Tải bản đầy đủ

LEADERSHIP CHAP04PP

CHAPTER FOUR
SUPPORTIVE
LEADERSHIP
BEHAVIOR
©Prentice Hall 2006

4-1


Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
do the following:











Describe supportive leadership as an effective
leadership behavior.
Explain why supportive leadership is important for
individual followers and groups.
Describe some of the skills, traits, and sources of
power a leader needs to develop to be an effective
supportive leader.
Discuss some of the skills needed for effective
listening, which is part of supportive leadership.
Describe several impacts leader supportiveness has
on follower psychological reactions and behaviors.
©Prentice Hall 2006

4-2


Learning Objectives (cont.)
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
do the following:








Identify organizational situations where supportive
leadership is especially effective.
Identify situations where supportive leadership is
probably not effective.
Discuss how leaders can modify situations to increase
the effectiveness of their supportive behaviors.
Understand how leaders can modify followers’ tasks
to substitute for some supportiveness and still
maintain positive follower attitudes and performance.

©Prentice Hall 2006


4-3


Supportive Leadership
Showing concern for the status,
well-being and needs of followers;
demonstrating a kind, considerate
and understanding attitude
regarding followers’ problems;
and fostering followers’
professional development.
©Prentice Hall 2006

4-4


Types of Supportive
Leadership Behaviors
Being
Beingconsiderate
considerate
and
and
understanding
understanding

Helping
Helpingfollowers
followers
develop
developabilities
abilities
and
andcareers
careers

Showing
Showing
concern
concernfor
for
follower
followerneeds
needs

SUPPORTIVE
LEADERSHIP
BEHAVIORS

Being
Beingfriendly,
friendly,
informative,
informative,and
and
encouraging
encouraging

Being
Beingsympathetic
sympathetic
to
others’
to others’
problems
problems

Showing
Showingtrust
trust
and
and
respect
respect

©Prentice Hall 2006

4-5


Examples of
Supportive Leadership






A military officer showed ongoing concern and
respect for subordinate differences in cultural or
racial values, life styles, and mores.
A supervisor was alert to personal problems of
subordinates and, once aware of the problems,
made a concerted effort to help the subordinate
solve them.
A leader made a conscious effort to encourage
and provide “air time” for everyone during staff
meetings and to distribute privileges or choice
task assignments equitably.

©Prentice Hall 2006

4-6


Supportive & Nonsupportive
Communication
Supportive

Nonsupportive

• Problem-oriented

• Person-oriented (naming)

• Descriptive

• Evaluative

• Words & actions
consistent

• Incongruent words and
actions

• Encouraging

• Puts people down

• Specific

• General–Vague

• Interactive (listening)

• One-way (telling)

©Prentice Hall 2006

4-7


Skills, Traits and Sources of Power for
Effective Supportive Leadership

Communication
Communication
Skills
Skills

Interpersonal
Interpersonal
Skills
Skills

Technical
Technical&&
Professional
Professional
Competence
Competence

SUPPORTIVE
LEADERSHIP
BEHAVIORS

Expert
Expert
Power
Power

Referent
Referent
Power
Power
©Prentice Hall 2006

Reward
Reward
Power
Power

4-8


Facilitating and Limiting Conditions
for Supportive Leadership
Organization and follower
characteristics
 Style

preferences of the leader's
superior
 The organizational mission or culture
 Followers preferences for supportive
leader behavior
 Cultural preferences for supportive
leader behavior
©Prentice Hall 2006

4-9


Supportiveness and
Followers’ Behavior
One important issue for leaders is whether they should provide
more interpersonal support to some subordinates than others.
To be effective, a leader needs to adapt to different
subordinates.


One approach advocates that a leader should use
interpersonal support as a reward.
 This approach is closely aligned with behavioral
psychology and is based on the operant conditioning
model of learning associated with B. F. Skinner. The
rationale is that the leader should show most
concern and provide greatest encouragement for the
best performers.

©Prentice Hall 2006

4-10


Supportiveness and
Followers’ Behavior (cont.)
Using supportiveness as positive reinforcement does not
address the needs of followers whose performance is less
than desired. These employees may need a concerned and
encouraging leader to provide them with the confidence
necessary to improve their performance.




Tommy LaSorda, past manager of the Los Angles
Dodgers, represents the approach which says that
leaders should provide supportiveness as needed by
individual followers rather than as a reward for high
performance.
His supportiveness can be a “facilitating condition”
stimulating improved follower performance.

©Prentice Hall 2006

4-11


Situational Factors that Enhance
Supportive Leadership
TASK
TASK
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS

FOLLOWER
FOLLOWER
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS
•• low
lowself-confidence
self-confidence
•• low
self-esteem
low self-esteem
•• insecurity
insecurity
•• expectation
expectationthat
thatleader
leader
will
be
supportive
will be supportive
•• high
highgrowth
growthneeds
needs

SITUATIONAL
SITUATIONALFACTORS
FACTORS
THAT
THATENHANCE
ENHANCETHE
THE
EFFECTIVENESS
OF
EFFECTIVENESS OF
SUPPORTIVENESS
SUPPORTIVENESS

•• dissatisfying
dissatisfying
•• stressful
stressful
•• highly
highlystructured
structured
•• requires
requirescreativity
creativity
•• requires
learning
requires learning

ORGANIZATIONAL
ORGANIZATIONAL&&GROUP
GROUP
CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS
• • external
externalconflict
conflict
• • newly
formed
newly formedgroup
group
• • cohesive
cohesivegroup
groupwith
withshared
sharedbeliefs
beliefsin
inleader
leader
• • formal
plans,
goals
&
procedures
formal plans, goals & procedures
• • mission
missionemphasizing
emphasizinghuman
humanservices
services
• • authoritarian
superior
authoritarian superior

©Prentice Hall 2006

4-12


Situational Factors that Neutralize
Supportive Leadership
Dogmatic
Dogmatic
Followers
Followers

Large
LargeSize
Size
of
ofGroup
Group
SITUATIONAL
SITUATIONAL
FACTORS
FACTORSTHAT
THAT
NEUTRALIZE
NEUTRALIZETHE
THE
EFFECTIVENESS
EFFECTIVENESSOF
OF
SUPPORTIVENESS
SUPPORTIVENESS

Broad
BroadTask
Task
Scope
Scope

High
HighLevel
Level
Job
Job
©Prentice Hall 2006

4-13


Situational Factors That Substitute for
Supportive Leadership

INTRINSICALLY
INTRINSICALLY
SATISYING
SATISYINGTASK
TASK
••Interesting
Interesting
••Gratifying
Gratifying
••Meaningful
Meaningful

SITUATIONAL
SITUATIONALFACTORS
FACTORS
THAT
THATSUBSTITUTE
SUBSTITUTEFOR
FOR
SUPPORTIVENESS
SUPPORTIVENESS

FEEDBACK
FEEDBACK
DIRECTLY
DIRECTLY
FROM
FROMTASK
TASK
••Rapid
Rapid
••Specific
Specific
••Accurate
Accurate

HIGH
HIGHDEGREE
DEGREEOF
OFIMPORTANCE
IMPORTANCE
PLACED
PLACEDON
ONORGANIZATIONAL
ORGANIZATIONAL
REWARDS
REWARDS
••Pay
Payraises
raises
••Promotions
Promotions

©Prentice Hall 2006

4-14


Process Model of the
Supportive Leadership Process
SITUATIONAL FACTORS
INCREASING LEADER
EFFECTIVENESS
Enhancers
• Dissatisfying or stressful job
• Low follower selfconfidence, insecurity, or
self esteem
• Follower expectations or
high growth needs
• Structured work task
• Complex creative task
• External group conflict
• New or cohesive group
• Organization formalization
• Organization mission
• Authoritarian supervisor
Substitutes
• Importance placed on
organizational rewards
• Intrinsically satisfying tasks
• Task feedback

LEADER SUPPORTIVENESS
• Concerned, trusting, & respectful of
followers
• Considerate, understanding attitude
• Friendly, encouraging, & communicative
• Fostering follower development

SITUATIONAL FACTORS
DECREASING LEADER
EFFECTIVENESS
Neutralizers
• Dogmatic followers
• Large size of group

FOLLOWER/GROUP
PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS
• Satisfaction of esteem & acceptance
needs
• Satisfaction with work & supervisor
• Overall job satisfaction
• Organizational commitment
• Less stress & burnout
• Group harmony & cohesion

FOLLOWER BEHAVIORS
AND OUTCOMES
• Lower turnover, tardiness, absenteeism,
& grievance rates
• Increased individual & group
performance

©Prentice Hall 2006

4-15


Applying the Model of
Supportive Leadership
1. DIAGNOSING THE SITUATION
1. Are followers faced with high amounts of job stress, danger, or insecurity?
2. Do followers’ lack self-confidence or have low self-esteem?
3. Is followers’ group experiencing much external conflict, excessive rules and
regulations, or highly authoritarian upper-level management?
4. Does followers’ group have a human service function?
If “yes” to one or more of these questions, then leaders’ supportive behaviors will
probably be effective.

3. MODIFYING FOLLOWERS
AND/OR SITUATIONS
Leaders also act to:
•Alleviate stressors, insecurities, and
conflicts facing followers
•Modify followers’ situations to increase
intrinsic satisfaction and task feedback
•Manipulate the reward system to
improve follower attitudes and
performance

2. PROVIDING SUPPORTIVE
LEADERSHIP
Leader demonstrates supportive
behaviors with followers by:
• Showing concern
• Being sympathetic, considerate, and
understanding
• Being friendly and informative
• Encouraging two-way communication
• Showing trust and respect


Providing for career development
©Prentice Hall 2006

4-16



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×