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Management ch 13 meting the challenge of diversity

Chapter 13

Meeting the Challenge of Diversity


Meeting the Challenge of Diversity
Smart managers value diversity & enforce the value in decisions




Diversity in the population, the workforce, and the
marketplace is a fact of life no manager can afford to
ignore
Managing diversity today – recruiting, training, valuing,
maximizing potential of people
Gender

Disability

Sexual orientation


Race

Ethnicity

Education

Age

Religion

Economic level
Manager’s Challenge: Wal-Mart

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Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


Meeting the
Challenge of Diversity
 Topic

of Diversity

 Causes

and Consequences

 Challenges
 Ways

Minorities face

Managers Deal with Workplace Diversity

 Organizational
 Other

3



Topics
Chapter 13

Responses to Value Diversity

Diversity Issues in Today’s Workplace

Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


Valuing Diversity
 Top

4

managers value diversity



Give organization access to broader range of
opinions and viewpoints



Reflect an increasingly diverse customer base



Obtain the best talent in a competitive
environment



Demonstrate the company’s commitment to doing
the right thing

Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


Valuing Diversity
 Job

seekers value diversity

 90%

of job seekers think diversity programs
make a company a better place to work


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Survey commissioned by The New York Times

Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


Corporate Diversity in U.S.
 Many

managers are ill-prepared to handle
diversity issues

 Many Americans

grew up in racially unmixed

neighborhoods
 Had

little exposure to people substantially
different from themselves

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Workforce Diversity
 Hiring

people with different human

qualities or who belong to various
cultural groups

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Dimensions of Diversity
Primary
Dimensions
Inborn
difference Have an
impact
throughout
one’s life

Secondary
Dimensions
Education

Marital
Status

Parental
Status

Primary
Dimensions

Gender
Physical
Ability

Age

Secondary
Dimensions
Religious
Beliefs

Ethnicity

Person Sexual
Orientation

Military
Experience

Race
Geographic
Location

Work
Background
Income

8

Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

Acquired or
changed
throughout
one’s lifetime
Have less
impact – still
impact self
definition


Monoculture & Diversity
 A culture

that accepts only one way to do things
 There is only one set of values and beliefs

Experiential Exercise: How Tolerant Are You?

9

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Attitudes Toward Diversity
Goal for organizations seeking cultural diversity is pluralism

 Ethnocentrism

= belief that one’s own group
or subculture is inherently superior to other
groups or cultures

 Enthnorelativism

= belief that groups and
subcultures are inherently equal

 Pluralism

= an organization accommodates
several subcultures

10

Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


The Changing Workplace

11

Globalization
Competition
is intense

Changing
Composition of
Workforce

Dramatic
Changes in
the
Customer
Base

There are more
women, people
of color, and
immigrants
seeking
opportunities

Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


The Workplace & Bias
How It Shows Up
 Lack

of choice assignments

 Disregard

by a subordinate of a minority manager’s direction

 Ignoring

of comments made by women & minorities at
meetings

 A need

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to become “Bicultural”

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Biculturalism
Means minorities use to deal with bias in the workplace

 Socio-cultural

skills and attitudes used by

racial minorities as they move back and forth
between the dominant culture and their own
ethnic or racial culture

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Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


Mind-Sets about Diversity
Problem or opportunity?
Challenge met or barely addressed?
Level of majority-culture buy-in
(resistance or support)

Education Programs
Educate management on
valuing differences
Promoting knowledge and
acceptance
Taking advantage of the
opportunities that diversify
provides

Source: Taylor H. Cox and Stacy Blake,”Managing
Cultural Diversity: Implications For Organizational
Competitiveness,” Academy of Management Executive
5, no 3 (1991), 45-56

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Organization Culture
Valuing differences
Prevailing value system
Cultural inclusion

Challenges For
Management

CHALLENGES
OF
CULTURAL
DIVERSITY

Heterogeneity in
Race/Ethnicity/Nationality
Effect on cohesiveness,
communication, conflict, morale
Effects of group identity on
interaction (e.g., stereotyping)
Prejudice (racism, ethnocentrism)

Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.

HR Management Systems
(Bias Free?)
Recruitment
Training and development
Performance appraisal
Compensation and benefits
Promotion

Higher Career
Involvement of Women
Dual-career couples
Sexism and sexual harassment
Work-family conflict


Affirmative Action Current Debate

15



Affirmative action was developed in response to
conditions 40 years ago.



Today more then half the U.S. workforce consists of
women and minorities.



It is not the same as diversity



Research shows that full integration of women and
racial minorities into organizations is still at least a
decade away

Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


Glass Ceiling
 An

invisible barrier separates women and
minorities from top management positions



Fortune 500 Women Corporate Officers
– 2004 = 15.7%
– 2000 = 12.5%
– 1995 = 8.7%


Only eight Fortune 500 companies have female CEOs

Ethical Dilemma: A Man’s World

16

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Inclusive Practices in the Workplace
Current Responses to Diversity



Building a corporate culture that values diversity
Changing structures, policies, and systems to support diversity
Recruitment
 Career advancement




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Providing diversity awareness training

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Diversity Initiatives















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Recruitment
Examine employee demographics
Examine composition of the labor pool in the area
Examine composition of the customer base
Career Advancement
Eliminate the glass ceiling
Accomplish mentoring relationships
Accommodating Special Needs
Child care
Non-English speaking training materials and information packets can be
provided
Maternity or paternity leave
Flexible work schedules
Home-based employment
Long-term-care insurance, special health or life benefits
Copyright © 2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.


Highest Level of Awareness

Stages of
Diversity
Awareness

Denial

Adaptation
Able to shift from one cultural
perspective to another
Able to empathize with those
Acceptance of other cultures
Accepts behavioral differences and
underlying differences in values
Recognizes validity of other ways of
thinking and perceiving the world

Minimizing Differences
Hides or trivializes cultural
differences
Focuses on similarities among
all peoples
Defense
Perceives threat against one’s
comfortable worldview
Uses negative stereotyping
Assumes own culture superior

Parochial view of the world

No awareness of cultural differences
In extreme cases, may claim other
cultures are subhuman

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Integration
Multicultural attitude-enables
one to integrate differences
and adapt both cognitively
and behaviorally

Source: Based on M. Bennett, “A developmental Approach to Training for Intercultural
Sensitivity,” International journal of Intercultural relations 10 (1986), 176-196.

Lowest Level of Awareness

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Organizational Relationships
Two Issues of Concern of Close Relationships in the Workplace

Emotional Intimacy
 Sexual Harassment - various forms defined
by one university:








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Generalized
Inappropriate/offensive
Solicitation with promise of reward
Coercion with threat of punishment
Sexual crimes and misdemeanors

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Global Diversity Programs
Expatriates = employees who live and work in a country
other than their own
 Global Diversity Program






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Employee selection
Employee training
Understanding high vs. low-context communication context

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Leveraging Diversity
 Multicultural

teams = made up from
diverse national, racial, ethnic and
cultural backgrounds

 Employee

network groups = based
on social identity, and organized by
employees to focus on concerns of
employees from that group

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Managing Multicultural Teams




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Advantages


Enhanced creativity, innovation, and value in
today’s global marketplace



Generate more and better alternatives to
problems



Produce more creative solutions than
homogeneous teams

Disadvantage - increased potential for
miscommunication and misunderstanding

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Diversity in a Turbulent World
 Diversity

in the workplace reflects
diversity in the larger
environment

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Diversity in a Turbulent World
Smart managers value diversity & enforce the value in decisions

 Organizations

that value diversity encourage
and support network groups to enable minority
organization members to





25

reduce their social isolation
be more effective in their jobs
have a greater impact on the organization
achieve greater opportunities for career
advancement

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