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Human resource management disease ch 1

Chapter 1
Introduction to Disease


Pathology at First Glance
Homeostasis: internal stability of the body
Pathology: abnormal condition causing
measurable changes in structure and function
Pathogenesis: development of disease in
stages

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Pathology at First Glance (cont’d.)
Syndrome: Defined collection of signs and
symptoms that characterize a condition
Diagnosis: Use of scientific or clinical methods
to determine nature of the disease. Basis for

treatment based on exam, signs, symptoms.
history, lab data, diagnostic tests.
Prognosis: Predicted course and outcome.
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Describing Disease
Signs



Abnormal objective findings
Examples: redness, swelling, purulent discharge,
fever, pulse, pallor.

Symptoms



Subjective patient reports
Examples: difficulty swallowing, pain, fatigue,
headache, dizziness, itching.

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Describing Disease (cont)
Acute Illness




onset is usually abrupt
symptoms present themselves over hours to days
duration brief (<6 months)


Chronic Illness




onset is slower
symptoms persist from acute/subacute phases
duration indefinite (> 6 months)

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Disease






Remission: Signs and symptoms subside.
Exacerbation: Signs and symptoms recur
in all severity during this period.
Relapse: Occurs when a disease returns
weeks or months after its apparent
cessation.
Complication: Disease or other abnormal
state developing when a person already
suffers from another disease.

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Causes of Disease
oEtiology: Cause of a disease.
oIdiopathic: The cause of the disease is
not known.

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Risk factors


Predisposing Factors








age
gender
lifestyle
environment
heredity

Non-changeable predisposing factors




age
gender
heredity
Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Risk factors (cont)


Changeable predisposing factors




Lifestyle
• physical abuse and violence
• poor nutrition
• tobacco, drugs, and alcohol
Environment
• air and water pollution
• chronic stress

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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More Diagnosis Info


Diagnosis of Disease







medical history
physical exam
laboratory tests (blood count, chemistry, etc.)
imaging tests (MRI, CT, X-ray, ultrasound, etc.)
biopsy
miscellaneous tests (pulmonary function, cultures,
etc.)

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Patient Teaching


Goals of patient teaching





facilitate patient compliance with the medical
treatment plan
clarify information and instructions
foster patient independence and responsibility
establish trusting, therapeutic relationship

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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Patient Teaching (cont’d.)


Additional reasons for patient teaching






ease anxiety
facilitate greater sense of patient control
improve patient/family coping
highlight goals for recovery or acceptance
reduce unnecessary clinic visits and
hospitalizations

Elsevier items and derived items © 2009 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

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