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Human resource management disease ch 8

Chapter 8
Diseases of the Respiratory System


Structure and Function








Air enters Nasal Cavity, pharynx
Larynx to trachea
Bronchi – each lung then bronchioles,
alveoli
Exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide,
expel carbondioxide, oxygen flows into
blood system.
Diaphragm and muscles between ribs help

air to enter and exit lungs.
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

2


Terms


Dyspnea



Tachypnea



Hemoptysis – coughing what?



Cyanosis

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

3


Common Signs and Symptoms
of respiratory disease











Dyspnea
Tachypnea, Wheezing
Dry cough or hemoptysis
Cyanosis
Fever
Fatigue
Pain- where? Weakness – muscles and
voice
Sinus drainage
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4


Diagnostic Procedures








Sprirometer – tests vital capacity volume,
draw in as much air as possible then expel
as much as possible.
FEV – forced-expiratory volume. Maximum
air expelled in one second of time.
Oscillometry – Breathe normally for 20-30
seconds, then it shoots sound waves into
the air passages and measures echo.
Arterial blood gases – evaluate levels of
oxygen and carbon dioxide and blood pH
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

5


Diagnostic Procedures




Chest x-rays
Bronchoscopy
Flouroscopy – visualize lungs and
diaphragm during respiration

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6


Upper Respiratory Disease
Signs and symptoms








Common cold – swelling of mucous
membranes, low fever, nasal congestion,
cough
Sinusitis – inflammation of mucous
membranes, pressure, headache, sinus
pain, fever
Nasal polyps – nasal drainage, lack of
smell, sleep apnea
Influenza – sudden onset, chills, fever,
aches, cough, sore throat, GI disorders
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

7


Upper Respiratory Disease
Signs and symptoms






Snoring/sleep apnea – postnasal drip,
exaggerated breathing sounds, inflamed
sinuses, nasal congestion, sleep
interruption or hesitation in breathing
Hay fever – Runny nose, congestion,
tearing, itching
Tonsillitis, Pharyngitis, Laryngitis –
difficulty swallowing, redness in throat,
pain, nasal congestion, loss of voice or
hoarseness
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8


Lower Respiratory Disease
Signs and symptoms


COPD – includes bronchitis, asthma,
emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and pneumonia
 Bronchitis – chest pains, dyspnea, cough,
fever, chills, hypoxia
 Asthma – breathlessness or panting, wheezing,
 Emphysema – suffocating feeling, distressed
breathing, collapsed lung
 Cystic Fibrosis – inherited, dyspnea, wheezing,
persistent cough, thick sputum
 Pneumonia – dyspnea, fever, chest pain,
productive cough

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

9


Lower Respiratory Disease
Signs and symptoms







Pleurisy – Painful breathing – complication of
pneumonia
Legionnaire’s disease – fatigue, coughing,
sob, neuromuscular impairments, collapsed
lung
Primary atypical pneumonia (walking) – flu-like
symptoms, fatigue, fever, weakness, headache,
sore throat, GI disorders – can become worse,
but generally can function among others with
this disease
Primary TB – Cough with sputum, difficult to
diagnose without know contact
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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