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Management meeting and exceeding customer expectation 8th ch06

Organizational
Planning

Chapter 6

MANAGEMENT
Meeting and Exceeding Customer Expectations
EIGHTH EDITION
Prepared by
Deborah Baker
Texas Christian University
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

1


learning objectives
1. Explain the importance of planning
2. Describe the importance of an organization’s
mission statement


3. Discuss the purposes of strategic, tactical,
operational, and contingency plans

4. Explain the relationships between strategic,
tactical, and operational goals

5. List and explain the steps in a basic planning

Chapter 6

process

6. Discuss various ways to make plans effective
7. Describe the barriers to planning
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

2


Planning

11

Chapter 6

Planning
Planning

Preparing for tomorrow, today

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

3


Planning Responsibilities

11

Construct,


Construct, review,
review, and/or
and/or rewrite
rewrite
organization’s
organization’s
mission
mission

Chapter 6

1.
1.

2.
2.

Identify
Identify and
and analyze
analyze their
their opportunities
opportunities

3.
3.

Establish
Establish the
the goals
goals they
they wish
wish to
to achieve
achieve

4.
4.

Identify,
Identify, analyze,
analyze, and
and select
select the
the course(s)
course(s)
of
of action
action required
required to
to reach
reach goals
goals

5.
5.

Determine
Determine resourced
resourced needed
needed to
to achieve
achieve
goals
goals

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

4


22

Mission Statement

Chapter 6

Mission
Mission
Statement
Statement

When a mission is formalized in
writing and communicated to all
organizational members

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

5


22

Mission Statement
 Includes references to core values and principles
 Serves as an operational and ethical guide
 Serves as the foundation and coordinating

Chapter 6

device for the:
– execution of management functions
– behaviors of organizational members
– shaping of the organization’s culture

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

6


22

Mission Statement Questions

What
Whatisisour
ourbusiness?
business?

Chapter 6

What
Whatshould
shouldititbe?
be?

From Peter Drucker
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

7


22

Rules for Mission Statements
Rule
Rule#1:
#1: Keep
Keepthe
thestatement
statementsimple;
simple;not
notnecessarily
necessarilyshort,
short,but
but
simple.
simple.
Rule
Rule#2:
#2: Allow
Allowcompanywide
companywideinput.
input.
Rule
Rule#3:
#3: Involve
Involveoutsiders.
outsiders. They
Theycan
canbring
bringclarity
clarityand
andaafresh
fresh
perspective
perspectiveto
tothe
thestatement-writing
statement-writingprocess.
process.
Rule
Rule#4:
#4: Develop
Developthe
thewording
wordingand
andthe
thetone
toneto
toreflect
reflectthe
the
company’s
company’spersonality
personalityor
orwhat
whatthe
thecompany
companywould
wouldlike
liketo
tobe.
be.

Chapter 6

Rule
Rule#5:
#5: Share
Sharethe
themission
missionstatement
statementin
inas
asmany
manycreative
creativeways
ways
as
aspossible
possibleand
andin
inas
asmany
manylanguages
languagesas
asnecessary.
necessary. Keep
Keepititin
in
front
frontof
ofpeople
peopleconstantly.
constantly.
Rule
Rule#6:
#6: Rely
Relyon
onthe
themission
missionstatement
statementfor
forguidance.
guidance. Challenge
Challenge
ititcontinually,
continually,and
andjudge
judgeemployees
employeesby
byhow
howwell
wellthey
theyadhere
adhereto
to
its
itstenets.
tenets. Management
Managementmust
mustsay
sayititand
andlive
liveit.
it.
Source: From Say it and Live It by Patricia Jones and Larry Kahaner. Copyright © 1995 by Kane Associates International, Inc.
Used by permission of Doubleday, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

8


Chapter 6

22

Effective Goals and Objectives

Characteristic
Characteristic
Specific
Specificand
andmeasurable
measurable

Explanation
Explanation
Not
Notall
allobjectives
objectivescan
can expressed
expressedin
innumeric
numeric
terms,
terms,but
butthey
theyshould
shouldbe
bequantified
quantifiedwhen
when
possible.
possible.

Realistic
Realisticand
andchallenging
challenging

Impossibly
Impossiblydifficult
difficultobjectives
objectivesdemotivate
demotivate
people.
people. Objectives
Objectivesshould
shouldbe
bechallenging
challenging
but
butattainable.
attainable.

Focused
Focusedon
onkey
keyresult
resultareas
areas

Goals
Goalsshould
shouldfocus
focuson
onkey
keyresults--sales,
results--sales,
profits,
profits,production,
production,or
orquality.
quality.

Cover
Coveraaspecific
specificperiod
period

AAmeasurable
measurableobjective
objectiveisisstated
statedin
interms
termsof
of
the
time
in
which
it
is
to
be
completed.
Shortthe time in which it is to be completed. Shortterm
termgoals
goalsshould
shouldcomplement
complementlong-term
long-term
goals.
goals.

Reward
Rewardperformance
performance

Objectives
Objectivesare
aremeaningless
meaninglessififthey
theyare
arenot
not
directly
directlyrelated
relatedto
torewards
rewardsfor
forperformance.
performance.

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

9


Plans

22

Plan
Plan

The end result of the planning
effort—

Chapter 6

Commits individuals,
departments, entire
organizations, and the resources
of each to specific courses of
action for days, months, and
years into the future

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

10


Plans

Chapter 6

22

What
What

identifies
identifies the
the specific
specific goals
goals to
to be
be
accomplished
accomplished

When
When

answers
answers aa question
question of
of timing
timing

Where
Where

concerns
concerns the
the place(s)
place(s) where
where the
the plan
plan will
will
be
be executed
executed

Who
Who

identifies
identifies specific
specific people
people who
who will
will
perform
perform tasks
tasks essential
essential to
to the
the plan
plan

How
How

involves
involves the
the specific
specific actions
actions to
to be
be taken
taken
to
to reach
reach the
the goals
goals

is
is concerned
concerned with
with the
the expenditure
expenditure of
of
How
much
How much resources needed to reach the goals
resources needed to reach the goals
Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

11


22

Stretch Goals

Chapter 6

Stretch
StretchGoals
Goals

The end result of the planning
goals that require great leaps
forward

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

12


22

Strategies and Tactics
Strategy
Strategy

Chapter 6

Tactic
Tactic

A course of action created to
achieve a long-term goal

A course of action created to
achieve a short-term goal
—an objective

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

13


22

Determining Resource
Requirements
People
People
Technology
Technology

Money
Money

Information
Information

Chapter 6

Supplies
Supplies

Facilities
Facilities
Equipment
Equipment

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

14


33

Types of Plans

Chapter 6

Mission
Mission
Strategic
Strategic
Plans
Plans

Strategic
Strategic
Goals
Goals

Tactical
Tactical
Plans
Plans

Tactical
Tactical
Objectives
Objectives

Operational
Operational
Plans
Plans

Operational
Operational
Objectives
Objectives

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

15


33

Strategic Plans and Goals
Strategic
Strategic
Plans
Plans

Chapter 6

Strategic
Strategic
Goals
Goals

Contains the answers to who,
what, when, where, how, and
how much for achieving
strategic goals

Long-term, companywide goals
set by top-management strategic
planning efforts. Focus on the
changes desired in productivity,
product innovation, and
responsibilities to stakeholders

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

16


33

An Organization’s Mission and Level
of Goals
Mission
Mission

CEO
CEOand
and
Board
Boardof
ofDirectors
Directors

Strategic
StrategicGoals
Goals
Top-Level
Top-Level
Management
Management

Chapter 6

Tactical
TacticalObjectives
Objectives
Middle-Level
Middle-Level
Management
Management
Operational
OperationalObjectives
Objectives
First-Line
First-Line
Management
Management

Operational
OperationalObjectives
Objectives
First-Line
First-Line
Management
Management

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

17


33

Tactical Plans and Objectives
Tactical
Tactical
Plan
Plan

Developed by middle managers,
this plan has more details,
shorter time frames, and
narrower scopes than a strategic
plan
Usually spans one year or less

Chapter 6

Tactical
Tactical
Objectives
Objectives

Short-term goals set by middle
managers that must be achieved
in order to reach top
management's strategic goals
and the short- and long-term
goals of middle managers

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

18


Operational Plans and Objectives

33

Operational
Operational
Plan
Plan

The first-line manager’s tool for
executing daily, weekly, and
monthly activities
• Single-Use Plans
• Standing Plans

Chapter 6

Operational
Operational
Objectives
Objectives

The specific results expected
from first-level managers, work
groups, and individuals

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

19


33

Operational Plans
Single-Use Plans

Standing Plans

 Programs

 Policies
 Procedures
 Rules

Chapter 6

 Budgets

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

20


Chapter 6

44

Unified Hierarchy of Goals

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

21


44

Contingency Plans

Chapter 6

Contingency
Contingency
Plan
Plan

An alternative goal and course
or courses of action to reach
that goal if and when
circumstances and assumptions
change so drastically as to make
an original plan unusable

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

22


Basic Planning Process

Chapter 6

55

Step
Step 11

Setting
Setting Objectives
Objectives

Step
Step 22

Analyzing
Analyzing and
and Evaluating
Evaluating the
the Environments
Environments

Step
Step 33

Identifying
Identifying the
the Alternatives
Alternatives

Step
Step 44

Evaluating
Evaluating the
the Alternatives
Alternatives

Step
Step 55

Selecting
Selecting the
the Best
Best Solution
Solution

Step
Step 66

Implementing
Implementing the
the Plan
Plan

Step
Step 77

Controlling
Controlling and
and Evaluating
Evaluating the
the Results
Results

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

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55

Analyzing and Evaluating the
Environment
Internal Environment

 Availability of resources
 Needs of internal customers

Chapter 6

External Environment



Strengths and weaknesses of suppliers
and partners




Availability of labor and technology
Needs of external customers

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

24


66

Making Plans Effective
Basis
Basisfor
forPlanning
Planning

 Assumptions

Chapter 6

 Forecasts

Copyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved

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