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Fundamentals of organizational behavior 2e by dubrin ch11

Power, Politics, and Influence
Chapter
11

Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e
Andrew J. DuBrin

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook


Learning Objectives
1. Identify sources of power for individuals and
subunits in organizations.
2. Describe the essence of empowerment.
3. Pinpoint factors contributing to organizational
politics.
4. Identify and describe a variety of political and
influence tactics.
5. Explain how managers can control dysfunctional

politics.
6. Differentiate between the ethical and unethical use
of power, politics, and influence.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

11–2


The Meaning of Power, Politics, and
Influence
Power
 Is the potential or ability to influence decisions and control

resources.

Organizational politics
 Is the informal approaches to gaining power through means

other than merit or luck.

Influence
 Resembles power, but tends to be more subtle and indirect.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

11–3


Sources of Individual and Subunit
Power
Socialized Power

 Is the use of power to achieve

constructive ends.


Personalized Power
 Is the use of power primarily

for the sake of personal
aggrandizement
and gain.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

11–4


Sources of Individual and Subunit
Power
Power
Granted by the Organization
(Position Power)
 Legitimate power is based on the manager’s formal position

within the hierarchy of the firm.


Power is enhanced by establishing polices and procedures that
increase the scope of the position’s control.
 Coercive power is controlling others

through the fear of punishment.


To be effective, employees
must fear the punishment.

 Reward power is controlling

others through rewards or
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
the promise of rewards.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
11–5


Sources of Individual and Subunit
Power
Power Stemming from the Individual
(Personal Power)

 Expert power is the ability to influence others because of

one’s specialized knowledge, skills, or abilities.
 Referent power is the ability
to influence others that stems
from one’s desirable traits
and characteristics.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

11–6


Sources of Individual and Subunit
Power

Power from Providing Resources
 Resource Dependence Perspective

Subunits or individuals within an
organization who control or provide
the resources that the organization
needs on a continuing basis can
become quite powerful.
 Control of resources equals
power for managers.


A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

11–7


Empowerment of Group Members
Empowerment
 Is the process of sharing power with group members, thereby

enhancing their feelings of self-efficacy.
 Strategic benefits of distributing power:


Improved productivity, quality, and satisfaction

 Keys for the transition to effective empowerment:

Sharing information
 Providing more structure (training and support)
 Gradually replacing traditional organizational structure
 Allowing individuals and teams to determine how to achieve
objectives
A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational
 Above all, trusting in employees to do the right thing


Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

11–8


Stage 1

Five Stages in the Process of
Empowerment
Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

Conditions leading
to a psychological
state of
powerlessness

The use of
managerial
strategies and
techniques

To provide selfefficacy
information to
subordinates,
using four
resources

Results in
empowering
experience of
subordinate

Leading to
behavioral
effects

Organizational
Organizational
factors
factors
Supervision
Supervision

Participative
Participative
management
management

Enactive
Enactive
attainment
attainment

Goal
Goalsetting
setting
Feedback
Feedback
system
system
Modeling
Modeling

Vicarious
Vicarious
experience
experience

Reward system
Reward system
Nature
Natureofofjob
job

Contingent/
Contingent/
competencecompetencebased
basedreward
reward
Job enrichment
Job enrichment

Verbal
Verbal
persuasion
persuasion
Emotional
Emotional
arousal
arousal

Strengthening
Strengthening
ofofeffort—
effort—
performance
performance
expectancy
expectancyoror
belief
beliefinin
personal
personal
efficacy
efficacy

Initiation/
Initiation/
persistence
persistence
of behavior
of behavior
totoaccomplish
accomplish
task
taskobjectives
objectives

and

Remove
Remove
conditions
conditions
listed
listedunder
under
Stage
1
Stage 1

Jay A. Conger and Rabindra N.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of OrganizationalSource:
Kanungo, “The Empowerment Process:
Integrating Theory and Practice,” Academy
EXHIBIT
Management Review (July 1988):
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002ofp.475.
by
11-1
South-Western.
11–9


Signs of Empowerment and
Disempowerment
Empowered Employees
 Take initiative in ambiguous situations
 Identify opportunities in ambiguous situations
 Apply critical thinking skills
 Offer judgments about how decisions

support shared purpose
 Identify and act on opportunities to
improve systems
 Optimize resources by reducing
expenses and finding opportunities
invest in
new resources
A. J.toDuBrin,
Fundamentals
of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

11–10


Signs of Empowerment and
Disempowerment
Disempowered Employees
 Wait for a designated authority to take charge
 Address problem but fail to see opportunity
 Accept decisions without questioning
 Discuss but not able to apply information

about shared purpose
 Attempt consensus but yield to higher
authority when failing at consensus
 Focus on resource questions only
when directed to do so
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

11–11


Factors Contributing To and Examples
of Political Behavior
Organizations have a political nature due to:
 Coalitions of interests competing for resources.
 A pyramidal power structure that concentrates

power at the top of the organization.
 Downsizing and team structures limit
upward mobility for ambitious managers
with a strong need for power.
 Decentralization disperses power in
the organization.
 Machiavellian manipulation of others
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
and the organization for personal gain by some managers.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
11–12


Effective Use of Organizational
Politics
Ethical Behaviors

Develop power contacts
Manage your impression
Control vital information
Keep informed
Be courteous, pleasant,
and positive
Ask satisfied customer to
contact your manager
Avoid political blunders
Use flattery sincerely

Unethical Behaviors
1.
2.
3.
4.

Engage in backstabbing
Embrace-or-demolish
Set a person up for failure
Play territorial games (turf
wars)

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

11–13


Organizational Influence Tactics
1. Leading by example
2. Assertiveness
3. Rationality
4. Ingratiation
5. Exchange
6. Inspirational appeal
and emotional display
7. Joking and kidding

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

11–14


The Control of Dysfunctional Politics
and Ethical Considerations
Excessive politics and influence tactics can harm
an organization and its members.
Ways to control these activities:
 Rely on objective measures of performance tied to proper

and significant goals for the organization.
 Align individual goals and objectives to be congruent with
those of the organization to increase commitment and
performance.
 Practice open communications to remove the political value
of information and to increase the overall understanding of
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
the organization.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
11–15



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