Tải bản đầy đủ

Fundamentals of organizational behavior 2e by dubrin ch05

Chapter
5

Foundation Concepts
of Motivation

Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e
Andrew J. DuBrin

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook


Learning Objectives
1. Describe several needs theories of motivation,
including the needs hierarchy, the two-factor
theory, and the achievement-power-affiliation triad.
2. Summarize the key propositions of goal theory
and reinforcement theory.
3. Explain the expectancy theory of motivation.

4. Explain how equity and social comparison
contribute to motivation.
5. Use social learning theory to motivate yourself.
6. Recognize the importance of both intrinsic and
extrinsic motivators.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
5–2


Need Theories of Motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
 Lower order needs must be satisfied before higher level

needs are activated.

Deficiency (lower order) needs
 Physiological Needs: water, air, food, sleep
 Safety Needs: security, freedom from environmental threat

Growth (higher order) needs
 Social and love needs: group affiliation, physical love
 Esteem needs: self-respect and respect from others
 Self-actualization needs: self-fulfillment and personal

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
development leading to one’s full potential
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–3


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Higher Order
(Growth Needs)

SelfActualization


Esteem

Lower Order
(Deficiency Needs)

Social and Love
Safety
Physiological

A.
J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
5-1 Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
Behavior,
South-Western.

5–4


Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Motivators (satisfiers)
 Motivate and satisfy workers in the job context (intrinsic)
 Are associated with higher order needs
 Achievement,

recognition, advancement, responsibility,
work itself, and personal growth possibilities

Hygiene factors (dissatisfiers)
 Can only prevent dissatisfaction with job content (extrinsic)
 Are associated with lower order needs
 Pay,

job status, job security,working conditions, and
quality of leadership

A.J.Create
DuBrin,
Fundamentals
of Organizational
dissatisfaction
if absent
in the workplace
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–5


Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
(cont’d)
Evaluation (Positives)

 Contributed to understanding that money is not always the

primary motivator.
 Spurred interest in designing intrinsically satisfying jobs.

Evaluation (Negatives)
 De-emphasis of individual differences.
 Overlooks the importance of hygiene factors (e.g., benefits)

in attracting and retaining workers.
 Does not account for workers who are uninterested in
motivators as an opportunity for growth and advancement.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
5–6


Examples of Motivator and Hygiene
Factors
Motivator Factors
(Sources of Job Satisfact ion
and Motiva tion)

Hygiene Factors
(Sources of Job Dissatisfact ion;
Neutra l to Mot ivation)

Challenge of the work itself
Responsibility

Phy sical working conditions
Company policies

Recognition

Quality of supervision

Achievement

Coworker relationships

Job advancement and professional gro wth

Salary
Status
Job security

A.
J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
5-2 Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
Behavior,
South-Western.

5–7


McClelland’s Achievement-PowerAffiliation Triad
A theory of motivation based on the
premise that people acquire or
learn certain needs from
their culture.
 Cultural influences
Family
Peer

groups
Popular media (e.g., television shows)

When the need becomes strong enough, a person
A.will
J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals
work to
satisfy it. of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–8


McClelland’s Achievement-Power-Affiliation
Triad
Acquired Need

Individual C haracteristics

AchievementThe desire to accomplish
something for its own sake
(e.g., building a business
from scratch).

T hinks ab out h ow to d o the j ob better
Uses monetary rewards as feedback for how well they
are doing
Seeks responsibility
Sets realistic yet moderately difficult goals
Takes calculated risks

PowerThe desire to control and
influence other people.

 Likes to control resources (e.g., peop le, mon ey and
real estate)

Affiliatio nThe desire to establish and
maintain friendly and warm
relationships with others.

 Cares ab out maintain ing friend ly and warm
relationsh ips and soothing hurt feelings
Prefers work that permits close companionships

 T hinks ab out gaining au th ority and status

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–9


Goal-Setting Theory
A theory of motivation that focuses on improving
and sustaining job performance through the
establishment of goals that regulate behavior.
Core findings on goal-setting
 Task performance is better on specific hard goals than when

goals are easy and non-specific, “do your best,” or where
there are no goals.
 Goal attainment requires capable individuals who accept
the goals and receive task-related feedback.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–10


Goal-Setting Theory

Goals that are:
Specific
Hard but realistic

Values

Accepted by the person
Used to evaluate performance

Improved
Performance

Linked to feedback and
rewards
Set by individuals or groups
Learning oriented

A.
J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
5-3 Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
Behavior,
South-Western.

5–11


Goal Setting and Task Performance
Locke and Latham’s findings:
1. Specific goals lead to higher performance than do
generalized goals.
2. Performance generally increases in direct proportion to goal
difficulty.
3. For goals to improve performance, workers must accept
them.
4. Goals are more effective when they are used to evaluate
performance.
5. Goals should be linked to feedback and rewards.
6. Group goal setting is as important as individual goal
setting.
learningFundamentals
goal orientation
performance more than
A.7. J.ADuBrin,
of improves
Organizational
a performance goal orientation.

Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–12


Reinforcement Theory
Behavior is determined by its consequences
(rewards and punishments for specific behaviors).
Operant conditioning
 Is learning that takes place as a consequence of behavior.
 Behavior that has positive consequences is repeated;

behavior that has negative consequences is avoided.
 Managers can create contingencies that employ rewards to
encourage desirable behaviors and use punishments to
discourage undesirable behaviors.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–13


Operant Conditioning Strategies
Positive reinforcement
 Providing a pleasurable or valued consequence (reward) for the

desired response.

Negative reinforcement (avoidance motivation)
 Encouraging a behavior by removing an uncomfortable

consequence when the behavior is no longer exhibited.

Extinction
 Weakening or reducing the frequency of a behavior by

removing the reward for a behavior.

Punishment

A.
DuBrin,anFundamentals
of Organizational
 J.
Applying
undesirable consequence
to a specific behavior.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
5–14


Examples of Operant Conditioning
Strategies
Positive reinforcement
 Providing a bonus for meeting a sales quota to a salesman.

Negative reinforcement (avoidance motivation)
 Returning a poorly performing employee to the merit and

promotion list after a period of improved performance.

Extinction
 Refusing to listen to an employee’s off-color jokes.

Punishment
 J.
Suspending
an employee for
improper internet usage.
A.
DuBrin, Fundamentals
of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
5–15


A Basic Version of Expectancy Theory

Motivational
Force

=

Expectancy

Instrumentality

Valence

(how well the

(how well the

(the value that

person believes
he or she can

X

person believes
that performance

perform the

will lead to

task)

certain outcomes)

X

A.
J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
5-4 Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
Behavior,
South-Western.

the person
attaches to the
outcome)

5–16


Expectancy Theory
Motivation results from deliberate choices to
engage in activities in order to achieve worthwhile
outcomes.
 People will be motivated if they
believe effort will lead to good
performance and that good
performance leads, in turn,
to preferred outcomes.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–17


Key Components of Expectancy
Theory

Effort-to-Performance (E P) Expectancy

 Is a person’s subjective estimate of the probability that an

increased effort will lead to the desired performance.
 Self-efficacy affects motivation to put forth effort.

Instrumentality (P O)
 Is an individual’s estimate of the probability that an

increased performance will lead to desired outcomes.

Valence
 Is the value a person places on a particular outcome.
 Desirable outcomes have positive valences; less desirable

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
outcomes have negative valences.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–18


Key Component Examples
Effort-to-Performance (E P) Expectancy
 “Am I capable of the effort required to reach

that level of performance?”

Instrumentality (P O)
 “Is a particular level of performance

truly tied to a specific reward?”

Valence
 “How much do I want any of the

rewards that the organization is offering?”
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–19


The Calculation of Motivation
Motivational force is high when its components
(expectancies, instrumentalities, and valences)
are high.
Example (from textbook):
Valence = 100 (scale: -100 to +100)
E P = x .85 (scale: 0 to 1.00)
P O = x .90 (scale: 0 to 1.00)
Motivation = 76.50 (scale: -100 to +100)
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–20


Enhancing Motivation
Managers can:
 Provide training to raise skill levels that increase the

performance capabilities of employees (E P).
 Provide assurance to employees that good performance will
lead to a reward system (P O) .
 Provide rewards that are meaningful and valued by the
employees; that rewards have positive valences for the
employees.
 Being aware that rewards not run counter to cross-cultural
factors where singling out individual performers for rewards
is culturally insensitive.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
5–21


Equity Theory and Social Comparison
Equity Theory
 Employee satisfaction and motivation depend on how fairly

employees believe they are treated in comparison to peers.
 Employees compare their outcomes (rewards) from the
organization and the level of their efforts (inputs) to those of
others (reference sources) in the organization.
 Employees feel equity when they believe that their
outcome/input ratio is equal to that of others.
Outcomes of Individual compared to Outcomes of Others
Inputs of Individual
Inputs of Others

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–22


Employee Responses to Inequity
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Alter the outcome (ask for more money).
Alter the inputs (decrease efforts).
Distort the perception (engage in selfjustification and seek to discredit others).
Change the reference source (find
another person with a similar
outcome/input ratio).
Leave the situation (quit to pursue a
more equitable position).

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–23


Social Learning Theory
The process of observing the behavior of others,
recognizing its consequences, and altering
behavior as a result. Effective social learning
requires:
 High expectancies that observed behavior can be learned

and that it will result in valued rewards.
 Rewards that can be self-administered (drawing intrinsic
satisfaction from the behavior itself).
 The behavior to be learned is tangible and observable.
 Possession of the physical and mental ability to imitate the
A. J.behavior.
DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
5–24


Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation
 Is the belief that an activity (work) can satisfy

needs for competence and self-determination.
 Is affected (increased or reduced) by
personal

values and perceptions.
the characteristics of the task.
the reason for doing the task.
rewards that become externalized.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

5–25


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×