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Management by hitt back porter CH11

Chapter 11
Leadership II:
Approaches and
Issues
PowerPoint slides by
R. Dennis Middlemist
Colorado State University


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:






2

Compare and contrast the various

approaches to, and theories of, leadership
Describe the similarities and differences
between leadership and management
Differentiate between charismatic,
transformational, and transactional leaders

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Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:





3

Discuss E-leadership
Analyze the effects of culture on theories of
leadership
Explain the ways in which an individual can
improve her/his own leadership capabilities

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Leadership Perspectives
Perspective
Blake and Mouton:
Managerial Grid

Hersey and Blanchard:
Situational Leadership Model

Leader

Follower


Situation

XX
X

XX

Fiedler:
Contingency Leadership
Model

XX

House:
Path-Goal Theory

XX

XX

XX

Vroom/Yetton:
Normative Decision Model

XX

X

XX

Substitutes for Leadership

XX

XX

X = Strong Emphasis
XX = Very Strong Emphasis
4

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Adapted from Exhibit 11.1: Leadership Perspectives: Relative Emphasis on Leader, Follower, and Situation


Leadership Grid
 Both concern for people and concern for

production are necessary for effective
leadership
 Best managers are high on both dimensions
(9,9)
 A 9,9 leader is best kind of leader, irrespective
of who the followers are or what kinds of
situations confront the leader
5

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Leadership Grid
High

9

1,9

9,9

Concern for People

8
7
6
5,5

5
4
3
2

Low

1

1,1
1

Low
6

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9,1
2

3

4

5

6

7

Concern for Results

8

9

High

Adapted from Exhibit 11.2: Blake and Mouton: The Leadership Grid


Situational Leadership Model
 Successful leadership behaviors

on the “readiness” of

followers

depend

 Ability in relation to a specific task
 Willingness to undertake the new task

 Leadership behaviors
 Supportiveness (people orientation)
 Directiveness (task orientation)
 Four combinations of the two dimensions of

leadership behavior

7

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Situational Leadership Model
Follower Ability

High

Participating

Delegating

Telling

Selling

Low
Low

High
Follower Motivation

Supportive leader behavior
Directive leader behavior
8

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Adapted from Exhibit 11.3: Hersey and Blanchard: Situational Leadership Model


Leadership Contingency Theory
 Task-oriented leaders (low LPC score)

and relationship-oriented leaders (high
LPC score) must be matched to
leadership situations
 Favorableness of leadership situation
 Relations with subordinates
 Task structure
 Position power
9

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Leadership Contingency Theory
SITUATION
Favorable (for leader)

Unfavorable (for leader)
Poor subordinate relationships
Unstructured task
Leader lacks position power

Good subordinate relationships
Highly structured task
Leader with high amount of
position power

LEADERS
Low LPC Perspective
Rates least preferred co-worker
harshly
Task oriented
Most effective when situation is
either highly favorable or
highly unfavorable
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High LPC Perspective
Rates least preferred coworker favorably
Person oriented
Most effective when situation
is neither highly favorable
nor highly unfavorable

Adapted from Exhibit 11.4: LPC Theory


Path-Goal Theory
 Leader’s job is to increase subordinate

satisfaction and effort

 Increase personal payoffs to subordinates

for work-goal attainment
 Make the path to these payoffs easier to
travel
 Clarify

it
 Reduce roadblocks and pitfalls
 Increase opportunities for personal satisfaction
en route
11

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Path-Goal Theory
 Two basic leadership

behaviors
 Supportive leadership
 Directive leadership

 Assumes that a particular leadership approach

will work better in some task situations than
others
 Assumes that leaders can modify their styles to
suit the situation.
12

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Path-Goal Theory
IF
The task is:
Frustrating, boring, stressful,
structured, and routine

AND
Subordinates are:
Highly experienced and
competent

Supportive
Leadership Style
(Person oriented)

Goal
(i.e., increased
performance)

IF
The task is:
Interesting but ambiguous,
nonstressful, unstructured,
varied

AND

Directive Leadership
Style
(Task oriented)

Subordinates are:
inexperienced

13

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Adapted from Exhibit 11.5:


Normative Decision Model
 Not a model of leadership behavior
 Examines issue of how much subordinates

should be allowed to participate in decision
making
 Also helps determine what type of participation
should be allowed
 Two key variables
 Quality of the decision
 Acceptance of the decision by subordinates

14

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Normative Decision Model
Decision Stylea
AI
AII

Definition
Leader makes the decision alone
Leader asks for information from team members but makes
the decision alone. Team members may or may not be
informed what the situation is.

CI

Leader shares situation with each team member and asks
for information and evaluation. Team members do not meet
as a team, and the leader alone makes the decision.

CII

Leader and team members meet as a team to discuss the
situation, but the leader makes the decision.

G

Leader and team members meet as a team to discuss the
situation, and the team makes the decision.

a

A = autocratic

C = consultative G = group

Sources: V. H. Vroom and P. W. Yetton, Leadership and Decision-Making (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973);
V. H. Vroom and A. G. Jago, The New Leadership: Managing Participation in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1988).

15

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Adapted from Exhibit 11.6: Normative Decision-Making Model: Decision-Making Styles


Normative Decision Model
State the Problem
QR How important is the quality of
this decisions?
CR How important is subordinate
commitment to the decision?
LI Do you have sufficient
information to make a high-quality
decision?
ST Is the problem well structured?
CP If you were to make the decision by yourself, is it reasonably
certain that your subordinates would be committed to it?
16

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Adapted from Exhibit 11.7: Normative Decision-making Model for Leaders’ Use of Participation: Decision-Tree Questions


Normative Decision Model
State the Problem
GC Do subordinates share the
organization goals to be attained in
solving this problem?
CO Is conflict among subordinates
over preferred solutions likely?
SI Do subordinates have sufficient
information to make a high-quality
decision?

17

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Adapted from Exhibit 11.7: Normative Decision-making Model for Leaders’ Use of Participation: Decision-Tree Questions


Normative Decision Model
Decision-making Procedures
AI Manager makes decision alone
AII Manager gets information from
team, makes decision alone
CI Manager shares problem, gets
information, makes decision alone
CII Manager and subordinates meet to
discuss situation, manager makes
decision alone
G Manager and leader meet to
discuss situation, team makes
decision

18

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Adapted from Exhibit 11.7: Normative Decision-making Model for Leaders’ Use of Participation: Decision-Tree Questions


Substitutes for Leadership
 Alternative approaches
 May partially substitute for leadership
 Can sometimes overcome poor leadership

 Aspects of organization or work situation
 Can neutralize the best efforts of leaders
 Inflexible organization procedures
 Inadequate compensation policy

19

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Substitutes for Leadership
e,

Professional orientation

In
sa trins
tis
fyi ically
ng
tas
k

c
en
eri
xp
, e ing
ility train
Ab

Substitutes for leadership
Ability, experience, training
Intrinsically satisfying task

Substitutes
for
Leadership

Professional
orientation

Direct feedback from the task

20

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Dir
e
fro ct fe
e
m
the dba
ta s c k
k

Cohesive work group (with
positive performance norms

up
gro
ork e
)
e w ositiv rms
o
siv
he h p e n
Co wit anc
(
rm
rfo
pe

Advisory or staff support

Advisory or staff
support

Adapted from Exhibit 11.8: Examples of Possible Substitutes for Leadership


Leading and Managing: The
Same or Different
 Leaders
 Create vision for organizations and units
 Promote major changes in goals and procedures
 Set and communicate new directions
 Inspire subordinates
 Managers
 Deal with interpersonal conflict
 Plan
 Organize
 Implement goals set by others (the leaders)
21

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Leading and Managing: The
Same or Different
 Managing ought to

involve most of the
activities thought of
as leading
 Organizations need

their managers to
also incorporate
leadership roles into
their behavior

22

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Leaders

Leaders
and
Managers

Managers

Adapted from Exhibit 11.9: The Overlapping Roles of Leaders and Managers


Charismatic Leadership
 Charismatic leadership
 Charisma is a strong form of referent power
 Influence is based on individual inspirational

qualities rather than formal power
 Followers or subordinates identify with
charismatic leaders because of these
exceptional qualities

23

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Charismatic Leadership
Attributes of Charismatic Leaders
 Need for power
 Impression management
 Self-sacrifice toward organization
 Innovative or unorthodox actions
 Ideals, values, lofty goals
 High expectations for followers
 Models desired behaviors
 Inspires followers
 Strong belief in own ideas
 High level of self-confidence

24

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Adapted from Exhibit 11.10: Attributes of the Charismatic Leader


Transformational Leadership
 Transformational leaders
 Leaders empower and coach followers
 Followers identify with the leader
 Motivate followers (to)
 Ignore self-interest
 Work for the larger good of the organization
 Achieve significant accomplishments
 Make major changes
25

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