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Fundamentals of organizational behavior 2e by dubrin ch03

Chapter
3

Learning, Perception,
Attitudes, Values, and Ethics

Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e
Andrew J. DuBrin

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook


Learning Objectives
1. Explain two learning processes relevant to
organizational behavior.
2. Describe key aspects of the perceptual process,
along with common perceptual problems.
3. Discuss the importance of attitudes to behavior in
organizations.

4. Summarize why values are an important part of
organizational behavior.
5. Apply the eight-step guide to ethical decision
making when faced with an ethical dilemma.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–2


Learning
Learning
 Is a relatively permanent change in behavior based on

practice or experience.
 Is beyond innate inborn patterns of behavior.
 Is necessary for satisfactory job performance.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–3


Modeling and Shaping
Modeling (imitation)
 Occurs when a skill is learned by observing another person

performing that skill.
 Requires careful observation followed shortly thereafter by
use of the newly acquired skill.
 Elicits new behaviors in motivated capable learners.

Shaping
 Is learning through the positive

reinforcement or rewarding of
small steps that build to the
final or desired behavior.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
3–4


Cognitive Learning
Cognitive learning theory
 Learning is a complicated process in which reasoning and

analytical skills are used in acquiring knowledge.

Informal learning
 Is learning that is not determined or designed by the

organization. It can be divided into four categories:
 Practical

skills
 Intrapersonal skills
 Interpersonal skills
 Cultural awareness

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–5


Learning Styles
Concepts of learning style
 People learn best in different ways.
 Certain

material is best mastered in certain ways (e.g.,
learning to swim by practicing in a pool).

 Some people learn best alone; others in groups.
 Four modes of learning styles:
 Concrete

experience
 Reflective observation
 Abstract conceptualization
 Active experimentation

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–6


Perception
Perception
 Deals with the ways in which people interpret things and

how they act on the basis of these perceptions.
 Has important effects on job satisfaction
and motivation, which, in turn, lead to better
job performance.

Aspects of perception important
to managers:
 Perceptual distortions and problems
 How people attribute causes to events

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–7


Perceptual Distortions and Problems
Characteristics of the stimulus
 Having a strong interest (i.e., emotions,

needs, attitude, or motivation)
in an issue tends to cause
misperceptions of a
stimulus.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–8


Perceptual Distortions and Problems
Mental processing shortcuts
 Denial—refusing to admit that the information even exists.
 Stereotyping—reducing ego discomfort by evaluating

individuals on the basis of the group to which we perceive
that they should belong.
 Halo Effect—allowing one recognizable or unfavorable trait
to color all that we know about a person.
 Projection—projecting personal faults onto others and not
making an objective appraisal of the situation.
 Selective Perception—filtering out information with which
do notFundamentals
agree.
A. J.we
Dubrin,
of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
3–9


Contributors to
Perceptual
Distortions
“I’m a human with feelings.”

“Did you say that I get
an average performance
evaluation?”

Emotionally
Charged
Stimulus

Person as
Perceiver

Perceptual
Distortion
Mental Processes
Denial
Stereotyping
Halo effect
Projection
Selective perception

think
I heard you say that
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals“ Iof
Organizational
I’m better than most workers.”
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
3-1
South-Western.

“I have to interpret this
message for myself.”

3–10


Attribution Theory
People ascribe causes to behaviors based on
information gathered about the three dimensions
of behavior:
 Consensus—how similar is the person’s

behavior to the behavior of others on the
same task.
 Distinctiveness—how much does the person’s
level of performance on the task at hand
differ from their performance on other tasks.
 Consistency—how stable is the person’s level
of performance over time.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–11


Locus of Control
Internal locus of control
 Persons who perceive themselves

to be in control of their lives; and
creators of their own opportunities.

External locus of control
 Persons who believe that their lives

are controlled by circumstances
and attribute their success or
failure to luck.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
3–12


Attitudes
An attitude
 Is a predisposition that influences a person’s response to an

object (an idea, a person, thing, or a situation).

Components of attitudes
Cognitive
Affective
Emotions connected
with an object or a
task

Knowledge/beliefs
about an object or a
task

Behavioral
How a person intends
to act toward an
object or a task

Cognitive dissonance
 Occurs when knowledge, information, and attitudes are

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
contradictory and cause an individual to be conflicted.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
3–13


Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction
 Is the amount of pleasure or contentment that a person

associates with a job.

Consequences of job satisfaction are:
 High productivity when the work involves people contact
 A stronger tendency to achieve customer loyalty
 Low absenteeism and turnover
 Less job stress and burnout
 Better safety performance
 Better life satisfaction

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–14


Specific Issues that Influence Employee Satisfaction
•Do I know what my boss expects of me?
•Do I have what I need to do my work properly?
•Am I allowed to do what I do best every day?
•Has anyone praised or recognized my work in the past week?
•Does anyone encourage my career growth?
•Does my manager respect my opinion?
•Are my coworkers dedicated to producing quality work?
•Have I learned something new in the part year?

Employees who answer “Yes” to all the questions
are likely to stay with their firm for the long haul.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
3-2 Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

Source: Supervisor’s Guide to Employment Practices, Clement
Communications Inc., 10 LaCrue Ave., Concordville, PA 19331.

3–15


Organizational Citizenship Behavior
(OCB)
OCB

 Is the willingness to work for the good of the organization

even without the promise of a specific reward.

OCB components:
 Conscientiousness
 Altruism
 Civic virtue
 Courtesy
 Sportsmanship

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–16


Value Stereotypes for Several
Generations of Workers
Ba by Boom ers
(1946–1964)

Generation X
(1965–1977)

Generation Y
(1978–1984)

Uses technology as necessary tool
Appreci ates hi erarchy

Techno savvy
Teamwork very important

Techno savvy
Teamwork very important

Tolerates teams but values
independent work

Di slikes hierarchy

Culturally di verse
Di slikes hi erarchy

Strong career orientation

Strives for work/ li fe bal ance but
will work long hours for now

Strives for work/ li fe bal ance but
will work long hours for now

More l oyal ty to organi zation

Loyalty to own career and
professi on

Beli ef in i nform ality
Wants to strike it rich qui ckly
Highly regards start-up compani es

Favors di pl omacy

Candid in conversation

Candid in conversation

Favors ol d economy

Appreci ates old and new economy

Prefers the new economy

Expects a bonus based on
performance

Woul d appreci ate a signi ng bonus

Expects a si gning bonus

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
Behavior,
3-3
South-Western.

Source: Several of the ideas in this table are from Robert McGarvey, “The Coming of
Gen X Bosses,” Entrepreneur, November 1999, pp. 60–64; Joanne M. Glenn,
“Teaching the Net Generation,” Business Education Forum, February 2000, pp. 6–14.

3–17


How Values Are Learned
Values are acquired through:
 Modeling and identification with the behaviors of parents,

teachers, friends, siblings.
 Communication of values by
influential persons.
 Unstated or implied attitudes
of key people.
 Religious training and
social morals.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–18


The Mesh Between Individual and
Organizational Values
Congruence between employee and firm values is
important because:
 Employee job performance is likely to be higher .
 Employees are more successful and believe they can reach

their career goals.
 Employees are more likely to remain
with the firm and to work longer hours.
 Employees do not suffer person-role
conflict in attempting to obey orders
that clash with personal values.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–19


Ethics: Moral Choices and Actions
Ethical decision-making considerations focus on:
 Consequences of the decision or action
 The

concern here is that there is a net balance of good over
bad (utilitarianism) as a result of the decision or action taken.

 Duties, obligations, and principles
 Acting

on universal moral principles (the deontological
approach) outweighs any consideration of the consequences.

 Integrity (Virtue ethics)
 The

character and motivation of the person involved
determines the ethicality of the decision or action.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–20


An Eight-Step Guide to Ethical Decision
Making
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

(Treviño and Nelson)

Gather the facts.
Define the ethical issues.
Identify the affected parties.
Identify the consequences.
Identify the obligations.
Consider your character and integrity.
Think creatively about potential
actions.
A.8.J. Dubrin,
of Organizational
CheckFundamentals
your intuition.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

3–21



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