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Fundamentals of organizational behavior 2e by dubrin ch01

Chapter
1

The Nature and Scope of
Organizational Behavior

Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e
Andrew J. DuBrin

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook


Learning Objectives
1. Explain what organizational behavior means.
2. Summarize the research methods of organizational
behavior.
3. Identify the potential advantages of organizational
behavior knowledge.
4. Explain key events in the history of organizational

behavior.
5. Describe how focusing on the human element can
contribute to organizational and managerial
effectiveness.
6. Understand how a person develops organizational
A. J.skills.
DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.
1–2


The Meaning of Organizational
Behavior
Organizational behavior (OB) is

 the study of human behavior in the workplace,
 the interaction between people and the organization,
 and the organization itself.

Organizational behavior’s major goals are to
 explain, predict, and control behavior.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

1–3


OB Data Collection and Research
Methods
Data collection methods
 Survey questionnaires
 Interviews
 Direct observation
Systematic

observation
Participant observation



Researcher methods
 Case studies
 Laboratory experiments
 Field experiments (or studies)

A.J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Meta-analysis
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

1–4


Benefits of Studying Organizational
Behavior

 Develop skills to function effectively in the workplace.
 Grow personally through insight into human behavior.
 Enhance overall organizational effectiveness
 Sharpen and refine

common sense.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

1–5


Key Developments in OB History
The Hawthorne Studies at Western Electric
 Originally intended as a study of the effects of

environmental changes on productivity.
 The Hawthorne Effect— the tendency of people to behave
differently (perform better) when they receive attention.


Key Findings

1.
2.
3.

Economic incentives are less potent than generally believed.
Dealing with human problems is complicated and challenging.
Leadership practices and work-group pressures strongly
influence productivity, satisfaction, and performance.
4. Personal problems influence worker productivity.
5. Effective communication is critical to success.
DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
6. Factors embedded in the social system influence behavior.

A. J.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

1–6


Key Developments in OB History
The Human Relations Movement
 Based on belief that managerial practices, morale, and

productivity are strongly linked and that the proper working
environment enhances worker capabilities.
 Douglas McGregor
Theory

X

– Managers assume people dislike work,
avoid responsibility, lack ambition,
and need close supervision.
Theory Y

– Managers assume people enjoy
work, accept responsibility,
are innovative,
and are of Organizational
DuBrin,
Fundamentals
self-controlling.

A. J.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

1–7


Key Developments in OB History
The Contingency Approach
 Emphasizes that there is no one best way to manage

people. Different situations require managers to make
decisions about which managerial methods and approaches
to use in a specific instance.
 Knowledge of organizational behavior and management is
essential to the examination of individual
and situational differences before
deciding a course of action.
A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

1–8


Key Managerial Practices of Successful
Organizations
1. Employment security.
2. High standards in
selecting personnel.
3. Extensive use of selfmanaged teams and
decentralized decision
making.
4. Comparatively high
compensation based on
performance.

5. Extensive employee
training.
6. Reduction of status
differences between
higher management and
other employees.
7. Information sharing
among managers and
other workers.
8. Promotion from within.

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
1-1
South-Western.

Source: Jeffery Pfeffer, The Human Equation (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998),
pp. 64–98; Joanne Cole, Interview with Jeffery Pfeffer: “Putting People First,” HRFOCUS, April 1998,
pp. 11–12; Pfeffer, “Producing Sustainable Competitive Advantage through the Effective Management
of People,” Academy of Management Executive, February 1995, pp. 64–65.

1–9


Skill Development in Organizational
Behavior
General learning model
1. Conceptual information and behavioral

guidelines.
2. Conceptual information demonstrated by
example and brief descriptions.
3. Experiential exercises in the form of practice
cases and self-assessment exercises.
4. Feedback on skill utilization, or performance,
A. J. DuBrin,
Fundamentals of Organizational
from others.
Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
South-Western.

1–10


A Model for Developing
Organizational Behavior Skills

Learner Uses
1. Conceptual knowledge
and behavior guidelines
2. Conceptual information and
examples
3. Experiential exercises
4. Feedback on skill
utilization

Skill Development
in Organizational
Behavior

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
1-2
South-Western.

1–11


A Framework for Studying Organizational Behavior
Individual Level
Individual differences, mental
ability, and personality
Learning, perception, attitudes,
values, and ethics
Individual decision making
and creativity
Foundation concepts of motivation
Conflict, stress, and well-being

Groups and Interpersonal
Relations
Interpersonal communication
Group dynamics and teamwork
Leadership
Power, politics, and influence

The Organizational System
and the Global Environment
Organizational structure and design
Organizational culture and change
The learning organization and
knowledge management
Cultural diversity and international
organizational behavior

A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational
EXHIBIT
Behavior,
Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by
1-3
South-Western.

1–12



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