabin vaccines found for poliomyelitis

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Historical Medical Treatments
• Early 20th century
– Banting and Best discovered insulin could be used with
diabetics
– Both penicillin and cancer cells discovered in 1928
• Penicillin not brought into production until 1945
– First human heart transplant performed in 1967

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


The Scourge of Epidemics
• Paralytic poliomyelitis
– Virus spreads through fecal-oral route; probably present in
ancient times
– Mostly affects children under age 5
– No cure
– Those with bulbar polio were placed in iron lungs

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


The Scourge of Epidemics
• Paralytic poliomyelitis
– President Franklin D. Roosevelt had polio and waged war on
the disease
– First polio vaccine developed in 1952 by Dr. Jonas Salk; oral
vaccine in 1961 by Dr. Albert Sabin
– Polio still a problem in other parts of the world

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


The Scourge of Epidemics
• Cancer
– Earliest specimen of cancer found in Bronze Age (19001600 B.C.)
– Inability of body’s immune system to destroy abnormal cell
growth
– Today, treated by surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
– More than 1.5 million new cancers diagnosed every year

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


The Scourge of Epidemics
• HIV infection/AIDS
– Illness first seen in young gay men in 1981; later named
AIDS by CDC
– In 1984, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) discovered to
be cause of AIDS
– No cure
– In 2008, CDC reported HIV and AIDS had claimed the lives
of more than 22 million persons worldwide

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


The Scourge of Epidemics
• HIV infection/AIDS
– Large majority of infected persons unaware they are infected
– 3/4s of new infections in women in U.S. heterosexually
transmitted
– Cultural differences sometimes create difficulty in preventing
the disease
– In the world, 2.6 million new infections expected; 1.8 million
AIDS-related deaths

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Other Threats to Health
• 21st century challenges
– Cholera causes deaths of thousands because there is no
proper sanitation
– New, drug-resistant strains of malaria, tuberculosis, other
diseases not responding to known treatments
– HA-MRSA; CA-MRSA
– Bacteria have now evolved to be resistant to antibiotics

© 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied
or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×