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Management ch 15 leardership

Chapter 15

Leadership


Leadership
Different leaders behave in different ways – style, need, situation

 There

is probably no topic more
important to business success
today than leadership
leadership
involves
is

occurs among people

the use of influence


used to attain goals
Manager’s Challenge: Aramark Corp.

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Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


Leadership

Topics
Chapter 15

Different leaders behave in different ways – style, need, situation

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Leadership definition



Differences in leadership and management



Theories of leadership effectiveness



Charismatic and transformational leadership



How leaders use power and influence to get
things done




New leadership approaches for today’s
turbulent environment

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Nature of Leadership

4

travel the globe solving
problems



The ability to influence people toward the attainment
of organizational goals.



Leadership is reciprocal, occurring among people.



Leadership is a “people” activity, distinct from
administrative paper shuffling or problem-solving
activities.



Leadership is dynamic and involves the use of
power.
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Leadership versus Management
Management
Promotes
stability, order
and problem
solving within
existing
organizational
structure and
systems

Leadership
Promotes
vision,
creativity, and
change

Takes care of where you are

5

L

M

Takes you to a new place

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Leader versus Manager Qualities
Leader Qualities

Manager Qualities

SOUL
Visionary
Passionate
Creative
Flexible
Inspiring
Innovative
Courageous
Imaginative
Experimental
Initiates change
Personal power

MIND
Rational
Consulting
Persistent
Problem solving
Tough-minded
Analytical
Structured
Deliberate
Authoritative
Stabilizing
Position power

Source: Genevieve Capowski, “Anatomy of a Leader: Where Are the Leaders of Tomorrow?” Management Review, March 1994, 12

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Leadership Traits
Traits = personal characteristics

 Traits

- early efforts to understand leadership
success focused on leader’s personal
characteristics

 Great

man approach - early research
focused on leaders who had achieved a level
of greatness

7



Find out what made them great



Find people with same traits

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Personal Characteristics of Leaders
Physical Characteristics Personality
Self-confidence
Energy
Honesty & integrity
Physical stamina
Enthusiasm
Desire to lead
Social Background
Independence
Education
Mobility
Intelligence and Ability
Judgment,
decisiveness
Knowledge
Intelligence, cognitive
ability

Social Characteristics
Sociability, interpersonal skills
Cooperativeness
Ability to enlist cooperation
Tact, diplomacy

Work-related Characteristics
Achievement drive
Drive to excel
Conscientiousness in pursuit of goals
Persistence against obstacles, tenacity

Source: Adapted from Bernard M. Bass, Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, rev. Ed. (New York: Free Press, 1981), 75-76. This adaptation appeared in R. Albanese and D. D. Van Fleet,
Organizational Behavior: A managerial Viewpoint (Hinsdale, III.: The Dryden Press, 1983).

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Behavioral Approaches
Ohio State Studies
Consideration: - people-oriented behavior
– Is mindful of subordinates
– Establishes mutual trust
– Provides open communication
– Develops teamwork
Initiating Structure: task-oriented behavior
– Directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment
– Typically gives instructions, spends time planning, and
emphasizes deadlines
– Provides explicit schedules of work activities
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Behavioral Approaches
Michigan Studies
At about the same time as Ohio State Studies

 University

of Michigan compared the
behavior of effective and ineffective
supervisors
Employee-centered

leaders
Job-centered leaders

10

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The Leadership Grid
Blake and Mouton

 Two-dimensional

leadership theory that
measures the leader’s concern for people
and for production

 Builds

on the work of Ohio State and
Michigan studies
Experiential Exercise: T-P Leadership Questionnaire

11

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The Leadership Grid
Leadership Grid
Concern for People

High

Low

1,9
Country Club Management
Thoughtful attention to the
needs of people for satisfying
relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization
atmosphere and work tempo.

9,9
Team Management
Work accomplishment is from
committed people; interdependence
through a “common stake” in
organization purpose leads to
relationships of trust and respect.

5,5
5,5
Middle-of-the-Road Management
Adequate organization performance is
possible through balancing the necessity
to get out work with maintaining morale
of
people at a satisfactory level. Authority-Compliance
Impoverished
Management
Efficiency in operations
Exertion of minimum effort
results from arranging
to get required work done
conditions of work in such a
is appropriate to sustain
way that human elements
organization membership.
interfere to a minimum
1,1
degree.
9,1

Low

Concern for Production

High

Source: The Leadership Grid Figure from Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse, Leadership Dilemmas-Grid Solutions (Houston: Gulf, 1991), 29.
Copyright 1991, by Scientific Methods, Inc. Reproduced by permission of the owners.

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Contingency Approaches
Relationship between leadership style and situation

Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
 Hersey and Blanchard
Situational Theory
 Evans and House Path Goal
Theory


13

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Fiedler’s Classification of
Situation Favorableness
Leaders needs to know
Whether they have a relationship- or task-oriented style
Should diagnose the situation and determine the favorableness
of the following three areas

Source: Fred E. Fiedler, “The Effects of Leadership Training and Experience: A Contingency Model Interpretation,” Administrative Science Quarterly 17 (1972), 455. Reprinted by
permission of Administrative Science Quarterly.

14

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Hersey-Blanchard’s Situational
Leadership Theory
Links leader’s behavioral style with subordinates’ task readiness

Follower
Characteristics
Low Readiness
Level

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Appropriate Leader Style

Low Readiness Level

Telling

Moderate Readiness Level

Selling

High Readiness Level

Participating

Very High Readiness Level

Delegating

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Path Goal Theory

Source: Based on Bernard M. Bass, “Leadership:
Good, Better, Best,” Organizational Dynamics 13
(Winter 1985), 26-40.

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Path-Goal Theory
Leader Behaviors
Classification of (4) leader behaviors


-

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Supportive leadership:
Leader behavior that shows concern for subordinates
Open, friendly, and approachable
Creates a team climate
Treats subordinates as equals
Directive leadership:
Tells subordinates exactly what they are supposed to
do
Planning, making schedules, setting performance
goals, and behavior standards

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Path-Goal Theory
Leaders Behaviors
Classification of (4) leader behaviors






18

Participative leadership:
Consults with his or her subordinates about decisions
Achievement-oriented leadership:
Sets clear and challenging goals for subordinates
Behavior stresses high-quality performance

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Path-Goal
Situational Contingencies


Personal characteristics of group
members



The work environment
Degree of task structure
 Nature of formal authority system
 Work group itself


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Path-Goal Situations &
Preferred Leader Behavior

Source: Adapted from Gary A. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1981), 146-152.

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Substitutes for Leadership
 Substitute = situational variable that makes

a leadership style unnecessary or redundant
 Neutralizer = situational variable that

counteracts a leadership style and prevents
the leader from displaying certain behaviors

21

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Leading Change
Transactional Leaders


Clarify the role and task requirements of
subordinates



Initiate structure



Provide appropriate rewards



Display consideration for subordinates
Meet the social needs of subordinates



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Leading Change
Charismatic Leaders
 The ability to inspire
 Motivate people to do more than they would
normally do
 Tend to be less predictable than transactional
leaders
 Create an atmosphere of change
 May be obsessed by visionary ideas
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Leading Change
 Transformational



24

Leader

Similar to charismatic leaders
Distinguished by their special ability to bring about
innovation and change by
 Recognizing followers’ needs and concerns
 Helping them look at old problems in new ways
 Encouraging them to question the status quo

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Sources of Power






25

Legitimate Power: power coming from a formal
management position.
Reward Power: stems from the authority to bestow
rewards on other people.
Coercive Power: the authority to punish or
recommend punishment.
Expert Power: leader’s special knowledge or skill
regarding the tasks performed by followers.
Referent Power: personality characteristics that
command subordinates’ identification, respect, and
admiration so they wish to emulate the leader

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