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Human resource management disease ch 6

Chapter 6
Diseases of the Cardiovascular
System


Structures of the Heart








Myocardium: Chamber walls, cardiac
muscle
Endocardium: Internal lining of chamber
walls
Pericardium: Double layer membrane
enclosing the heart
Valves: Mitral (left), Tricuspid (right),

Semilunar (2)

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Diagnostic Tests and Procedures for
Cardiac Disorders






Auscultation: Listening through a
stethoscope
ECG (electrocardiogram): Electrical
recording of heart action (helps dx CAD,
MI, Valve disorders, some congenital
diseases)
Echocardiography: Ultrasound
cardiography

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Diagnostic Tests and Procedures for
Cardiac Disorders (cont)




Angiography: Done with X-rays, contrast
injected – films blood vessel action
Cardiac catheterization: catheter passed
into heart through blood vessels


Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Cardiovascular Diseases
Signs and Symptoms








Hyperlipidemia: Elevation of lipids or fats in
the blood.
Hypercholesterolemia: Increase in serum
cholesterol.
Arteriosclerosis and/or atherosclerosis:
Occlusion of artery, lack of oxygen,
depends on location.
Peripheral Artery Disease: Thinning of lower
leg skin, ulceration of skin, high-fat diet.

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Aortic Aneurysm: No symptoms at first.
Artery wall is weakened, can cause
bleeding which is hard to find.
Hypertension: Consistent high blood
pressure, headaches, sometimes a high
salt diet and alcohol consumption.
Thrombosis: Pain, blood pooling in lower
extremities, deep muscle tenderness,
inflammation.
Coronary Heart Disease: Chest pain,
palpitations, dizziness, fainting, weakness,
shortness of breath, MI.
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Myocarditis: Fever, chest pain, shortness of
breath, tachycardia.
Rheumatic heart disease: Fever, inflammation
of joints, rash.
Cardiomyopathy: Hypertrophic (A) –
Excessive Ventricular growth; Restrictive –
Dyspnea, arthopnea, perpheral edema,
weakness, fatigue.
Mitral stenosis: Increased pressure in heart,
congestion of veins, cyanosis, congestive
heart failure.
Aortic stenosis: Hypertrophy of left ventricle,
calcified deposits on valve.
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Congestive Heart Failure: Shortness of
breath, fatigue, edema.
Cardiac arrhythmias: Supraventricular –
tachycardia, bradycardia, heart block,
syncope, edema, SOB; Ventricular – SOB,
fatigue, edema.
Shock: Drop in BP, too low to sustain life.
Septal defects: Heart murmur,
ventriculoseptal defect causes increased
blood flow to lungs.
Patent ductus arteriosus: increased pressure
in lungs can lead to pulmonary hypertension.

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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