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Management by hitt back porter CH04

Chapter 4
Managing
Within Cultural
Contexts
PowerPoint slides by
R. Dennis Middlemist
Colorado State University


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:





2

Explain why a thorough understanding of
culture is important for all mangers.

Define culture.
Explain how culture affects managerial
behavior and practices.

©2005


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:




3

Describe the role of fundamental
assumptions in corporate, regional, or
national cultures.
Map aspects of culture in terms of the extent
to which they are deeply held and widely
shared.

©2005


Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:
 Describe the key strategies managers
can use to create and change culture.
 Explain the differences between and
describe the implications of high‑ and
low‑context cultures.
4

©2005


Definition of Culture


 Culture
 Learned set of assumptions, values, and

behaviors
 Accepted as successful
 Passed on to new comers

 Culture begins when a group of people

faces a set of challenges
 Culture evolves and changes with time
5

©2005


Managerial Relevance of
Culture
 Impact of Culture on Behavior
 How people observe and interpret the

business world around them
 Can lead to different beliefs about “right”
behaviors
 Subordinates who identify with the culture of
a unit or company are likely to try harder to
make it successful
6

©2005


Cultural Differences Among Managers
80%

“It is important for a
manager to have at hand
precise answers to most
of the questions his/her
subordinates may raise
about their work.” 38 44

70%
60%
50%
40%
30%

17

20%
10%

18

23

73

78

66
53
46

27

10

7

©2005

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Adapted from Exhibit 4.1: Cultural Differences Among Managers


Managerial Relevance of
Culture
 Cultural diversity in the workplace
 Globalization
 Increasingly culturally diverse U.S. workforce
 Culture as a management tool
 Once established, culture guides employee

behaviors without overt or constant
supervision
 Managers must be careful what they instill as
the cultural values of the unit (organization)
8

©2005


Levels of Culture
 Artifacts: visible

manifestations of a culture
such as its art, clothing, food,
architecture, and customs
 Values: enduring beliefs that
specific conduct or end states
which are personally or
socially preferred to others
 Assumptions: the beliefs
about fundamental aspects of
life lying below the surface, but
supporting the culture

9

©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 4.2: Managing Within Cultural Contexts


Levels of Culture
 Cultural assumptions
 Certain cultural values and

behaviors are only possible with Assumptions
(Hidden)
certain underlying cultural
assumptions
 An understanding of assumptions is
necessary to understand, change, or even
create a new culture
10

©2005


Basic Assumptions and Their
Managerial Assumptions
Specific
Assumptions

Specific
Assumptions

People must
coexist harmoniously with the
environment
Managerial
Implications

Firms should seek
positions that allow
them to coexist with
others

11

©2005

Humans
and the
Environment

People are meant
to dominate the
environment
Managerial
Implications

Strategic plans
should be
developed to enable
the firm to dominate
its industry
Adapted from Exhibit 4.3: Basic Assumptions and Their Management Implications


Basic Assumptions and Their
Managerial Assumptions
Specific
Assumptions

Specific
Assumptions

Work is as natural
as play for people

Managerial
Implications

Provide people with
opportunities and
responsibilities and
encourage their
development
12

©2005

Human
Nature

People are
generally lazy

Managerial
Implications

Implement systems
for monitoring behavior and establish
clear punishment for
undesired behavior
Adapted from Exhibit 4.3: Basic Assumptions and Their Management Implications


Basic Assumptions and Their
Managerial Assumptions
Specific
Assumptions

Specific
Assumptions

People exist
because of others
and owe an
obligation to them
Managerial
Implications

Cooperation with
and contributions to
the’ group should be
evaluated and
rewarded
13

©2005

Human
Relationships

Individuals have
certain rights and
freedoms
Managerial
Implications

Individual
performance should
be measured and
rewarded

Adapted from Exhibit 4.3: Basic Assumptions and Their Management Implications


Basic Assumptions and Their
Managerial Assumptions
Specific
Assumptions

Specific
Assumptions

People should
react to and enjoy
whatever the
present provides
Managerial
Implications

Planning the future
only gets in the way
of enjoying the
present

14

©2005

Human
Activity

People create their
own destinies and
must plan for the
future
Managerial
Implications

People who fail to
plan should plan to
fail

Adapted from Exhibit 4.3: Basic Assumptions and Their Management Implications


Basic Assumptions and Their
Managerial Assumptions
Specific
Assumptions

Specific
Assumptions

Truth is what is
socially accepted

Managerial
Implications

Opinion leaders are
how you influence
people and
decisions
15

©2005

Truth and
Reality

Truth objectively
exists

Managerial
Implications

Facts and statistics
are how you
convince and
influence people

Adapted from Exhibit 4.3: Basic Assumptions and Their Management Implications


Basic Assumptions and Their
Managerial Assumptions
Specific
Assumptions

Specific
Assumptions

Time is like a lake,
what you don’t use
today will be there
tomorrow
Managerial
Implications

Taking advantage of
the moment is
valued. Arriving late
for appointments is
not a character flaw
16

©2005

Time

Time is like a river,
what you don’t use
wisely today is
gone forever
Managerial
Implications

Time management is
a critical skill.
Appointments are
made well in
advance and
punctuality is valued
Adapted from Exhibit 4.3: Basic Assumptions and Their Management Implications


Levels of Culture
 Cultural Values
Values
 Enduring beliefs that specific
conduct or end states of existence
are personally and socially
preferred to others
 Managerial values are enduring beliefs about
specific ways of managing and conducting
business that are deemed successful enough
to be passed on
17

©2005


Questions to Get at Cultural
Assumptions

18

Should we dominate the environment?
How right is logging, mining or building dams?

Humanity’s
Relationship to
the Environment

Are people basically good or evil?
Are workers basically self-motivated or lazy?

Nature of Human
Nature

Should people be treated as equals?
Are hierarchical and status difference right and
natural?
Are individuals more important than groups?
Should individual interests be subjected to those
of the group?

Humanity’s
Relationship to
the Environment

©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 4.4: Questions to Get at Cultural Assumptions


Questions to Get at Cultural
Assumptions

19

Is worth assessed through activity and
accomplishment?
Are inner states of mind and well-being more
important than outward deeds?

Nature of Human
Activity

Is truth objective or does it depend on the eye
of the beholder?
Are facts the way to persuade people?

Nature of Truth

Is time like a river and what you don’t use today
will be gone tomorrow?
Is time like a lake and what you don’t use today
will be there tomorrow?

Nature of Time

©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 4.4: Questions to Get at Cultural Assumptions


Classification of Values

20

Theoretical people

Value the discovery of truth. They are empirical,
critical, and rational, aiming to order and
systematize their knowledge.

Economic people

Value what is useful. They are interested in
practical affairs, especially those of business,
judging things by their usefulness

Aesthetic people

Value beauty and harmony. They are concerned
with grade and symmetry, finding fulfillment in
artistic experiences.

©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 8.1: Types of Plans: Key Differences


Classification of Values
Social people

Value altruistic and philanthropic love. They are
kind, sympathetic, and unselfish, valuing other
people as ends in themselves.

Religious people

Value unity. They seek communication with the
cosmos, mystically relating to its wholeness.

Source: G. W. Allport, P. E. Vernon, and Q. Lindzey, A study of Values (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966.

21

©2005

Adapted from Exhibit 4.5: Classification of Values


Levels of Culture

Artifacts
(visible)

 Cultural Artifacts and

Behavior

 In modern organizations,

important artifacts include
 Office

arrangements (individual offices for all
versus open offices with no walls)
 Parking arrangements (reserved spaces for some
versus open spaces for all)
 Clothing (individual suits versus uniforms)

22

©2005


Culture and Managerial
Behaviors
Culture A
Plan for every possible
contingency.
Develop a plan jointly with
boss.

Structure department
strictly by hierarchy.
Communicate frequently
face to face and rarely use
e-mail.

23

©2005

Managerial
Activity

Planning

Organizing

Culture B
Accept unexpected
surprises.
Develop a plan and then
seek boss’s approval

Organize department into
free-flowing teams.
Communicate infrequently
face to face and frequently
by e-mail.

Adapted from Exhibit 4.6: Culture and Managerial Behaviors


Culture and Managerial
Behaviors
Culture A

Inform subordinates of
decisions. Intervene when
there are disputes.

Closely monitor activities
and directly guide behavior.
Emphasize financial results
in evaluating performance.

24

©2005

Managerial
Activity

Culture B

Leading

Involve subordinates in
decision process. Allow
subordinates to solve their
own problems.

Controlling

Evaluate and then reward
based on results. Focus
on customer satisfaction in
evaluations.

Adapted from Exhibit 4.6: Culture and Managerial Behaviors


Cultural Diversity
 Diversity comes from two primary sources
 Increased international activity of organizations
 Greater diversity in the cultures of employees

 Diversity includes differences in
 Age, race, ethnicity, gender, physical abilities, and
sexual orientation
 Work background, income, marital status, military
experience, religious beliefs, geographic location,
parental status, and education
25

©2005


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