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Management by hitt back porter CH10

Chapter 10
Leadership I:
Basic Concepts
and Processes
PowerPoint slides by
R. Dennis Middlemist
Colorado State University


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:






2

Describe the fundamental nature of

leadership as part of the managerial role.
Identify the different types and sources of
power available to a leader.
Analyze the issues involved in the use of
power.

©2005


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:






3

Explain the current view of the importance of
leadership traits and skills.
Discuss the utility of the two major
categories of leader behavior.
Analyze the importance and nature of the
leader-follower relationship.

©2005


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:


4

Describe how different situations affect the
leadership process


©2005


Strategic Leadership
 Strategic leadership
 Thinking and acting strategically while working with

others to create a viable future for the organization
 Anticipate events (analyze the external environment)
 Envision the organization’s future (analyze the
internal resources and develop a vision for the
organization or some unit within it)
 Remain flexible in order to adapt to conditions as
they change

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©2005


What is Leadership?
 Organizational leadership
 Social influence process
 Attempts to influence other

people in attaining some goal
 Positions labeled as

management or supervision
have more opportunities to exercise
influence
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©2005


What is Leadership?
 Effective leadership
 Influence that assists a group or

an organization in meeting its
goals and objectives and
performing successfully
 Enabling behavior
 Helps

other people accomplish more than if there
had been no such leadership

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©2005


Leadership and Power
 Power
 The capacity or ability to influence
 Greater power leads to greater

capacity to influence
 Can be used to overcome resistance
 Abuse of power can lead to undesirable or
negative consequences
 Skillful use of power may produce positive
outcomes
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Types and Sources of Power
 Position power
 Based on a manager's rank in an
organizational structure
 Given to the manager by superiors
 Personal power
 Based on a person's individual characteristics
 Stay with the individual regardless of his or her
position in the organizational structure

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Types of Power
Position Powers
Legitimate—How much
authority does the organization
give to your position?
Reward—Are you able to give
others the rewards they want?

Personal Powers
Expert—Do you have
knowledge that others need?
Referent—Do others respect
you and want to be like you?

Coercive—Are you able to
punish others or withhold
rewards?
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©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 10.1: Types of Power


Four Key Issues in Using
Power
How much power
should be used?

Should power
be shared?

Which types of power
should be used?

How can power
be put to use?

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©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 10.2: Four Key Issues in Using Power


Types of Influence Tactics
Rational Persuasion: The agent uses logical arguments
and factual evidence to show a proposal or request is
feasible and relevant for attaining important task
objectives.
Apprising: The agent explains how carrying out a
request or supporting a proposal will benefit the target
personally or help advance the target person’s career.
Inspirational Appeals: The agent makes an appeal to
values and ideals or seeks to arouse the target person’s
emotions to gain commitment for a request or proposal.
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©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 10.3: Types of Influence Tactics


Types of Influence Tactics
Consultation: The agent encourages the target to
suggest improvements in a proposal or to help plan an
activity or change for which the target person’s support
and assistance are desired.
Exchange: The agent offers an incentive, suggests an
exchange of favors, or indicates willingness to reciprocate
at a later time if the target will do what the agent requests.
Collaboration: The agent offers to provide relevant
resources and assistance if the target will carry out a
request or approve a proposed change.
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©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 10.3: Types of Influence Tactics


Types of Influence Tactics
Personal Appeals: The agent asks the target to carry out
a request or support a proposal out of friendship, or asks
for a personal favor before saying what it is.
Ingratiation: The agent uses praise and flattery before or
during an influence attempt or expresses confidence in
the target’s ability to carry out a difficult request.
Legitimating Tactics: The agent seeks to establish the
legitimacy of a request or to verify authority to make it by
referring to rules, formal policies, or official documents.

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©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 10.3: Types of Influence Tactics


Types of Influence Tactics
Pressure: The agent uses demands, threats,
frequent checking, or persistent reminders to
influence the target person.
Coalition Tactics: The agent seeks the aid of
others to persuade the target to do something or
uses the support of others as a reason for the
target to agree.
Source: G. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002), p. 160.

15

©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 10.3: Types of Influence Tactics


Should Power be Shared?
 Empowerment in organizations
 Those higher in the formal structure provide

more power—especially decision making—
to those lower in the structure
 Delegating

formal authority to make specific

decisions
 Training to develop expertise and self confidence
 Providing resources and access to information
 Avoiding sudden withdrawal of shared power
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©2005


Locus of Leadership
Three Leadership
Variables

Leader

The leader
The situation
The followers

Locus
Of
Leadership

Locus of Leadership
Where the three
variables intersect

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©2005

Followers

Situation

Adapted from Exhibit 10.4: Locus of Leadership: Intersection of the Basic Components of the
Leadership Process


Three Leadership Variables
1. The Leader

 Leaders’ traits
 Drive
 Motivation to lead
 Honesty/Integrity
 Self-confidence
 Emotional maturity

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©2005


Leaders’ Traits
Emotional maturity
Even tempered, calm under
stress, unself-centered,
nondefensive

Drive
Achievement, ambition,
energy, tenacity, initiative
Motivation to Lead
Desire to influence
others, comfortable
using power

Leader

Honesty and Integrity
Trustworthy, open,
forthright

Self-confidence
Set high goals for self and others, optimistic about overcoming obstacles
(if taken to extreme, can lead to arrogance and sense of infallibility)
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©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 10.5: Leaders’ Traits


Three Leadership Variables
1. The Leader



Leaders’ skills and competencies
 Technical
 Interpersonal
 Conceptual
 Emotional intelligence
 Social intelligence


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Leaders’ behaviors
©2005


Components of Emotional
and Social Intelligence
 Emotional

Intelligence
 Self-Awareness
 Self-Regulation

 Social Intelligence
 Social Perceptiveness
 Behavioral Flexibility
 “Savvy”

 Empathy
 Social Skill

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©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 10.6: Components of Emotional and Social Intelligence


Leaders’ Behaviors
Task Behaviors
(Initiating Structure)
Specifies roles and’ tasks
Schedules work
Sets performance standards
Develops procedures

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©2005

People Behaviors
(Consideration)
Is friendly
Is supportive
Shows trust and confidence in
subordinates
Shows concern for subordinates’
welfare
Gives recognition to
subordinates for their
accomplishments

Adapted from Exhibit 10.7: Leaders’ Behaviors


Three Leadership Variables
2. The Followers



Followers’ characteristics
Personality traits
 Past experiences
 Beliefs and attitudes
 Skills and abilities


Followers’ behavior
 Leader-follower relationship


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©2005


Leader-Member Relationships
Relationship
characteristics
Relationshipbuilding phase

Stranger

Relationship stage
acquaintance

Maturity

Role-finding

Role-making

Role
implementation

Low

Medium

High

Amounts of
reciprocal
influence

None

Limited

Almost unlimited

Focus of interest

Self

Quality of leadermember exchange

Team

Time
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©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 10.8: Development of leader-Member Relationships over Time


Three Leadership Variables
3. The Situation


Tasks to be performed





Organizational context





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Task structure
Level of worker discretion
Fundamental culture of the
organization
Organizational structure
Human resource policies
Pattern of organizational controls

©2005


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