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Fundamentals of organizational behavior 2e by dubrin ch15

Chapter
15

Cultural Diversity and
International Organizational
Behavior

Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e
Andrew J. DuBrin

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook


Learning Objectives
1. Understand the scope, competitive advantages, and
success factors associated with cultural diversity.
2. Identify and explain key dimensions of cultural
differences.
3. Describe what is required for managers and

organizations to become multicultural.
4. Be more aware of barriers to good cross-cultural
relations.
5. Explain how motivation, ethics, conflict resolution,
and skills needed for negotiation can vary across
cultures.
6. Appreciate the nature of diversity training and cultural
A. J.training.
DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–2


Cultural Diversity: Scope
The Scope of Cultural Diversity
 Valuing diversity means to respect and enjoy a wide range

of cultural and individual differences.
 Scientifically measuring diversity is fairly easy; in practice,
diversity may not be visible or manifest itself readily.
 The goal of a diverse organization is for persons of all
cultural backgrounds to achieve their full potential.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–3


The Diversity Umbrella (condensed)
Race
Sex or gender
Religion
Age (young, middleaged, and old)
Generation
differences


Ethnicity
Education
Abilities
Mental disabilities
Physical disabilities
Values and motivation

Sexual orientation
Marital status
Family status
Personality traits
Functional
background
Technology
interest
Weight status
Hair status
Style of clothing
and appearance
Tobacco status

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
15-1
South-Western.

15–4


The Competitive Advantage of
Diversity

1. Managing diversity well offers a marketing advantage,
including increased sales and profits.
2. Effective management of diversity reduces costs of
absenteeism and turnover through increased job
satisfaction and helps avoid age, race, and
discrimination lawsuits.
3. Companies with a favorable diversity reputation will
attract more diversity applicants.
4. Workforce diversity can provide a company with useful
ideas for favorable publicity and advertising.
5. Workforce heterogeneity may also offer a company a
A. J.creativity
DuBrin, Fundamentals
advantage. of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
15–5


Factors Associated with Diversity
Success
1. CEO Initiation and Support
2. Human Resources Initiatives
3. Organizational Communication
4. Corporate Philosophy
5. Measures of Company
Success

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–6


The Diversity Index at Allstate
1. To what extent does our company deliver quality services to customers?
2. To what extent are you treated with respect and dignity at work?
3. To what extent does your immediate manager/team leader seek out and
utilize diverse backgrounds and perspectives?
4. How often do you observe insensitive behaviors at work, for example:
inappropriate comments or jokes?
5. To what extent do you work in a n environment of trust?
Source: Courtesy of Alls tate Insurance Co.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
15-2
South-Western.

15–7


Cross-Cultural Values
Key Dimensions of Differences in Cultural Values:
1. Individualism versus collectivism
2. Power distance
3. Uncertainty avoidance
4. Materialism versus concern for others
5. Long-run versus short-run orientation
6. Formality versus informality
7. Urgent time orientation versus
casual time orientation
8. High context versus low
A. J.
DuBrin,cultures
Fundamentals of Organizational
context
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–8


Culturally Based Differences in
Management Style
Culture provides values that guide
acceptable managerial behavior
and leadership styles.
Transplanted managers
may need to adopt some
of the characteristics of the
national stereotype of an
effective leader in the local
culture.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–9


Culturally Based Differences in
Management Style: Stereotypes
United States
Emotional,
egalitarians
China
Low-profile,
tough negotiators

Japan
Formal,
consensus seekers

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

Germany
Technically expert,
authoritarians

France
Elitist,
authoritarians

15–10


Multicultural Managers and
Organizations
The Multicultural Manager

 Has the skills and attitudes to relate effectively to and

motivate people across race, gender, age, social attitudes,
and lifestyles. Respects and values the cultural differences.
 Has the ability (e.g., is bilingual) to conduct business in a
diverse, international environment.
 Has a cultural sensitivity in being aware and interested in
why people of other culture act as they do.
 Is not parochial in assuming that the ways of one’s culture
are the only ways things should be done.
 Is not ethnocentric in assuming that the superiority of one’s
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
culture over that of another culture.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
15–11


Protocol Do’s and Don’t’s in Several
Countries

Great Britain

DO say please and thank you often.
DO arrive prom ptly.
DON’T ask personal questions because the Briti sh protect their privacy.
DON’T gossip about British royalty.

France
DO shake hands when greeting. Only close friends give light, brushing kisses on cheeks.
DO dress more form ally than in the United States. Elegant dress is highly valued.
DON’T expect to complete any work during the French two-hour lunch.
DON’T chew gum in a work setting.

Italy
DO write business correspondence in Italian for priority attention.
DO m ake appointments between 10:00 A.M. and 11:00 or after 3:00 P.M.
DON’T eat too much pasta, as it is not the m ain course.
DON’T hand out business cards too freely. Italians use them infrequently.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
15-3a
South-Western.

15–12


Protocol Do’s and Don’t’s in Several
Countries

Greece

DO distribute business cards freely so people will know how to spell your name.
DO be prompt even i f your hosts are not.
DON’T expect to meet deadlines. A project takes as long as the Greeks thi nk is
necessary.
DON’T address people by formal or professional titles. The Greeks want m ore informality.

Japan
DO present your business cards with both hands and a slight bow as a gesture of
respect.
DO present gifts, American-made and wrapped.
DON’T knock competitors.
DON’T present the same gift to everyone, unless all mem bers are the same organizational
rank.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
15-3b
South-Western.

15–13


Multicultural Managers and
Organizations
The Multicultural Organization
 Values cultural diversity and is willing to

encourage and even capitalize on
such diversity.

Benefits of a Multicultural
Organization
 Achieves the benefits of valuing diversity.
 Avoids the problems of not managing

for diversity:
increased turnover
 interpersonal conflict
A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals
of Organizational
 communication
breakdowns


Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–14


Developmental Stages for the
Multicultural Organization

Monocultural
Exclusion of
minorities and
women from power

Nondiscrimination

Multicultural

Unfair advantage
of majority group
removed, but no
culture change

Shares power
and influence
with all; major
culture change

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
15-4
South-Western.

15–15


Barriers to Good Cross-Cultural
Relations
Perceptual expectations

 Predispositions about the appropriate appearance and

physical characteristics of individuals.

Ethnocentrism
 A belief that one’s culture is the best and judging other

cultures by how closely they resemble one’s own culture.

Intergroup rather than interpersonal relations
 Stereotyping individuals based on their group membership

Stereotypes in intergroup relations
 Assuming an individual’s personal characteristics based on

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
their group membership.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–16


Cross-Cultural Processes: Motivation
In order to use motivational concepts across
cultures, managers must know two key factors:
 Which needs the people are seeking to satisfy.
 Which rewards will satisfy those needs.

Research findings:
 A motivational concept that

has a good cultural fit with
a culture can be
successfully applied
to that culture.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–17


Cross-Cultural Processes: Ethics
Global business practices and behaviors create
ethical and legal dilemmas for managers:
 The choice of which culture’s code of ethics to follow.
 Conflicts between individual and organizational

responsibilities for ethical behavior.
 The ethics of outsourcing when
doing so may create a human
health or environmental safety
hazard in another culture.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–18


Cross-Cultural Processes:
Negotiations
Suggestions for negotiating abroad:
Use a team approach.
Do not push for informality.
Be patient.
Learn to tolerate less than full
disclosure of information.
Accept silence as part of
negotiating.
Take no for an answer
sometimes.
A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational
Be adaptable.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–19


Cross-Cultural Processes: Conflict
Resolution

National cultures influence which method of
conflict resolution a manager will choose.
Tinsley’s models of conflict resolution:
Conflict Resolution Model
Deferring to status power
Applying regulations
Integrating interests

Cultural Group Membership
Japanese
Germans
Americans

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–20


Diversity Training and Cultural
Training
Diversity Training

 Attempts to bring about workplace harmony by teaching

people how to get along better with diverse coworkers.
 Objectives of diversity training:
 Fostering

awareness and acceptance of individual
differences.
 Helping participants understand their own feelings
and attitudes about people who are different.
 Exploring how differences might be tapped as assets
in the workplace.
 Enhancing work relations between people who are
A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals
of Organizational
different
from each other.

Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–21


Diversity Training and Cultural
Training
Training in Cross-Cultural Relations
 Cultural training
 A set

of learning experiences (e.g., mastering a foreign
language) designed to help employees understand the
customs, traditions, and beliefs of another culture.

 Culture shock
 The

physical and psychological symptoms that can develop
when a person is abruptly placed in another culture.
 Cultural training is designed to help expatriates avoid
culture shock, which is a major contributor to the high
failure rate of overseas assignments.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

15–22



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