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LEADERSHIP CHAP03PP

CHAPTER THREE
CONTNGENCY MODELS OF
LEADERSHIP

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-1


Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able
to do the following:






Describe the concept of contingency theories of
leadership.
Explain the two leadership styles used in

Fiedler’s Contingency Model of leadership.
Use Fiedler’s Contingency Model to predict the
leadership style that will be most effective.
Describe the four leadership styles of the Hersey
and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model.
Explain the relationship described by the
Situational Leadership Model between leadership
styles and followers’ competence and
commitment.
©Prentice Hall 2006

3-2


Learning Objectives (cont.)
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
do the following:








Describe the four leader behaviors of Path-Goal
Theory of leadership and their motivational
effects.
Discuss the recommendations of Path-Goal Theory
for effective leader behaviors.
Describe the Multiple Linkage Model of leadership
and its recommendations for leader behavior to
improve group performance.
Describe the Normative Decision Making Model of
participative leadership.
©Prentice Hall 2006

3-3



Leadership Models


One-Best Style Approach






Assume that one style is effective in all
situations
Common elements include participation,
delegation, group involvement, and vision

Situational Models





Leader's impact on followers is contingent
Leader's Characteristics and Behavior
Organizational Characteristics
Follower Characteristics

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-4


Fiedler’s Contingency Model
of Leadership
A situational theory that
focuses on the match between
the leader’s predisposition or
style and the characteristics of
the situation.

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-5


Leadership Self-Assessment:
Leadership Style as Indicated by Least Preferred
Co-Worker (LPC) Scale
Instructions: Think of the person with whom you can work least well. It does not
have to be the person you like least well, but should be the person with whom you
had the most difficulty in getting a job done. Describe this person by circling a
number for each scale.
Pleasant
Friendly
Rejecting
Helpful
Unenthusiastic
Tense
Distant
Cold
Cooperative
Supportive
Boring
Quarrelsome
Self-Assured
Efficient
Gloomy
Open

8
8
1
8
1
1
1
1
8
8
1
1
8
8
1
8

7
7
2
7
2
2
2
2
7
7
2
2
7
7
2
7

6
6
3
6
3
3
3
3
6
6
3
3
6
6
3
6

5
5
4
5
4
4
4
4
5
5
4
4
5
5
4
5

4
4
5
4
5
5
5
5
4
4
5
5
4
4
5
4

3
3
6
3
6
6
6
6
3
3
6
6
3
3
6
3

2
2
7
2
7
7
7
7
2
2
7
7
2
2
7
2

©Prentice Hall 2006

1
1
8
1
8
8
8
8
1
1
8
8
1
1
8
1

Unpleasant
Unfriendly
Accepting
Frustrating
Enthusiastic
Relaxed
Close
Warm
Uncooperative
Hostile
Interesting
Harmonious
Hesitant
Inefficient
Cheerful
Guarded
3-6


Interpreting Your LPC Score
Your LPC score is the sum of the answers to
the 16 items. According to Fiedler’s
Contingency Theory, a score greater than
76 indicates a relationship orientation,
and a score of less than 62 indicates a task
orientation. A score of 58 to 63 places you
in the intermediate range, which indicates
socioindependent leadership orientation.

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-7


Fiedler’s Contingency Model
of Leadership
Situation Classification and Leader Type
Octant

I

Leader-Member
Relations

Task Structure
Position Power
Recommended
Leader Type

II

III

IV

V

Structured Unstructured

Low

High

Task-Motivated
(Low LPC)
Socioindependent
(Medium LPC)

VII

VIII

Poor

Good

High

VI

Low

Structured

High

Low

Unstructured

High

Relationship-Motivated
(High LPC)

©Prentice Hall 2006

Low

TaskMotivated
(Low
LPC)

1-8


Hersey & Blanchard’s Behavioral
Recommendations for Leaders

Subordinate
Developmental
Level

Supportiveness

Directiveness

Low Competence &
High Commitment

Low

High

Directing

Some Competence &
Low Commitment

High

High

Coaching

High Competence &
Variable Commitment

High

Low

Supporting

High Competence &
High Commitment

Low

Low

Empowering

Leader Behavior

©Prentice Hall 2006

Leadership
Style

1-9


Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

A contingency theory that
addresses a leader’s
interaction with individual
followers.

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-10


Four Types of Leader Behavior Usually
Included in the Path-Goal Theory Model
 Directive
 Supportive
 Participative
 Achievement-oriented

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-11


Predicted Effects of Path-Goal
Leader Behaviors
Leader Behavior

Predicted Motivational Effects

Directive

• Reduces role ambiguity; increases follower beliefs
that effort will result in good performance and
performance will be rewarded.

Supportive

• Increases self-confidence; increases the personal
value of job-related effort.

Participative

AchievementOriented

• Reduces ambiguity, clarifies expectations, increases
consistency of subordinate and organizational goals,
increases involvement with and commitment to
organizational goals.
• Increases subordinate confidence and the personal
value of goal-directed effort.

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-12


Revised Path-Goal Theory
Leader Behaviors
General Leader
Behaviors
Clarifying

Participative
AchievementOriented
Work
Facilitation

Specific Leader Behaviors
• Clarifying performance goals, standards, and means to achieve
them
• Clarifying whom subordinates should respond to
Implementing contingency rewards and punishments
• Consulting with subordinates
• Incorporating subordinate opinions in decision making
• Setting high goals and seeking improvement
• Emphasizing excellence and showing confidence in subordinates
• Stressing pride in work.
• Planning, scheduling, and organizing work
• Coordinating subordinates’ work
• Guiding, coaching, counseling, and giving feedback
• Eliminating roadblocks and bottlenecks
• Providing resources
• Delegating authority to subordinates

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-13


Revised Path-Goal Theory
Leader Behaviors (cont.)
General Leader
Behaviors

Specific Leader Behaviors

Supportive

• Creating a friendly and psychologically supportive environment
• Displaying concern for subordinates’ welfare

Interaction
Facilitation

• Resolving disputes and facilitating communication
• Giving minority views a hearing
• Emphasizing collaboration and teamwork
• Encouraging close relationships among team members

Group-Oriented
Decision Processes

• Posing problems to the group
• Searching for mutual interests in problem solving
• Encouraging participation by all group members
• Searching for and displaying alternatives
• Delaying evaluation until all alternatives are found
• Encouraging evaluation of all alternatives
• Combining advantages of alternatives to create solutions

Shared Leadership

• Encouraging subordinates to behave as leaders
• Setting an example for subordinates to follow

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-14


Revised Path-Goal Theory
Leader Behaviors (cont.)
General
Leader Behaviors
Representing
and
Networking

Charismatic

Specific Leader Behaviors
• Representing the group in a favorable way
• Communicating the importance of the group’s work
• Maintaining positive relations with influential others
• Being an effective trading partner
• Keeping in touch with network members
• Participating in social functions and ceremonies
• Doing favors for others
• Showing positive regard for others
• Articulating a vision of a better future
• Displaying a passion for the vision
• Displaying self-sacrifice in the interest of the vision
• Demonstrating self-confidence, confidence in the attainment of the
vision,
and determination and persistence in the interest of the vision
• Selectively arousing non-conscious motives of followers
• Taking extraordinary personal and organizational risks
• Communicating high performance expectations
• Using symbolic behaviors to emphasize values
©Prentice
Hall
2006 of followers
• Providing frequent
positive
evaluation

3-15


Leadership Behaviors in Yukl’s Multiple
Linkage Model
Broad
Behavior
Building
Relationships

Influencing
People

Mid-Range
Behaviors
Supporting

Specific Behaviors
Being friendly, showing concern, listening to problems, giving
advice and support

Networking

Developing and maintaining positive relationships with
influential others

Managing
Conflict and
Team
Building

Reducing and resolving disputes, facilitating communication,
encouraging teamwork and cooperation

Motivating
Rewarding
and
Recognizing

Influencing subordinates to achieve work goals, setting good
behavioral examples
Providing valued rewards, praise, and recognition for
performance; expressing appreciation, respect, and
admiration for achievement

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-16


Leadership Behaviors in Yukl’s Multiple
Linkage Model (cont.)
Broad
Behavior
Making
Decisions

GivingSeeking
Information

Mid-Range
Behaviors

Specific Behaviors

Problem
Solving

Identifying and analyzing problems and solutions;
implementing and evaluating solutions

Planning
and
Organizing

Determining objectives, strategies, and actions needed to
improve efficiency and productivity

Consulting
and
Delegating

Discussing decision options with subordinates, asking for
input from subordinates, and allowing subordinates some
autonomy in decision making

Monitoring

Collecting information on work progress and quality,
determining opportunities, threats, and needs

Clarifying

Providing direction; telling subordinates what, how, and when
to do certain tasks

Informing

Providing information subordinates need to do their work
and to understand the importance of their work

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-17


Normative Decision Making Model of
Participation
The Model involves the degree of
participation that followers should be
allowed in different decision making
situations.
Leader Decision-making styles






Decide alone
Consult Individually
Consult Group
Facilitate.
Delegate
©Prentice Hall 2006

3-18


The Time-Driven Model

Instructions: The matrix operates like a funnel. You start at the left with a specific decision problem in
mind.The column headings denote situational factors which may or may not be present in that problem.
You progress by selecting High or Low (H or L) for each relevant situational factor. Proceed down from
the funnel, judging only those situational factors for which a judgment is called for, until you reach the
recommended process.
Source: Vroom, V. H. (2000). Leadership and the decision making process. Organizational Dynamics,
28(4), 82-94.

©Prentice Hall 2006

3-19


Summary of Leader Situational
Factors, and Leader Effects
Follower’s
Psychological
Situational
Characteristics Reactions

Follower &
Group
Outcomes
High group
performance

Contingency
Theories

Leader Behaviors
or Predispositions

Fiedler’s
Contingency
Model

Task-Oriented
RelationshipOriented

Leader-member
relations
Task structure
Leader’s position
power

Hersey &
Blanchard’s
Situational
Leadership
Model

Task-Oriented/
Directive
RelationshipOriented/Supportive

Follower
development
Task relevant
maturity

Satisfaction
Commitment

©Prentice Hall 2006

High follower
performance

3-20


Summary of Leader Situational
Factors, and Leader Effects (cont.)
Contingency
Theories
House’s
Path-Goal
theory

Leader Behaviors
or Predispositions
Directive
Supportive
Participative
AchievementOriented
Work Facilitation (e)
Interaction
Facilitation (e)
Group-Oriented (e)
Representative (e)
Charismatic (e)
Shared Leadership
(e)

Situational
Characteristics
Task structure or
ambiguity
Frustrating,
stressful, or
dissatisfying task
Challenging tasks
Low follower
authoritarianism
or high need for
independence

Follower’s
Psychological
Reactions

Follower &
Group
Outcomes

Satisfaction
Motivation
Acceptance of
the leader
Job clarity
High effort

High follower
performance
Low levels of
grievances &
turnover
High group
performance(e)

(e) - indicates items which are part of a recently expanded version of this
model with no research support.
3-21

©Prentice Hall 2006


Summary of Leader Situational
Factors, and Leader Effects (cont.)
Contingency
Theories
Yukl’s
Multiple
Linkage
Model

Leader Behaviors
or Predispositions
Supporting
Networking
Managing conflict
Team building
Motivating
Rewarding &
recognizing
Problem solving
Planning &
organizing
Consulting &
delegating
Monitoring
Clarifying
Informing

Situational
Characteristics
Organization’s
reward system
Follower’s tasks
Policies and
procedures
Technology of the
workplace
Organizational
crises or major
change
Follower’s
characteristics
Economic
conditions

©Prentice Hall 2006

Follower’s
Psychological
Reactions

Follower &
Group
Outcomes

Job knowledge
High effort
Organization of
the work
Adequate
resources
Cooperation
and group
cohesion
Role clarity
Coordination
with other
groups

High group
performance

3-22


Summary of Leader Situational
Factors, and Leader Effects (cont.)
Contingency
Theories

Leader Behaviors
or Predispositions

VroomYetton-Jago’s
Normative
Model of
Decision
Making

Five Decision-making
Styles
• Decide
• Consult individually
• Consult Group
• Facilitate
• Delegate

Situational
Characteristics
Decision significance
Importance of
commitment
Leader’s expertise
Likelihood of
commitment
Group support for
objectives
Group expertise
Team competence

©Prentice Hall 2006

Follower’s
Psychological
Reactions

Follower &
Group
Outcomes

High decision
acceptance

High decision
quality
Decision
timeliness
Cost of
decisionmaking
Opportunities
for learning
and
development

3-23


Summary of Leader Situational
Factors, and Leader Effects (cont.)
Contingency
Theories

Leader Behaviors
or Predispositions

VroomYetton-Jago’s
Normative
Model of
Decision
Making

Five Decision-making
Styles
• Decide
• Consult individually
• Consult Group
• Facilitate
• Delegate

Situational
Characteristics
Decision significance
Importance of
commitment
Leader’s expertise
Likelihood of
commitment
Group support for
objectives
Group expertise
Team competence

©Prentice Hall 2006

Follower’s
Psychological
Reactions

Follower &
Group
Outcomes

High decision
acceptance

High decision
quality
Decision
timeliness
Cost of
decisionmaking
Opportunities
for learning
and
development

3-24



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