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LEADERSHIP CHAP08PP

CHAPTER EIGHT
CHARISMATIC
LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-1


Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
do the following:







Describe the behaviors that charismatic
leaders use to influence followers.

Explain why charismatic leaders can have
such strong effects on followers.
Describe examples of effective and
ineffective charismatic leadership.
Describe several personal traits, skills, and
power sources of effective charismatic
leaders.
Describe the major favorable effects of
charismatic leadership.
© Prentice Hall 2006

8-2


Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
do the following:








Explain the risks that some charismatic
leaders can create for followers.
Identify situations in which charismatic
leadership is especially effective.
Identify situations in which charismatic
leadership may not be needed.
Explain how leaders can modify situations to
make charismatic leadership more effective.

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-3


Important Leader Behaviors of


Charismatic Leaders
Makes
Makesinspirational
inspirational
speeches
speeches
Advocates
Advocatesmoral
moral
mission
and
mission and
vision
vision

Takes
Takesrisks
risksto
to
achieve
mission
achieve mission

Builds
Buildsown
ownimage
image
in
followers’
in followers’eyes
eyes

Important
ImportantLeader
Leader
Behaviors
Behaviorsof
of
Charismatic
CharismaticLeaders
Leaders

Uses
Usesframe
frame
alignment
alignmentto
to
guide
followers
guide followers

Role
Rolemodels
modelsbehavior
behavior
for
followers
for followerswith
with
high
expectations
high expectations&&
confidence
confidence

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-4


The Qualities of Ethical and Unethical Charismatic
Leaders and their Effects on Followers
UNETHICAL CHARISMATIC
ETHICAL CHARISMATIC
LEADERS
LEADERS
KEY CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIORS
Uses power to serve others
Aligns vision with followers’ needs
and aspirations

Uses power for personal gain or
impact
Promotes own personal vision

Considers and learns from criticism

Censures critical or opposing views

Stimulates followers to think
independently and to question the
leader’s views

Demands own decisions be accepted
without question

Uses open, two-way communication

Uses one-way communication

Coaches and develops followers;
shares recognition with followers

Is insensitive to followers’ needs

Relies on internal moral standards to
Relies on convenient external moral
satisfy organizational and societal
standards to satisfy self-interests
interests
© Prentice Hall 2006
8-5


The Qualities of Ethical and Unethical Charismatic
Leaders and their Effects on Followers (cont.)
ETHICAL CHARISMATIC
LEADERS

UNETHICAL CHARISMATIC
LEADERS

MAJOR IMPACTS ON FOLLOWERS
Develop followers’ ability to lead
themselves

Select and produce obedient,
dependent, and compliant followers

Use crises as learning experiences,
to develop a sense of purpose in the
mission and vision, and to emphasize
the leader’s intention to do right

Use crises to solidify their own power
base, to minimize dissent, and to
increase dependence of followers

Avoid the trappings of success,
rather shares credit with followers
and stays humble

Success brings delusions on
invincibility and greatness; and extreme
emphasis on image management

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-6


Key Skills, Characteristics, and Sources of
Power for Charismatic Leadership

Self-confidence
Self-confidence&&
self-assurance
self-assurance
Assertive,
Assertive,dynamic,
dynamic,
outgoing
&
outgoing &forceful
forceful

Communication
Communication&&
rhetorical
rhetoricalskills
skills

Need
Needfor
forpower
power&&
low
lowauthoritarianism
authoritarianism

Key Skills, Characteristics
& Sources of Power for
Charismatic Leadership

Referent
Referentpower
power

Legitimate
Legitimate
power
power

Expert
Expertpower
power

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-7


Effects of Charismatic Leadership on
Followers
High
Highemotional
emotional
involvement
involvement&&
attachment
attachmentto
tothe
theleader
leader

High
Highesteem,
esteem,trust,
trust,
acceptance
acceptance&&loyalty
loyalty
to
tothe
theleader
leader

High
Highsatisfaction
satisfactionwith
with
the
theleader,
leader,work
work&&
organization
organization

Low
Lowstress
stresslevel
level&&
low
lowjob
jobburnout
burnout

Possible
Possiblehatred
hatredof
ofleader
leader
&&physical
or
financial
physical or financial
Destruction
Destructionof
offollowers
followers

Traits, Skills and Sources
of Power that Help a
Leader Effectively Use
Rewards and Punishments

High
Highself-esteem,
self-esteem,
self-assurance,
self-assurance,&&
experienced
experienced
meaningfulness
meaningfulness
of
ofwork
work
High
Highorganizational
organizational
commitment
commitment

High
Highindividual
individual&&
group
groupperformance
performance

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-8


Transformational Leadership
Transformational leaders are said to influence
followers to adopt new values and visions, and
transcend personal goals and interests for
achievement of collective goals
Transformational leadership consists of four
components
1. Idealized influence
2. Inspirational motivation
3. Intellectual stimulation
4.

Individualized consideration
© Prentice Hall 2006

8-9


Transformational Leadership
Charismatic leadership and transformational
leadership are frequently viewed as
interchangeable.
Both include many similar behaviors such as
developing and articulating an inspirational
vision, advocating a moral mission that reflects
followers’ values and needs, arousing follower
emotions to identify with the leader and the
mission, role modeling, frame alignment, and
inducing extra effort from followers to achieve
high levels of performance.
© Prentice Hall 2006

8-10


Transformational Leadership
Transformational leadership

Transactional leadership

• Followers are more aware
of the importance of task
outcomes, and they may
transcend their selfinterest for achievement
of group interests, have
higher self-confidence,
and exert more effort for
task performance.

• Involves an exchange
relationship, in which
followers exert effort for
the purpose of getting
contractual benefits in
return from the leader
and/or the group.

Transformational and transactional
leadership are not mutually exclusive
© Prentice Hall 2006

8-11


Enhancers of
Charismatic Leadership
TASK
TASK
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS

FOLLOWER
FOLLOWER
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS
• Distress, anxiety,
isolation, or extreme
uncertainty
• Years of schooling*
• Rank*
• Professionalism*

* These enhancers may
vary depending on
followers’ culture

ENHANCERS
ENHANCERSOF
OF
CHARISMATIC
CHARISMATIC
LEADERSHIP
LEADERSHIP

• Followers’ work
tasks have a moral
element
• Followers’ tasks
may cause major
change in how
people think and
do things

ORGANIZATIONAL
ORGANIZATIONAL&&LEADER
LEADER
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS
• Crisis or major social change
• Leader’s high status, rank, experience &
expertise
• Formal plans, goals, and procedures that support
the leader’s mission
• Organizational history of charisma
• New entrepreneurial organization

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-12


Neutralizers of Charismatic
Leadership
Although several writers have made
interesting predictions, the research is
very sparse on possible neutralizers of
charismatic leadership. At this time, no
research supports the suggestion that
situational or follower characteristics can
reliably neutralize the impacts of
charismatic leadership.

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-13


Substitutes for Charismatic
Leadership
FOLLOWER
CHARACTERISTICS
• Age
• Years of work experience
• Intrinsic task satisfaction
• Follower self-confidence
and strong belief in
human equality

TASK
TASK
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS
SUBSTITUTES
SUBSTITUTES
FOR
FOR
CHARISMATIC
CHARISMATIC
LEADERSHIP
LEADERSHIP

• None found

GROUP
GROUP&&LEADER
LEADER
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS
• Formal procedures such as group bonus plans, group
goals, consensus decision making, and peer review
processes
• High value placed on independence and selfmanagement
• High leader expertise at follower’s task

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-14


Process Model of Charismatic
Leadership
SITUATIONAL FACTORS
INCREASING LEADER
EFFECTIVENESS
Enhancers
• Crisis or extreme uncertainty
• Follower distress, anxiety,
isolation, helplessness, low selfesteem
• Organizational history of charisma
• Creative and/or inherently
satisfying work task
• High leader rank, status, or
expertise
• Educated and professional
followers
• Formal plans, goals, and
procedures that support leader’s
mission
• New entrepreneurial organization
Substitutes
• High leader rank and expertise
• Older experienced followers
• Formal plans, goals and
procedures that replace the
leader’s mission
• Consensus decision making or
self-management






CHARISMATIC LEADER BEHAVIORS

Advocates moral mission and vision
Uses inspirational rhetoric
Builds own image in followers’ eyes
Models behavior for followers with high
expectations & confidence
• Takes risks to achieve mission
• Uses frame alignment to guide follower behavior

SITUATIONAL
FACTORS
DECREASING
LEADER
EFFECTIVENESS
Neutralizers
• None found so
far

FOLLOWER/GROUP PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS








Emotional involvement & attachment to the leader
High esteem, trust, acceptance & loyalty to the leader
High self-esteem, self-assurance & experienced meaningfulness of work
Satisfaction with the leader, work & organization
Organizational commitment
Low stress level
Possible hatred of the leader

FOLLOWER BEHAVIORS AND OUTCOMES






High follower performance *
High group or departmental * performance
Low job burnout
Possible attacks on the leader
Possible physical or financial destruction of followers

© Prentice Hall 2006

* These psychological
reactions and
outcomes have shown
the strongest
improvement from
leader’s charismatic
behaviors.

8-15


Assessing the Dynamics of
Charismatic Leadership








In diagnosing situations, charismatic leaders look for
current and future culture shocks or crises that create
anxiety and distress in followers.
When these follower and environmental factors are
present, a leader should use charismatic behaviors to
influence followers.
Charismatic leaders who are concerned with their
followers’ development may also consider modifying
environmental and follower characteristics to create
factors that replace the need for charismatic leadership.
Leaders can do this by (1) providing followers with
valuable work experiences that are inherently interesting
and satisfying and (2) helping followers succeed at their
tasks to build their self confidence.

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-16


Applying the Model of Charismatic
Leadership
1. DIAGNOSING THE SITUATION
• Do followers face a crisis or extreme uncertainty causing them distress, anxiety,
isolation, helplessness, or low self-esteem?
• Are followers’ tasks creative or inherently satisfying?
• Is there a history of charisma in the organization?
• Does the leader have a high-level position, status, or expertise?
• Are there formal plans, goals, and procedures that support the leader’s mission?
• Are there educated and professional followers who support the leader’s mission?
If “yes” to one or more of these questions then followers will probably respond favorably
to charismatic leadership.

3. MODIFYING FOLLOWERS &
SITUATIONS

2. PROVIDING DIRECTIVE LEADERSHIP

Leaders also act to:
• Alleviate crisis, uncertainty, distress, anxiety,
isolation, or low self-esteem.
• Make followers’ tasks more creative and
satisfying
• Increase their own rank, status, and expertise
• Create plans, goals, and procedures that
support or replace the leader’s mission
• Develop educated or professional followers

Leader demonstrates charismatic behaviors like
the following:
• Advocating a moral mission & vision
• Using inspirational rhetoric
• Building own image in followers’ eyes
• Role modeling behavior for followers with high
expectations & confidence
• Taking risks to achieve mission
• Frame alignment to guide follower behavior

© Prentice Hall 2006

8-17



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