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Fundamentals of organizational behavior 2e by dubrin ch02


Individual Differences,
Diversity, Ability, and

Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e
Andrew J. DuBrin

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook

Learning Objectives
1. Explain how individual differences influence the
behavior of people in organizations.
2. Describe the key factors contributing to
demographic diversity.
3. Explain how mental ability relates to job

4. Identify major personality variables that influence
job performance.
5. Explain how emotional intelligence is an important
part of organizational behavior.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Individual Differences
Personal characteristics of individuals produce
variations in their behavioral responses to the
same situations:
 Behavior is a function of the person

interacting with the environment.

B = ƒ(P x E)

 Behavior is determined (moderated)

by the interactive effects of the
person and the environment.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Consequences of Individual
Variations in Productivity

 The more complex the job, the larger the impact of

individual productivity differences on work output.

Ability and Talent
 Having the right skills and abilities directly affects job


Propensity for Achieving High-Quality Results
 Some workers take pride and pursue excellence in their

work while others do not.

Empowerment and Involvement
 Workers differ in their desires to be fulfilled by and involved

in their work.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Consequences of Individual
Preferred leadership style

 Some workers prefer or require more supervision than


Need for contact with other people
 Workers differ in the need to relate to others on the job.

Commitment and loyalty to the firm
 There are large variations in the degree to which individuals

are committed (loyal) to their firms.

Variations in worker’s self-esteem
 High self-esteem is linked to self-efficacy (personal

capability), self-respect (personal worth), and increased

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Demographic Diversity
Difference in background factors shape worker
attitudes and behaviors.
 Key sources of diversity include gender, age, race and

ethnicity, and physical disability.
 Advantages of understanding diversity:
 Capitalize

on differences
 Avoid negative

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Sex and Gender Differences
Sex differences
 are actual biological differences in males and females.

Gender differences
 are based on perceptions of male and female roles.

Research findings indicate that:
 Men

– Communicate to convey
information or establish
– Emphasize immediate
goals and value equity
(fair treatment)
– More aggressive and less
sensitive to others

 Women

– Communicate to convey and
establish rapport and to solve
– More courteous and polite;
value equality (sharing

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Age- and Experience-Based
of skilled workers are likely by 2010.
Job discrimination against older workers
 is problematic for employers who need workers.
 is well-documented by AARP “testers.”

Job-related consequences of age
 Research results are mixed:
 Age

and experience are predictive of
performance on complex jobs although
age and job performance are generally unrelated.
 Older workers have lower absenteeism, illness and accident
rates, higher job satisfaction, and positive work values.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Racial and Ethnic Differences
 Term refers to a variety of racial and ethnic differences.
 Racioethnic differences in individual job performance are

more attributable to culture than to racial or ethnic

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Disability Status
American with Disabilities Act (1991)
 Defines disability as a physical or mental condition that

substantially limits an individual’s major life activities:
 learning,

thinking, concentrating, interacting with others,
caring for one’s self, speaking, performing manual tasks,
working, and sleeping.

 Companies with 25 or more employees must avoid

discriminatory hiring practices that rule
out hiring disabled individuals who
can carry out the essential functions
of the job with reasonable
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Mental Ability
 Is the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge, including

solving problems.
 Is a major source of individual differences affecting job
performance and behavior.
 Is difficult to measure accurately.

The relative contributions of heredity
and environment in fostering
individual intelligence
are in dispute.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Components of Intelligence
Standard Theory of Intelligence
 Intelligence consists of general cognitive factors ( g) and

special factors (s) that contribute to problem-solving ability.
 High scores on g are associated with good scholastic
performance and success on the job.
 Special factors contributing to overall mental aptitude:
• Verbal comprehension

• Memory

• Word fluency

• Perceptual speed

• Numerical

• Inductive reasoning

• Spatial

Source: These seven factors stem from the pioneering work of L. L.
Thurston, Primary Mental Abilities, Psychometric Monographs, 1 (1938)

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
(Emphasis on Practical Intelligence)

Three mental ability subtypes:
 Analytical

type of intelligence focused on
problem solving involving abstract reasoning.

 Creative

needed for imagination and
combining things in novel ways.

 Practical

smarts” needed to adapt to
the environment.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence





Source: Based on information in Robert J. Trotter, “Three Heads Are Better Than One,”
Psychology Today, August 1986, pp. 56–62; modified and updated with information
from Robert J. Sternberg, book review in Personnel Psychology, Summer 1999, pp.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner’s theory of mental abilities
 People know and understand the world in different ways

and through different lenses.
 Individuals possess eight intelligences (faculties) to varying
degrees which create distinct individual intelligence profiles
that influence behaviors:
• Linguistic

• Bodily/kinesthetic

• Logical-mathematical

• Intrapersonal

• Musical

• Interpersonal

• Spatial

• Naturalist

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Personality Differences
 Is the persistent and enduring behavior patterns of an

individual as expressed in wide variety of situations.
 Is regarded as the core of who a person is.
 Personality factors are important to performance on the job
and to performance as a team member.

Seven major personality factors and traits:
• Extraversion

• Openness to experience

• Emotional stability

• Self-monitoring of behavior

• Agreeableness

• Risk taking and thrill seeking

• Conscientiousness

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Psychological Types and Cognitive
Cognitive style

 Is the mental processes a person uses to perceive and

make judgments from information.
 Is defined by how a person gathers information and
evaluates information (Carl Jung).

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
 Is a widely used test of personality and cognitive style.
 Uses a four-way classification of cognitive styles:
 Sensation

/ Thinking
 Intuitive / Thinking

 Sensation

/ Feeling
 Intuitive / Feeling

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Four Problem-Solving Styles and
Work Match-Up
Sensation / Thinking

Sensation / Feeling

Decisive, dependable,
alert to details

Pragmatic, analytical, methodical,

Accounting, bookkeeping
Computer programming
Manufacturing technology


Intuitive / Thinking

Intuitive / Feeling

Creative, progressive, perceptive

Colorful, people oriented, helpful

Design of systems
Law, paralegal work
Middle manager

Customer service
Business communications
Human resources


Source: John R. Schermerhorn, Jr., James G. Hunt, and
Richard N. Osburn, Managing Organizational Behavior,
5th ed. (New York: John Wiley, 1994):119.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


Emotional Intelligence
Concept of emotional intelligence
 Understanding of one’s own feelings
 Having empathy for others
 Regulating emotions to enhance living

Key factors of emotional
 Self-awareness
 Self-regulation
 Motivation
 Empathy
 Social skill

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational


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