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Management by hitt back porter CH13

Chapter 13
Groups and
Teams

PowerPoint slides by
R. Dennis Middlemist
Colorado State University


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:






2

Describe the similarities and differences

between groups and teams.
Identify and compare different types of
groups.
Name the factors that influence group
formation and development.

©2005


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:






3

Analyze the various structural and behavioral
characteristics of groups.
Identify the advantages and disadvantages of
self-managing, cross-functional, global and
virtual work groups and teams.
Explain the differences in the various types of
team competencies

©2005


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:




4


Distinguish between the two major types of
group conflict, and discuss their causes and
consequences
Explain how managers can help their work
groups develop into high performing teams.

©2005


Group versus Team
 Group
 A set of people, usually from 3 to 20
 Some degree of interaction and shared objectives

 Team
 A type or form of group
 Higher degree of coordinated interaction
 Stronger sense of members’ personal responsibility
for achieving specified group outcomes
 High level of members’ identification with the group
5

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Commonality of Goal

Team Outcomes
Team
Group

TEAMS demonstrate
enhanced:
 Coordinated interaction
 Personal responsibility for

group outcomes
 Individual identification
with group

Individuals

Degree of Interdependence and Collaboration
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Adapted from Exhibit 13.1: Individuals-to-Group-to-Team Continuum


Basic Types of Groups
Type of Group

Features

Examples

Command
(Supervisory)

One supervisor with a
number of subordinates
Relatively enduring
Membership changes
relatively slowly

Clerical units
Manufacturing assembly
units
Local sales managers
reporting to a regional
sales manager

Project/Task
Force

Temporary
Specific limited purpose
Group members are aware
of temporary nature of the
group

Product design teams
Management information
systems teams to
develop upgraded
computer systems
Team project groups in
university classes

7

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Adapted from Exhibit 13.2: Types of Groups


Basic Types of Groups
Type of Group

Features

Examples

Committee

Either permanent or ad hoc
Meet only periodically
Members have different
permanent jobs and/or
supervisors
Membership typically does
not represent an
employee’s highest
commitment

Budget committees
Safety committees
Promotion review
committees

Formal

Command (supervisory)
Project/Task force
Committee

8

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Adapted from Exhibit 13.2: Types of Groups


Basic Types of Groups
Type of Group

Features

Examples

Informal

Group not originated by the
organization
Voluntary membership
Obvious differences and
boundaries between
members and
nonmembers

Group of employees who
lunch together on
Fridays
Van pool group
The “water cooler group”

9

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Adapted from Exhibit 13.2: Types of Groups


Examples of Committees

Governance

Compensation

Overnight

Executive

Finance

Audit

Steering

Safety

Ethics

Disaster planning

Long-range

Public relations

planning
10

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Adapted from Exhibit 13.2: Types of Groups


Characteristics of Groups
and Teams

Structural Characteristics

 Size
 Social loafing: the phenomenon of reduced

effort per person in large groups
 Process costs: increasing costs of
coordination as group size increases
 Composition
 Homogeneous
 Heterogeneous or diverse
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Basic Types of Groups
Type of Diversity
Observable Attributes
➜ Race
➜ Ethnicity
➜ Gender
➜ Age
Underlying Attributes
➜ Values
➜ Skills
➜ Knowledge and information
➜ Tenure

Potential Consequences
Affective Consequences
➜ Satisfaction
➜ Identification with the group
➜ Conflict within the group
Cognitive consequences
➜ Innovation
➜ Amount and quality of new ideas
Communication-Related Consequences
➜ Decreased frequency within group
➜ Increased frequency outside of group

Source: Adapted from Frances L. Milliken and Luis L. Martins, “Searching for Common Threads: Understanding the Multiple
Effects of Diversity in Organizational Groups,” Academy of Management Review 21, no. 2 (1996), pp.402–423.

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Adapted from Exhibit 13.4: Examples of Diversity within Groups and Potential Consequences


Characteristics of Groups
and Teams

Structural Characteristics

 Differentiated roles
 Role ambiguity: a situation

in which the expected
behaviors for a group
member are not clearly
defined
 Role conflict: a situation in which a member of a
group faces two or more contrasting sets of
expectations
 Differentiated status
13

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Characteristics of Groups
and Teams

Behavioral Characteristics

 Norms: a group’s shared standards that guide

the behavior of its individual members
 Characteristics of group norms
 Usually established for the more important issues of
concern to the group
 Some apply only to certain members (like the leader),
usually based on the status or particular role of those
members
 Vary in the degree of their acceptance by group members
 Vary in how much deviation members are permitted in
following them
14

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Characteristics of Groups
and Teams

Behavioral Characteristics

 Norms: a group’s shared standards that guide

the behavior of its individual members
 Development of group norms
 Early behaviors
 Imported behaviors
 Critical events
 Effects of group norms
 Conformity: close adherence to the group’s

norms by the individual members
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Development of Group Norms
Members
agree on
behavior

Group
members
meet

Members observe
the behavior of
others to determine
what is appropriate

Members decide if
any past experience
can contribute
effective behaviors
Members
disagree on
behavior

Norm is established

Suggested behavior
is tolerated even
though disagree with

Dissenting member
withdraws from
group

New behavior is
suggested
16

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Adapted from Exhibit 13.5: Example of the Development of Group Norms


Characteristics of Groups
and Teams

Behavioral Characteristics

 Cohesion; the degree to which members

are motivated to remain in the group

 Development of group cohesion
 Strengthening interpersonal attraction among
group members
 Generating a record of high performance and
past success of the group
 Fostering competition with other groups
 Effects of group cohesion
17

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Effects of Group Cohesion
Positive effects
• Increased quality and
quantity of group
interactions
• Strengthened adherence to
group norms
• Increased effectiveness in
achieving group goals
• Augmented individual
satisfaction with group
membership
18

©2005

Negative effects
• Useful or creative ideas
may be ignored if they
deviate from established
norms or values
• Increased probability of
developing groupthink
• Potential decrease in
intergroup cooperation
• Counterproductive norms
may be emphasized
Adapted from Exhibit 13.6: Effects of High Levels of Group Cohesion


Formation and Development
of Groups and Teams
Influences on Formation

 Organizational goals
 Opportunities for interaction and sharing

mutual knowledge
 Psychological factors
 Security needs
 Social support
 Self-esteem needs
 Status needs
19

©2005


Formation and Development
of Groups and Teams
Stages of Development

Formation

Early
development

Becoming a
group

Performing
as a team

Indicates progression

20

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Adapted from Exhibit 13.7: Stages of Group Development


Team Competencies
Knowledge

Skills

Attitudes

• Knowledge of team

• Adaptability and

• Team orientation







mission, objectives,
norms
Task sequencing
Team role
Interaction patterns
Understanding
team work skills
Teammate
characteristics







flexibility
Mutual performance
monitoring and
feedback, selfcorrection
Coordination and
task integration
Communication
Decision making
and problem solving

• Shared vision
• Team cohesion
• Mutual trust
• Importance of

teamwork

Sources: Adapted from J. A. Cannon-Bowers and E. Salas, “A Framework for Developing Team Performance Measures in Training,” in M.
T. Brannick, E. Salas, and C. Prince (eds.), Team Performance Assessment and Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Applications
(Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997), p. 47.

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Adapted from Exhibit 13.9: Examples of Specific Team Competencies in Three Areas


Types of Team Competencies

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Specific

Content
driven

Team
contingent

Generic

Relation to Team

Relation to Task
Specific
Generic

Task
contingent

Transportable

Adapted from Exhibit 13.10: Types of Team Competencies


Dealing with Team Conflict
 Types of team conflict
 Task (substantive): conflict
conflict that focuses on
differences in ideas and
courses of action in
addressing the issues
facing a group
 Relationship (affective) conflict: interpersonal
differences among group members
23

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Dealing with Team Conflict
 Possible causes of group conflict
 Task conflict




Ambiguities regarding the task
Differences in goals, objectives, and perspectives among
group members
Scarcity (actual or perceived) of resources

 Relationship conflict
 Dissimilarities in the composition of the membership of the
group
 Differences in interpersonal styles of individual members
 Differences in values

24

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Dealing with Team Conflict
 Managing intragroup conflict
 Increase the ratio of substantive to

relationship conflict.
 Clarify and reduce task ambiguities
 Get the group to focus on goals that
emphasize the common interests of all group
members
 Avoid relationship conflicts
25

©2005


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