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Fundamentals of organizational behavior 2e by dubrin ch07

Chapter
7

Conflict, Stress, and
Well-Being

Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e
Andrew J. DuBrin

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook


Learning Objectives
1. Understand the nature of conflict and its leading
causes.
2. Have the necessary information to resolve many
workplace conflicts.
3. Understand the nature of work stress, its causes
and consequences.

4. Explain what organizations can do to manage and
reduce stress.
5. Do a more effective job of managing your own
stress.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–2


Conflict
Is the opposition of persons or forces that gives
rise to some tension.
 Occurs when two or more parties perceive mutually

exclusive goals, values, or events.
 Among individuals, conflict also occurs
when persons face incompatible
choices and are emotionally
stressed as a result of the
conflict.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–3


Conflict in Organizations
Conflict Frames
 The differing lenses through which the disputants view a

conflict situation.

Three dimensions of conflict frames:
 Relationship versus task
 differences

between disputing parties in adopting either a


relationship or task orientation to a conflict.

 Emotional versus intellectual
 degree

of attention the parties pay to the affective
components (feeling and behaviors) of the dispute.

 Cooperate versus win

A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational
 degree to which parties share the blame for the conflict.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
7–4


Sources and Antecedents of Conflict
Perceived Adverse Changes
 Changes in working methods, conditions,

or employment opportunities that are
considered negative developments.
 Downsizing
 Laying

off of workers to reduce costs
and increase efficiency affects both
dismissed and surviving employees.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–5


Sources and Antecedents of Conflict
Sexual Harassment
 Is unwanted sexually oriented behavior in the work place

that results in discomfort and/or interference with the job.
 Types of sexual harassment:
 Quid

pro Quo

– offering an explicit or implied employment-related benefit
conditioned on an exchange of sexual favors. Acceptance or
rejection of the offer has no bearing on the relevance of the
harassment conduct.
 Hostile

working environment

– creating an employment environment that is perceived by the
harassed party as intimidating, hostile, or offensive.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–6


Sources and Antecedents of Conflict
Line Versus Staff Differentiation
 Line units and managers deal with the primary purposes of

a firm in manufacturing or selling its products or services.
 Staff units and managers serve in advisory roles and are
concerned with secondary purposes of the firm.
 Conflict between line and staff units arises when:
 Staff

professionals attempt to influence line decisions and
enforce compliance with organizational policies.
 Staff professionals appear have more loyalty to their
professions than to the organization.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–7


Significant Sexual Harassment Cases
Oncale vs. Sundowner Offshore Services Inc.
 Sexual harassment is “conduct” not “cause” (i.e.,sexual desire) and is

actionable even in same sex cases.

Burlington Industries vs. Ellerth
 Sexual harassment threats do not have to be carried out to be

actionable.
 An affirmative defense limits employer liability if it takes action to
prohibit or remedy sexual harassment and the harassed employee did
not pursue corrective opportunities offered by the employer.

Faragher vs. City of Boca Raton, Florida
 Employer is liable for hostile environment whether

or not it was aware of the environment.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–8


Theoretical Explanations for Sexual
Harassment
Gender Approach
 Sexual harassment is the likely outcome of increased

interactions between men and women in the work place.

Role Approach
 Sexual harassment results for the inappropriate carryover of

sex-based expectations in the work place.

Power Approach
 Sexual harassment is a mechanism for maintaining the

economic and political superiority of men over women.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
7–9


Negative Effects of Sexual
Harassment
Increased Job Stress
Lowered Morale
Increased and Severe Conflict
Lowered Productivity

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–10


Guidelines for Minimizing Sexual Harassment and
Protecting the Company Against Harassment
Charges


Develop a zero tolerance policy on
harassment and communicate it to
your employees. Inform employees
that harassment between members
of the same sex is also forbidden.



Deflect the sexual harassment
charge with an affirmative defense.
First, take care to prevent and
correct promptly any sexually
harassing behavior. Second, show
that an employee failed to use
internal procedures for reporting
abusive behavior.



Publicize the anti-harrassment
policies as aggressively and
regularly as possible—in
handbooks, on posters, in training
sessions, in reminders in
paychecks, and on the intranet.



Ensure that employees will not face
reprisals if they report offending
behavior. Appoint several
managers to take complaints, and
train these managers in sexual
harassment issues. Have at least
two methods of reporting charges
available such as an 800 number,
an open-door policy, or internal
review procedures.



Conduct training for employees and
all levels of management on antidiscrimination and antisexual
harassment policies and practices.



Punishments against employees
found guilty should be swift and
sure.

Source: Susan B. Garland, “ Finally, A Corporate Tip Sheet o n
Sexual Harassment,” Business Week, July 13, 1998; Jennif er
Laabs, “Steps to Protect Your Company Against Sexual
Harassment,” Workforce, October 19 98, p. 41.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
7-1
South-Western.

7–11


Competing Work and Family
Demands
Work-family Conflict
 Occurs when an individual has to perform multiple roles:

worker, spouse, and parent.
 Meta-analytic study found negative relationship
between all forms of work-family conflict
and both job and life satisfaction.
 Organizational programs that
reduce work-family conflict:
 flexible

working hours
 work-at-home programs
 dependent care programs
A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational
 parental leave programs

Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–12


Functional and Dysfunctional
Consequences of Conflict
Functional conflict:
 Occurs when the organization’s

interests are served as a result of
a dispute or disagreement.
 Fosters higher levels of
performance.
 Leads to crossfunctional problem
solving and
constructive change.

Dysfunctional conflict:
 Occurs when a dispute or

disagreement harms the
organization.
 Is disruptive in
many ways.
 Wastes time and
company resources.
 Leads to anger and
workplace violence
by employees.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–13


Performance

Positive

The Relationship between
Conflict Intensity
and Performance
Appropriate
Conflict

Neutral

Too Little
Conflict

Too Much
Conflict

Negative
Low
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals
of Organizational High
EXHIBIT
Intensity of Conflict
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
7-2
South-Western.

7–14


Stimulating the Right Type of Conflict
within Teams
C-type (Cognitive) Conflict
 Focuses on substantive, issued-related (concrete) issues

and differences that can be dealt with more intellectually
than emotionally.

A-type (Affective) Conflict
 Focuses on subjective, individually oriented issues that are

dealt with more emotionally than intellectually.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–15


C-type (Cognitive) Conflict and Teams
Benefits of C-type Conflict:
 Conflict is functional in requiring teams to engage in

activities that foster team effectiveness:
 All

team activities focus on core issues of the problem
 Creativity and innovative thinking that create stretch goals
 Open communications where all can speak
freely without fear of retribution
 Integration in making use of
all team members, instead of
one or two carrying the load
for all.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–16


Conflict Management
Conflict management styles
 Are combinations of satisfying one’s own

desires (assertiveness) and satisfying the
desires of others (cooperativeness).

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–17


Conflict
Management Style

Method of
Resolving Conflict

Personal
Activity

Competitive

Desires to win one’s own
concern s at the expen se of
the other party, or to
dominate.

Engage in win-lose p ower
strugg les in the office.

Accommodative

Favors appeasement, or
satisfyin g other party’s
concern s with out takin g care
of on e’s own needs.

Granting excessive pay raises
to d issatisfied workers to buy
their loyalty

Sharing

Prefers m oderate bu t
incomp lete satisfaction for
both parties which resu lts in
comprom ise.

“Splitting th e difference” to
reach agreement on an issu e.

Collaborative

Reflects a desire to fu lly
satisfy b oth parties’ concern s
which a win-win situ ation for
both parties.

Agreeing to h ire fewer
temp orary workers if th e union
will agree to relax work rule
restrictions.

Avoidant

Indifference to the con cerns
of either party; leaving
resolution of the con flict to
fate or to th e other parties to
work out their differences on
their own.

The absentee owner of a firm
letting the firm’s management
and lab or union work out a
con tract agreement with ou t
interference from the owner.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–18


Assertive

Conflict-Handling Styles According
to Degree of Cooperation
and Assertiveness

Party’s desire to
satisfy own concern

Competitive
(Dominant)

Collaborative
(Integration)



Unassertive





Sharing
(Compromise)

Avoidant
(Neglect)

Accommodative
(Appeasement)

Uncooperative

Cooperative
Party’s desire to satisfy
other’s concern

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
7-3
South-Western.

Source: K. W. Thomas, “Organizational Conflict”
in Steve Kerr (ed.), Organizational Behavior
(Columbus, Ohio: Grid Publishing, 1979), p. 156.

7–19


Conflict Resolution Methods
Confrontation and Problem Solving
 A method of identifying the true source of the conflict and

resolving it systematically, emphasizing a tactful and noncombative approach to maintaining a harmonious
relationship with the other party.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–20


Confrontation and Problem Solving
D. H. Stamatis’ Six steps
 Step 1: Awareness—recognizing that conflict exists.
 Step 2: The decision to confront—conflicting parties

come into open contact, no longer avoiding conflict.
 Step 3: The confrontation—parties choose conflict
management styles and work toward resolution.
 Step 4: Determining the cause of the conflict—parties
jointly identify the source of the conflict.
 Step 5: Determining the outcome and further steps—
parties attempt to reduce or eliminate cause of the conflict.
 Step 6: Follow-through—parties should check periodically
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
that agreements are being kept.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
7–21


Confront, Contain, and Connect for
Anger
Confront
 Jump in and get agitated

workers talking to prevent future
blowups.

Contain
 Move the angry worker out of

sight and earshot of fellow
workers.
Remain impartial in the
situation.

Connect
 Ask open-ended questions to

get at the real reasons for the
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
angry outburst.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
7–22


Structural Methods
The organizational structure of a firm can create
conflict among and between employees.
 Structural methods emphasize juggling work assignments

and reporting relationships to minimize disputes by:
 exchanging

members of an
organizational unit for
another unit’s members.
 resolving the conflict through
an appeal to a higher authority
 by maintaining an “open
door” policy.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–23


Work Stress
Stress is the mental and physical condition that
results from a perceived threat that cannot be
dealt with readily.
 Stress has productivity, legal, and human consequences.
 Stress can result from both negative

and positive situations.
 Stress creates psychological,
physical, and behavioral
health problems.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

7–24


A Cybernetic Theory of Stress,
Coping, and Well-Being in
Organizations

Stress is a discrepancy between an employee’s
perceived state of being and desired state.
 For stress to occur, the discrepancy must be important to

the employee.
 The worker attempts to deal with the discrepancy by coping
through altering the perceptions, desires, and importance
surrounding the discrepancy.
 To manage stress properly, a person must narrow the
discrepancies between actual conditions and a desired
A. J.state.
DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
7–25


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