Tải bản đầy đủ

Human resource management disease ch 15

Chapter 15
Diseases of the Musculoskeletal
System


Structure and Function


Interaction of Bones, Joints and Muscles





Provide body with sturdy framework
Skeletal muscles attach to bones by tendons,
muscle movement moves the skeleton
Movement of joints permit movements of some
framework
Extention, Flexion – muscles stabilize joints by
preventing or aiding in movement


Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2


Structure and Function


Bones – Development, growth and
homeostasis rely on:






Minerals – Calcium,phosphate
Proteins – Collagen
Living cells – Mature bone cells (osteocytes),
bone-forming cells (osteoblasts).

Bones are long, flat or irregular in shape.




Covered in compact bone
Inside: spongy bone
Periosteum covers the bones

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

3


Structure and Function







Ligaments – Hold bone to bone
Synovial membrane – inner surface of
joints, secretes synovial fluid for
lubrication
Bursa – sac holding synovial fluid
Tendons – Attach muscle to bone

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4


Fractures of the Bone










Closed – cleanly, no skin penetration
Open – Ends protrude
Comminuted – Fragmented
Compression – Crushed
Impacted – broken ends forced into each
other
Depressed – pressed inward
Spiral – Jagged break due to twisting force
Greenstick – Incomplete as a green twig

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

5


Diseases of the Bone








Osteomyelitis – Pain, redness, heat, chills, fever,
tachycardia, nausea, weight loss
Rickets – (vitamin D deficiency in childhood)
deformation of bones, knock-knee, bow-leg,
curved spine, enlarged/square head, flaccid
muscles, node-swelling at rib ends and joints
Osteoporosis- Decreased height from vertebral
compression fractures, curvature of spine, easily
fractured bones
Osteomalacia – Muscle weakness, weight loss,
pain in bones, deformed bones, easily fractured
bones
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6










Paget’s Disease – Enlarged skull, nerve
compression curvatures in spine, deformed
legs
Bone tumors – Painless lump in bone tissue,
fx without trauma
Rheumatoid arthritis – Pain and stiffness in
joints; swollen, red, warm joints; bilateral
involvement exacerbation and remission,
rheumatoid nodules, crippling deformities
Osteoarthritis – Aches, pain, stiff joints, limited
ROM, muscle weakness around joint, enlarged
joints, bone spurs, can be one or many joints

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

7













Gout – Severe pain, heat, swelling, redness
in joint, acute onset
Septic arthritis – Pain, redness, swelling,
bone and joint destruction
Bursitis- Pain at joint, especially during use
Carpal tunnel syndrome - Numbness and
tingling of hand, pain radiating to shoulder,
limited finger movement, severe at night
Muscular Dystrophy – Weakened muscles,
muscles may enlarge as fat is deposited,
muscles degenerate
Myasthenia gravis – Fatigue, muscle
paralysis
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×