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Fundamentals of organizational behavior 2e by dubrin ch14

Chapter
14

The Learning Organization
and Knowledge Management

Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e
Andrew J. DuBrin

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook


Learning Objectives
1. Describe the 4I framework of a learning
organization.
2. Identify the building blocks, or key
characteristics, of a learning organization.
3. Recognize organizational conditions favoring
knowledge management.

4. Specify methods for sharing information within
an organization.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–2


The Learning Organization
An organization that is skilled at
creating, acquiring, and transferring
knowledge, and at modifying
behavior to reflect new knowledge
and insights.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–3


The 4I Framework of
Organizational Learning

Individual Level
(Intuiting and Interpreting)
Group Level
(Integrating)

Organizational
Learning

Organizational Level
(Institutionalizing)

EXHIBIT
14-1

Source: Mary M. Crossan, Henry W. Lane, and Roderick E. White, “An Organizational Learning
Framework: From Institution to Institution,” Academy of Management Review, July 1999, p. 525.


A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–4


The 4I Framework
Organizational
Learning Processes

Organizational
Learning Levels

 Intuiting

 Individual Level

 Interpreting

 Group Level

 Integrating

 Organizational Level

 Institutionalizing

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–5


Building Blocks of a Learning
Organization
Double-Loop Learning

 Confronting the validity of the goal or the values implicit in a

situation by questioning, based on feedback, the core
premise of the situation.

Action Learning
 Acquiring skills while working in teams on real problems that

are reusable at later stages in resolving the problem.

Systems Thinking
 Developing a point of view of the organization as a system

that affects and is affected by the external environment.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–6


Building Blocks of a Learning
Organization
Shared Vision

 Developing a common purpose and commitment for the

organization to keep learning.

The Challenge of Mental Models
 Overcoming powerful assumptions and mental models that

prevent people from working together can open up a world
of opportunities.

Team Learning
 Engaging in collective problem solving by sharing

information and opinions with coworkers.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–7


Building Blocks of a Learning
Organization
Personal Mastery of the Job

 Developing the individual expertise necessary to master

the demands of the job.

Translation of New Knowledge into New Ways of
Behaving
 Using knowledge to change behavior through learning.

Systematic Investigation and Problem Solving
 Instigating the widespread use of the scientific method to

investigate and solve problems.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–8


Building Blocks of a Learning
Organization
Experimentation

 Developing the risk-taking, entrepreneurial attitude to seek

out new opportunities through experiments in improving
organizational performance.

Learning from Other Organizations
 Studying competitors to acquire insights to be used as

benchmarks for improving the effectiveness and efficiency
of the organization.

Healthy Disrespect for the Status Quo
 Challenging whatever exists (e.g., work processes) and

seeing if anything can be improved upon.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–9


Building Blocks of a Learning
Organization
High Impact Learning

 Taking steps to increase significance of high impact

learning in moving the firm forward and preventing
potential problems by:
 Building

a commitment to a learning capability among
members of the organization.
 Generating ideas with impact by developing deliberate
approaches to acquiring knowledge.
 Using cross-functional team to disseminate ideas with
impact throughout the organization.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–10


Knowledge Management (KM)
Knowledge is managed more effectively in a
learning organization.
 Information is systematically shared to achieve goals.
 Intellectual capital is a resource for competitive advantage.

Organizational Conditions Favoring KM
 Being a learning organization.
 Having an organizational culture that emphasizes sharing

information through an incentive reward system for
contributing to the organizational knowledge base.
 Providing top-management leadership for the KM effort.
 Demonstrating the value of KM to encourage commitment.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–11


Knowledge Management Strategies
and Techniques
Hire the Right Persons
 Employ people who are good at learning and teaching; who

are intelligent, can accumulate knowledge, and are
intellectually curious.

Create Knowledge
 Use intelligence, creativity, and innovation to create new

bundles of knowledge leading to new products or services.

Competitive Knowledge Management
 Develop mechanisms that allow knowledge and expertise

(competitive intelligence) outside of the firm to be tracked.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–12


Knowledge Management Strategies
and Techniques
Codification versus Personalizing Knowledge
 Codification:


Companies with standardized products and services store
information in way that it can be readily assessed and
repeatedly used.

 Personalization:


Companies with unique products and services share
information through interpersonal contacts.

 The choice for codification or personalization of knowledge

is largely determined by the products or services the
company produces.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–13


Knowledge Management Strategies
and Techniques
Appointing a Chief Knowledge Officer
 Duties of a Chief Knowledge Officer







Arranging conferences where workers share information.
Assimilating databases of company knowledge.
Teaching people how to learn at a deeper level.
Getting people to reflect on their experiences and profit
from their mistakes.
Selling people on the idea that brainpower is the
company’s true source of competitive advantage.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–14


Knowledge Management Strategies
and Techniques
Closing the Gap between Knowing and Doing
 Do not allow stored knowledge to go unused; convert

knowledge to action.
 Build a culture of action

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–15


Methods for Sharing Information
1.
2.
3.

Create an in-house Yellow Pages.
Install an intranet communication system.
Provide personalized explanations of success
factors.
4. Foster dialogue among
organization members.
5. Create shared physical
facilities and informal
learning situations to
promote information
sharing.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational

14–16



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