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LEADERSHIP CHAP05PP

CHAPTER FIVE
DIRECTIVE
LEADERSHIP
BEHAVIOR
© Prentice Hall 2006

5-1


Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
do the following:






Describe directive leadership and give
examples of directive leadership behaviors.
Explain why directive leadership is important

for individual followers and groups.
Explain why directive leaders do not need to
be authoritarian, autocratic or punitive to be
effective.
Describe some of the personal traits, skills,
and sources of power that leaders need to
develop in order to be effective directive
leaders.

© Prentice Hall 2006

5-2


Learning Objectives (cont.)
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
do the following:








Identify organizational factors which can
encourage or discourage leaders from being
directive.
Describe the major impacts directive
leadership has on followers’ psychological
reactions and behaviors.
Identify organizational situations where
directive leadership is especially effective.
Identify situations where directive leadership
is probably not effective.
Explain how leaders can modify situations to
make their directive leadership more effective.
© Prentice Hall 2006

5-3




Directive Leadership

Directive leadership involves
leader activities that guide and
structure the actions of group
members.

© Prentice Hall 2006

5-4


Types of Directive Leadership
Behavior
Defining
Definingroles
rolesand
and
communication
communication
patterns
patterns

Guiding
Guidingand
and
structuring
structuring
followers’
followers’activities
activities

Clarifying
Clarifying
expectations,
expectations,goals,
goals,
and
andwork
workmethods
methods

Directive
Leadership
Behaviors

Monitoring
Monitoringand
and
following
up
following upon
on
assignments
assignments

Planning,
Planning,scheduling,
scheduling,
and
assigning
and assigning
responsibilities
responsibilities

Motivating
Motivatingand
and
conveying
conveying
expertise
expertise

© Prentice Hall 2006

5-5


Avoiding Ineffective
Directive Leadership




Leader directive behavior may
result in inefficiency and
ineffectiveness if provided without
the appropriate context and other
needed information.
Timing and prior feedback are
important.





Some tasks require structure and
guidance during the goal-setting stage.
Some tasks require clarification and
performance feedback during
execution.
Some followers need guidance to relate
their work to that of other employees.
© Prentice Hall 2006

5-6


Skills, Traits and Sources of Power
for Effective Directive Leadership

Communication
Communication
Skills
Skills

Self-Confidence
Self-Confidence
and
and
Assertiveness
Assertiveness

Technical
Technical&&
professional
professional
Competence
Competence

Skills, Traits & Sources
of Power for Effective
Directive Leadership
Legitimate
Legitimate
Power
Power

Expert
Expert
Power
Power
Resource/Connection
Resource/Connection
Power
Power
© Prentice Hall 2006

5-7


Major Effects
of Directive Leadership
FOLLOWER BENEFITS

ORGANIZATIONAL BENEFITS

•Role clarity

•Increased cohesiveness &
harmony

•Clear expectations

•High quality relations among
group members

•Satisfaction with work and
supervisor
•Satisfaction with organization
•Lower stress
•Increased performance

•Reductions of intentions to quit
•Group arousal focused on
achieving organizational goals
•Improved efficiency and/or
effectiveness

© Prentice Hall 2006

5-8


Situational Factors that Enhance the
Effectiveness of Directive Leadership
TASK
TASK
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS

FOLLOWER
FOLLOWER
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS
••High
Highneed
needfor
for
achievement
achievement
••Desire
Desirefor
forrole
roleclarity
clarity

SITUATIONAL
SITUATIONALFACTORS
FACTORS
THAT
THATINCREASE
INCREASETHE
THE
EFFECTIVENESS
OF
EFFECTIVENESS OF
DIRECTIVE
DIRECTIVELEADERSHIP
LEADERSHIP

•Stressful
•Stressfultask
task
•Task
interdependence
•Task interdependence
•Direct
•Directcommunication
communication
between
betweencustomers
customers&&
followers
followers
•Highly
•Highlystructured
structuredtask
task

ORGANIZATIONAL
ORGANIZATIONAL&&GROUP
GROUP
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS
• •Large
Largegroup
groupsize
size
• •Bureaucratic
organization
Bureaucratic organization
• •Positive
Positivegroup
groupproduction
productionnorm
norm
• •Leader
with
high
expertise
Leader with high expertise
• •Leader
Leaderwho
whoisissupportive
supportive

© Prentice Hall 2006

5-9


Situational Factors that Neutralize
Effectiveness of Directive Leadership
Cohesive
Cohesivegroup
groupof
of
followers
followerswith
withaalow
low
performance
performancenorm
norm

Highly
Highly
structured
structured
task
task

SITUATIONAL
SITUATIONALFACTORS
FACTORS
THAT
THATDECREASE
DECREASE
EFFECTIVENESS
EFFECTIVENESSOF
OF
DIRECTIVE
DIRECTIVELEADERSHIP
LEADERSHIP

High
Highfollower
follower
experience,
experience,ability,
ability,or
or
need
needfor
forindependence
independence
© Prentice Hall 2006

5-10


Situational Factors that Substitute for
Directive Leadership

Organizational
Organizational
formalization
formalization

Feedback
Feedbackdirectly
directly
from
fromtask
task

Large
Largenumber
numberof
of
years
yearswith
withleader
leader

SITUATIONAL
SITUATIONALFACTORS
FACTORS
THAT
THATREPLACE
REPLACETHE
THE
NEED
NEEDFOR
FORDIRECTIVE
DIRECTIVE
LEADERSHIP
LEADERSHIP

Autonomous
Autonomous
work
workgroups
groupsor
or
team
teamoperations
operations

Predictable
Predictableflow
flow
of
ofwork
workor
orroutine
routine
and
repetitive
and repetitivework
work
© Prentice Hall 2006

5-11


Process Model of the
Directive Leadership Process
LEADER DIRECTIVENESS
SITUATIONAL FACTORS
INCREASING LEADER
EFFECTIVENESS
Enhancers
• Dissatisfying or stressful job
• Low follower self-confidence,
insecurity, or self-esteem
• Follower expectations or
high growth needs
• Structured work task
• Complex creative task
• External group conflict
• New or cohesive group
• Organization formalization
• Organization mission
• Authoritarian supervisor
Substitutes
• Importance placed on
organizational rewards
• Intrinsically satisfying tasks
• Task feedback








Guiding & structuring follower activities
Defining roles & communication patterns
Clarifying expectations and work methods
Planning, scheduling, & assigning responsibilities
Monitoring & following up on assignments
Motivating & conveying expertise

FOLLOWER/GROUP
PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS






Role clarity*
Satisfaction with supervision and job*
Intrinsic satisfaction with work*
Lower job stress & burnout
Group cohesion

FOLLOWER BEHAVIORS
AND OUTCOMES





Department & organization effectiveness
Increased individual & group performance
High merit ratings for leaders
Reduced intentions to quit

© Prentice Hall 2006

SITUATIONAL FACTORS
DECREASING LEADER
EFFECTIVENESS
Neutralizers
• High task structure
(satisfaction)
• Cohesive group with
low performance
norms
• High follower
experience
• High follower ability
• High follower need for
independence

* These psychological
reactions and outcomes
showed the most
improvement from
directive leadership.

5-12


Applying the Model of Directive
Leadership
1. DIAGNOSING THE SITUATION
1. Are followers’ work tasks highly structured or stressful?
2. Do followers have a high need for clarity & guidance in their work roles?
3. Do followers belong to a large work group?
4. Is the organization highly bureaucratic?
5. Does the leader have a high degree of task expertise, or is the leader highly supportive?
6. Do followers have a high need for achievement?
If “yes” to one or more of these questions, then leaders’ directive behaviors will probably be
effective.

3. MODIFYING FOLLOWERS &
SITUATIONS

Leaders also act to:
 Alleviate pressures, strict regulations,
and other stresses on followers
 Create autonomous work groups or team
structures when appropriate
 Design jobs so followers receive
performance feedback directly from the
work tasks
 Encourage reliance on other followers
who have many years’ experience with
the leader
 Encourage development of high
performance norms

2. PROVIDING DIRECTIVE
LEADERSHIP
Leaders demonstrate directive behaviors
with followers by:
 Defining leader and follower roles
 Establishing follower goals for quantity,
quality, and timeliness of performance
 Planning and scheduling work
 Establishing communication patterns
 Monitoring and following up on
assignments
 Motivating followers to improve
performance
 Training or coaching followers in new
work skills or techniques

© Prentice Hall 2006

5-13



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