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Fundamentals of organizational behavior 2e by dubrin ch09

Chapter
9

Group Dynamics
and Teamwork

Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e
Andrew J. DuBrin

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook


Learning Objectives
1. Describe the various types of groups in
organizations.
2. Summarize the stage of group development and
key roles members occupy within a work group.
3. Identify the characteristics of an effective work
group.

4. Be able to implement two different methods of
group problem solving and decision making.
5. Pinpoint several potential problems with group
effort and know how to prevent them.
6. Explain how to foster teamwork.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
9–2


Types of Groups and Teams
Groups

Teams

 Interact with one another.

 Are a special type of group.

 Are working toward some common

 Have complementary skills.

purpose.
 Perceive themselves to be a group.
 Have a strong, focused leader.
 Have individual accountability.
 Strive to run efficient meetings.

 Are committed to a common

purpose.
 Have a set of performance goals.
 Have a defined approach to a task.
 Have a team leader who shares
leadership roles.
 Have individual and mutual
accountability.
 Encourage open-ended discussion


and participation.
Organizational

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–3


Types of Groups and Teams
Formal Groups
 Are deliberately formed by the organization to accomplish

specific tasks and achieve goals.

Informal Groups
 Emerge over time through

the interaction of workers
to satisfy a social or
recreational purpose.
Are not sanctioned
but may be tolerated
by the organization.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–4


Types of Work Teams
Cross-Functional Team
 Is a group of workers with different specialties drawn from

the same level in the organization to blend their talents to
accomplish a task such as product development.
 Have individual members who think in terms of what is good
for the organization and not their specialty.

Top-Management Team
 Is the group of managers at the top of organizations that

collaborates in making most major decisions.
 Occasionally, can be a committee of two or more top
who claim to share
power.
A. J.executives
DuBrin, Fundamentals
of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
9–5


Types of Work Teams
Affinity Groups
 Are employee-involvement groups composed of professional-

level (or knowledge) workers.
 Meet regularly, share information, capture opportunities, and
solve problems affecting their organizations.
 Are self-directing and have
a formal charter from
their organizations.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–6


Types of Work Teams
Virtual Teams
 Are small groups of people who conduct almost all of their

collaborative work by electronic communication rather than
face-to-face. Members can be located anywhere in the world.
 Advanced “cybercollaboration” techniques:
e-mail

for sharing information
and “cybermeetings.”
groupware for simultaneous
document editing.
desktop video conferencing
to facilitate the virtual team.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–7


Stages of Group Development
Stage 1: Forming
 A time of confusion, caution, communality for members.
 Group members learn:
what

tasks are expected to be performed.
what the benefits are of group membership.
what rules must be followed and expected behaviors.

Stage 2: Storming
 A time of hostility, infighting, tension, and confrontation.
 Members argue to clarify expectations.
 Coalitions, cliques, and subgroups form within the group.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–8


Stages of Group Development
Stage 3: Norming
 A period of quiet; resistance is overcome and group

standards (norms) are established.
 Cohesiveness and commitment begin to emerge.
 Sources of “Norms”:
The

group itself sets behavioral
and performance standards.
Organizational rules and policies
are adopted.
Influential team members who
inspire the group.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–9


Stages of Group Development
Stage 4: Performing
 In this stage, the group is ready to focus on accomplishing its

key tasks.
 Intrinsic motivation and creativity emerge as the group
performs (“working for the cause”).

Stage 5: Adjourning
 Groups are dissolved after their tasks are accomplished.

Key Managerial Challenge
 To help groups move past the first three stages of group

development into performing.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–10


The Stages of Group Development
Forming
Storming

Adjourning

Performing

Norming

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
Behavior,
9-1
South-Western.

9–11


Roles within Groups
1. Knowledge Contributor
2. Process Observer
3. People Supporter
4. Challenger

5. Listener
6. Mediator
7. Gatekeeper
8. Take-charge Leader
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
9–12


Characteristics of Effective Work
Groups
Job Design

 Effective work groups follow the principles of job design (job

enrichment and the job characteristics model) to develop
self-management capabilities and to ensure participation in
decision making.

A Feeling of Empowerment
 Effective work groups believe they have the authority to solve

a variety of problems without first obtaining approval from
management.
 Group experiences: potency, meaningfulness, autonomy, and
A. J.impact.
DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–13


Characteristics of Effective Work
Groups
Interdependence

 Effective work groups are task interdependent:
Interdependence

increases motivation and enhances the
sense of responsibility for the work of the group as members
interact and depend on one another to accomplish the task.
Goal interdependence involves linking individual goals to
the group’s goals.

Right size and mix
 Groups need to be large enough to do the job yet small

enough to maintain internal communications, cohesiveness,
and coordination.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
 Increasing group diversity improves problem solving.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–14


Characteristics of Effective Work
Groups
Support for the Work Group

 The availability of sufficient resources (e.g., training and

managerial support) is essential to group success.

Effective Processes within the Group
 Simply believing that the group

can do anything enhances group
effectiveness.
 Social support of others, workload
sharing, communication, and
cooperation all contribute to group
A. J.cohesiveness.
DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–15


Characteristics of Effective Work
Groups
Follows Processes and Procedures

 Teams that can be trusted to follow work processes and

procedures tend to perform better (higher quality output).

Familiarity with Jobs, Coworkers, and the
Environment
 Group effectiveness is

increased when group
members have a high
degree of specific
knowledge of their jobs,
coworkers, and the environment.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–16


Characteristics
Enriched
EnrichedJob
JobDesign
Design
Empowerment
Empowerment
Interdependence
Interdependence
Right
RightMix
Mixand
andSize
Size

Work Group Characteristics
Related to Effectiveness
Effectiveness
Criteria
Productivity
Productivity
Job
JobSatisfaction
Satisfaction

Support
Supportfor
forWork
WorkGroup
Group
Effective
EffectiveProcesses
Processes

EXHIBIT
9-2

Follows
FollowsProcesses
Processes

Sources: Michael A. Campion, Ellen M. Papper, and Gina Medsker, “Relations between Work
Team Characteristics and Effectiveness: A Replication and Extension,” Personnel Psychology,
Summer 1996, p. 431; David E. Hyatt and Thomas M. Ruddy, “An Examination of the Relationship
between Work Group Characteristics and Performance: Once More into the Breech,” Personnel
Psychology, Autumn, 1997, p. 579; Brian D. Janz, Jason A. Colquitt, and Raymond A. Noe,
“Knowledge Worker Team Effectiveness: The Role of Autonomy, Interdependence, Team
Development, and Contextual Support Variables,” Personnel Psychology, Winter 1997, pp. 877–
904; Bradley L. Kirkman and Benson Rosen, “Powering Up Teams,” Organizational Dynamics,
Winter, 2000, pp. 48–52.

with
Familiarity
withJob
Job
A.Familiarity
J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–17


Group Problem Solving and Decision
Making
Group Decision-Making Styles
 Consultative
Group

leader consults with
the group before deciding.
 Consensus
Manager

shares problem
with group members
who seek a solution.
 Democratic
The

group is empowered
to make decision themselves.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–18


Group Problem Solving and Decision
Making
Steps in the Nominal Group Technique (NGT)

Members of the group are chosen and brought together.
2. If the group is too large, it is divided into subgroups.
3. The group leader presents the question.
4. Individual members independently record their work.
5. Each group member presents one idea without discussion.
6. Once members have presented their viewpoints, evaluate all
of the ideas.
7. The meeting terminates with individuals voting to create a
group ranking of the ideas.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
9–19
1.


Start
Start

Problem
Problemdefinition
definition

Group Problem Solving
and Decision Making:

Determine
Determineexpertise
expertiserequired
required
Sample
Sampleexperts
experts(sample
(samplesize)
size)

Steps in the
Delphi Process

Prepare
Preparequestionnaire
questionnaire
Distribute
Distributequestionnaire
questionnaire
Yes

Analyze
Analyzequestion
questionresponses
responses
Has
Hasconsensus
consensusbeen
beenreached?
reached?
Provide
Providerequested
requestedinformation
information
and
tabulate
responses
and tabulate responses
Prepare
Preparethe
thenext
nextquestionnaire
questionnaire

Compile
final
Compile
finalresponses
responsesand
and
A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals
of Organizational
disseminate
the
results
(final
disseminate the results (final
report)
Behavior, report)
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

EXHIBIT
9-3

Source: R. J. Tersine and W.E. Riggs, “The Delphi
Technique: A Long-Range Planning Tool,“ Business
Horizon (April, 1976): p. 53. Copyright © 1976 by
the School of Business at Indiana University.

9–20


Potential Problem Within Groups
Group Polarization
 Shifts in member attitudes to more or less risky positions,

which, in turn, reduces intragroup cohesion.

Social Loafing
 Occurs when an undermotivated person shirks individual

responsibility and tries
to squeeze by without
contributing a fair share
of the work.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–21


Potential Problem Within Groups
Groupthink
 Occurs when strong group cohesiveness creates an extreme

form of consensus and interferes with effective decision
making.
 Contributors to groupthink:
strong

member identification
with the group
directive leadership
high stress
insulation of the group
no built-in mechanism for
A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals
evaluating
decisions of Organizational

Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–22


Building Teamwork
1. Instill in teams an urgent constructive purpose.
2. Empower the group to determine how to meet
its objectives.
3. Promote the idea that we are all
in this together.
4. Make frequent use of
words and phrases that
support teamwork.
5. Use language the fosters
and commitment.
A. J. cohesion
DuBrin, Fundamentals
of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–23


Building Teamwork (cont’d)
5. Use a consensus decision-making style to foster
participation.
6. Feed members valid facts and information that
motivate them to work together.
7. Avoid micromanagement in supervising the
team too closely.
8. Create physical structures suited for teams.
9. Reward the team as well as individuals.
10. Send members to outdoor (or off-site) training.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

9–24



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