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Management by hitt back porter CH12

Chapter 12
Motivation

PowerPoint slides by
R. Dennis Middlemist
Colorado State University


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:




2

Analyze the motivational forces present in a
specific situation.
Differentiate between the various content
and process theories of motivation and

indicate how each can be helpful in
analyzing a given motivational situation.

©2005


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:




3

Explain how job enrichment can influence an
employee's motivation.
Compare and contrast the various
approaches to reinforcement and describe
their relative advantages and disadvantages
for use by managers.

©2005


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:





4

State how goal setting can affect motivation.
Name the major types of social influence on
employees' motivation and explain how each
type can impact motivation.
Describe how values and attitudes toward


work can influence motivation.

©2005


What is Motivation?
 Motivation
 Set of forces
 Energize behavior
 Direct behavior
 Sustain behavior
 External and internal

forces

5

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Sources of Motivation
INTERNAL
(PUSH FORCES)
Characteristics of
THE INDIVIDUAL
(examples)
Needs
 For security
 For self-esteem
 For achievement
 For power

EXTERNAL
(PULL FORCES)
Characteristics of
Characteristics of
THE WORK SITUATION
THE JOB
(examples)
(examples)
Feedback

Immediate Social
Environment

 Amount
 Timing

 Supervisor(s)
 Workgroup members
 Subordinates

Work load

Attitudes
 About self
 About job
 About supervisor
 About organization

Goals
 Task completion
 Performance level

Organizational actions
 Rewards &
compensation
 Availability of training
 Pressure for high levels
of output

Tasks
 Variety
 Scope

Discretion
 How job is performed

 Career advancement

6

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Adapted from Exhibit 12.1: Key Variables that Influence Motivation


Motivation Theories
Content Theories
Focus

 Personal needs that workers

Theories

 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
 McClelland’s Acquired

attempt to satisfy.
 Features in the work
environment that satisfy a
worker’s needs.

Need Theory
 Herzberg’s Two-Factor
Theory

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Process Theories
 How different variables can

combine to influence the
amount of effort put forth
by employees.

 Equity Theory
 Expectancy Theory

Adapted from Exhibit 12.2: Motivation Theories


Content Theories of
Motivation
 Internal factors
 Needs
 Motives
 External factors
 Job
 Work situation

 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy and Alderfer’s ERG Theory
 McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory
 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

8

©2005


Content Theories of
Motivation

Need Hierarchy

 Five needs arranged in a hierarchy of strength

and influence

 Physiological
 Security (safety
 Social (belongingness
 Esteem
 Self-actualization

 Satisfy most basic (prepotent) needs first
 Move to the next level of needs after preceding

needs is satisfied

9

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Content Theories of
Motivation

ERG Theory

 Three classifications of needs
 Existence
 Relatedness
 Growth
 Different levels of the needs can be

active at the same time
 Person may stay at one level, if frustrated
by trying to attain the next higher level
10

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Maslow’s and Alderfer’s
Needs Theories
Highest-order
needs
Selfactualization Growth
Esteem
Belongingness Relatedness
Most essential
(prepotent)
needs

Safety
Physiological
Maslow’s Need
Hierarchy Categories

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Existence
Alderfer’s Needs
Hierarchy Categories

Adapted from Exhibit 12.3: Maslow’s and Alderfer’s Needs Hierarchies Categories


Content Theories of
Motivation

Acquired Needs Theory

 Learned needs
 Achievement
 Work

on tasks of moderate difficulty
 Take moderate risks
 Take personal responsibility for one’s own actions
 Receive specific and concrete feedback on one’s
own performance
 Power
 Affiliation
12

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Content Theories of
Motivation

Two-Factor Theory

 Motivators
 Can increase job satisfaction
 Factors related to doing the job (work itself,
responsibility, personal growth, sense of achievement,
recognition)
 Hygiene factors
 Can prevent dissatisfaction, but cannot increase

satisfaction
 Factors extrinsic to or surrounding the job (supervision,
relations with co-workers, working conditions, company
policies and practices)
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Motivators and Hygiene
Factors
Hygiene Factors:
Elements associated
with conditions
surrounding the job

Motivators:
Factors directly
related to doing
a job

Supervision

Recognition

Achievement

Responsibility

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©2005

Growth

Nature
of the
work

Compensation

Working
conditions

Job

Benefits

Relations with
co-workers

Adapted from Exhibit 12.4: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Motivators and Hygiene Factors


Effects of Hygiene Factors
and Motivators
 From the state of being

neither satisfied nor
dissatisfied, motivators
can impel an employee’s
motivation and
performance to higher
levels
 Hygiene factors must be

satisfied first, leading to
a state of being neither
satisfied nor dissatisfied
15

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Motivators
Intrinsic factors
related to the doing
of the
job itself:
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

Hygiene-Factors
Extrinsic factors
related to conditions
surrounding the job:

Adapted from Exhibit 12.5: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Differential Effects of Hygiene Factors and Motivators


Content Theories of
Motivation

Implications for Job Design

 Job characteristics model
 Core job characteristics
(skill variety and task
significance)
 Critical psychological states
(experienced
meaningfulness
of work,
experienced responsibility for outcomes of work)
 Expected outcomes (high internal work motivation
and high work effectiveness)

16

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Job Characteristics Model

17

©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 12.6: Job Characteristics Model


Core Job Characteristics
Core Job
Characteristics

18

Definition

Example

Skill variety

The degree to which a job requires
a variety of different activities in
carrying out the work, involving the
use of a number of different skills
and talents of the person.

The aerospace engineer must be
able to create blueprints, calculate
tolerances, provide leadership to the
work group, and give presentations
to upper management.

Task identity

The degree to which a job requires
completion of a “whole” and
identifiable piece of work, that is,
doing a job from beginning to end
with a viable outcome.

The event manager handles all the
plans for the annual executive
retreat, attends the retreat, and
receives information on its success
from the participants.

Task
significance

The degree to which a job has a
The finance manager devises a new
substantial impact on the lives of
benefits plan to improve health
other people, whether those people coverage for all employees.
are in the immediate organization
or in the world at large.

©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 12.7: Core Job Characteristics in Job Characteristics Model


Core Job Characteristics
Core Job
Characteristics

Definition

Example

Autonomy

The degree to which a job provides
substantial freedom, independence,
and discretion to the individual in
scheduling the work and in
determining the procedures to be
used in carrying it out.

R&D scientists are linked via the
company intranet, allowing them to
post their ideas, ask questions, and
propose solutions at any hour of the
day, whether at the office, at home,
or on the road.

Feedback
from job

The degree to which carrying out
the work activities required by the
job provides the individual with
direct and clear information about
the effectiveness of his or her
performance.

The lathe operator knows he is
cutting his pieces correctly, as very
few are rejected by the workers in
the next production area.

Source: Adapted from J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980).

19

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Adapted from Exhibit 12.7: Core Job Characteristics in Job Characteristics Model


Process Theories of
Motivation
 Deal with the way different variables

combine to influence the amount of effort
people put forth
 Equity theory
 Expectancy theory
 Social cognitive theory
 Goal-setting theory

20

©2005


Process Theories of
Motivation

Equity Theory

 Focuses on individuals’ comparisons of

their own circumstances to those of
others
 Inputs (age, experience, education, etc.)
 Outcomes (salary, benefits, titles, perks, etc.)
 Ratios of an individual’s input/outcome

versus that ratio of another person or people

21

©2005


Equity Theory

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©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 12.8: Equity Theory


Process Theories of
Motivation

Expectancy Theory

 Focuses on the thought processes people use

when faced with choosing among alternative
courses of action
 Effort

 Expectancy

 Performance

 Instrumentality

 Outcome

 Valence

 Effort (E
a

23

©2005

P) x (P

O) x V


Expectancy Theory
Outcome
Effort
Expectancy
E

P

(I believe high effort
will lead to good
performance)

E = effort
O = outcome
24

©2005

(V: I do or do not
value recognition
from my supervisor)

Performance

Instrumentality
P

O

(I believe high performance
will lead to recognition
from my supervisor)

P = performance
V = valence
Adapted from Exhibit 12.9: Components of Expectancy Theory


Process Theories of
Motivation

Expectancy Theory

 To influence employees’ motivation
 Identify rewards that are valued
 Strengthen subordinates’ beliefs that their efforts
will lead to valued rewards
 Clarify subordinates’ understanding of exactly
where they should direct their efforts
 Make sure that the desired rewards under your
control are given directly following particular levels
of performance
 Provide levels and amounts of rewards that are
consistent with a realistic level of expected rewards
25

©2005


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