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Management meeting and exceeding customer expectation 8th ch14

Human Motivation

Chapter 14

MANAGEMENT
Meeting and Exceeding Customer Expectations
EIGHTH EDITION
Prepared by
Deborah Baker
Texas Christian University
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

1


learning objectives
1. Discuss the factors that stimulate and
influence motivation

2. Differentiate between content and process
theories of motivation


3. List the five levels of needs according to
Maslow and give an example of each

4. Discuss the impact of hygiene and motivation
factors in the work environment

5. Explain the characteristics of a person with
high-achievement needs

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6. Identify the needs associated with ERG theory

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

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learning objectives

(continued)

7. Discuss the relationship between expectations
and motivation

8. Explain the relationship between reinforcement
and motivation

9. Explain how equity influences motivation
10.Explain how goals influence motivation
11.Discuss the importance of a manager’s
philosophy of management in creating a
positive work environment

12.Describe how managers can structure the
Chapter 14

environment to provide motivation


Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

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Challenge of Motivation
Quality
Qualityof
of
Work
WorkLife
Life

Factors in the work environment
contributing positively or
negatively to workers’ physical
and emotional well-being and job
satisfaction

Chapter 14

 Enhances workers’ dignity
 Improves physical and emotional well-being
 Enhances the satisfaction of individual achievement

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Chapter 14

Challenge of Motivation

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Basics of Motivation

Motivation
Motivation

The result of the interaction of a
person’s internalized needs and
external influences that
determine behavior

 Concerned with:
– what prompts people to act
– what influences their choice of action
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– why they persist in acting in a certain way

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Chapter 14

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Motivation Model

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Factors in Choosing a Behavior
1.
1. Past
Past experiences
experiences
2.
2. Environmental
Environmental influences
influences

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3.
3. Perceptions
Perceptions

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Motivation Process from
a Business Perspective

11

Chapter 14






Unsatisfied needs stimulate wants
Behavior is identified to satisfy the want
The individual takes action
The individual receives feedback

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Chapter 14

11

Integrated Motivational Model

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Theories of Motivation
Content
Content
Theories
Theories

Chapter 14

Process
Process
Theories
Theories

A group of motivation theories
emphasizing the needs that
motivate people

A group of theories that explain
how employees choose
behaviors to meet their needs
and how they determine whether
their choices were successful

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

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33

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Four Premises

1. Only an unsatisfied need can influence behavior;
a satisfied need is not a motivator

2. A person’s needs are arranged in a priority
order of importance

3. A person will at least minimally satisfy each level
of need before feeling the need at the next level

4. If need satisfaction is not maintained at any

Chapter 14

level, the unsatisfied need will become a priority
once again

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

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33

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
SelfRealization
Needs
Esteem
Needs

Social
Needs

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Safety
Needs

Physical
Needs



























Reaching Your Potential
Independence
Creativity
Self-Expression

Responsibility
Self-Respect
Recognition
Sense of Accomplishment

Companionship
Acceptance
Love and Affection
Group Membership

Security for Self and Possessions
Avoidance of Risks
Avoidance of Harm
Avoidance of Pain

Food
Clothing
Shelter
Comfort
Self-Preservation

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44

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

Chapter 14

Hygiene
Hygiene
Factors
Factors

Motivators
Motivators

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44

Hygiene Factors
Salary
Salary
Job
Job Security
Security
Working
Working Conditions
Conditions
Status
Status
Company
Company Policies
Policies

Chapter 14

Quality
Quality of
of Technical
Technical Supervision
Supervision
Quality
Quality of
of Interpersonal
Interpersonal Relations
Relations
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44

Motivation Factors
Achievement
Achievement
Recognition
Recognition
Responsibility
Responsibility
Advancement
Advancement
The
The Work
Work Itself
Itself

Chapter 14

Possibility
Possibility of
of Growth
Growth

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Chapter 14

44

Hygiene and Motivation Factors

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44

McClelland & the Need for
Achievement
Achievement
Achievement
Power
Power
Affiliation
Affiliation

1. A strong achievement need relates to how well
individuals are motivated to perform their work
Chapter 14

2. The achievement need can be strengthened by
training
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55

High Achiever
Characteristics
Characteristics

 Performs a task because of a need for
personal achievement

 Prefers to take personal responsibility for
solving problems

 Prefers to set moderate goals that, with
stretching, are achievable

 Prefers immediate and concrete feedback
Chapter 14

about performance

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Power-Motivated Person
Characteristics
Characteristics

 Needs to acquire, exercise, and maintain
influence over others

 Competes with others if success will allow
them to be dominant

Chapter 14

 Does not avoid confrontations

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Affiliator

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Characteristics
Characteristics

Chapter 14






Wants to be liked by other people
Attempts to establish friendships
Seeks to avoid conflict
Prefers conciliation

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Chapter 14

55

Comparison of Theories

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66

Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Growth
Growth

Relatedness
Relatedness

Chapter 14

Existence
Existence

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Chapter 14

66

Comparison of Theories

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Chapter 14

77

Behavior-Oriented Theories

Expectancy
Expectancy
Theory
Theory

Reinforcement
Reinforcement
Theory
Theory

Equity
Equity
Theory
Theory

Goal-Setting
Goal-Setting
Theory
Theory

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