Liên từ (conjunctions)
1. Định nghĩa: Liên từ là từ dùng để nối các từ loại, cụm từ hay mệnh đề.
2. Phân loại: Liên từ được chia làm hai loại chính:
a. Đẳng lập (song song):
Dùng loại liên từ này để nối những các từ loại hoặc cụm từ/ nhóm từ cùng một loại, hoặc những mệnh đề ngang
hàng nhau (tính từ với tính từ, danh từ với danh từ ...):
He and I are students.
She is beautiful and kind.
They are learning to read and write.
b. Liên từ phụ thuộc:
Loại liên từ phụ thuộc nối kết các nhóm từ, cụm từ hoặc mệnh đề có chức năng khác nhau - mệnh đề phụ với mệnh
đề chính trong câu.
3. Những liên từ Đẳng lập (song song):
Những liên từ Đẳng lập gồm:
She is a good and loyal wife.
I have many books and notebooks.
BOTH ... AND
She is both good and loyal.
They learn both English and French.
AS WELL AS
He has experience as well as knownledge.
NO LESS THAN
You no less than he are very rich.
NOT ONLY ... BUT (ALSO)
He learns not only English but but (also) Chinese.
I like playing not only tennis but (also) football.
Hurry up, or you will be late.
He isn't either good or kind.
I don't have either books or notebooks.
NEITHER ... NOR
He drinks neither wine nor beer.
She has neither husband nor children.
He is intelligent but very lazy.
She is ugly but hard-working.
You have eaten nothing; then you must be very hungry.
The plant looks very faded; then it hasn't been watered for long.
Ví dụ: You didn't work hard for this term; consequently, he failed the exam.
Ví dụ: He is a very lazy student; however, he can pass all the exams easily.
It was raining very hard; however, we went out without umbrellar.
She studies very hard; nevertheless, she always gets bad marks.
I speak to you peaceably; still/yet you will not listen.
She says she does not love me, yet, I still love her.
OR, ELSE, OTHERWISE
We have to work hard, or/else/otherwise we will fail the exam.
Go where you like; only do not stay here.
He violated the traffic signs, therefore he was punished.
4. Những liên từ phụ thuộc (chính phụ):
Những liên từ phụ thuộc:
He will surely succeed, for (because) he works hard.
He learns hard whereas his friends don't.
Wise men love truth whereas fools avoid it.
Don't sing while you work.
Don't talk while you eat.
We have to study hard at school; besides, we must pay attention
to physical exercise.
He stole two watches; moreover, he broke the window.
He is a good teacher; so, he is very popular with students.
It rained very hard; so, we didn't go out that night.
I had not money about me; hence I did not buy the book.
He came late; hence, he missed the first part of the lesson.
- Liên từ nối mệnh đề (như trạng ngữ):
a. Thời gian (Time):
A man shoud take a little rest, after he has worked hard.
The ship was checked carefully after she had been built.
He came her, as the clock struck six.
They left as the bell rang..
AS SOON AS
I will phone you as soon as I come home.
They will get married as soon as they finish university.
Don't count your chickens before they are hatchd.
He talks as if he were very wise.
He has been very weak, since he was taken sick.
AS LONG AS
No one can harm us, as long as we remain friends.
I will lend you some money as long as you promise to pay me back.
People do not know the value of health until they lose it.
Ví dụ: When you visit this country, you should bring thick winter clothes.
Make hay while the sun shines.
Step while you dance.
b. Nơi chốn (Places):
The bed room is the best place where I do my homework.
His mother follows him wherever he goes.
I will go wherever to find a suitable job for me.
c. Thể cách (Manner):
Do as I told you to do.
He talks as if he knew everything about her.
He dances as if he were a professional dancer.
d. So sánh (Comparisons):
He is as tall as his brither.
This bag is as expensive as that one.
She is more beautiful than her sister.
She looks fatter than his friend.
e. Lí do (Reasons):
As it rained very hard, we stopped they games.
We could not pass the test because we didn't learn hard.
I didn't meet her because she had left earlier.
I must go since she has telephoned three times.
f. Mục đích (Purposes):
I work hard that I may succeed in life.
We went very early so that we could catch the last bus.
IN ORDER THAT
We learn French in order to study in France.
g. Điều kiện (Conditions) :
I will phone him if I have his phone number.
UNLESS (IF NOT)
You will be late unless you set off now.
Unless you work hard, you will not pass the eams.
I will pardon him provided that he acknowledge his fault.
You can enter the room provided that you have the ticket..
You should take an umbrella in case it rains.
Please take a map with you in case (that) you may get lost.
h. Sự tương phản, trái ngược:
ALTHOUGH, THOUGH, EVEN THOUGH
Ví dụ: Though/even though /although it rained hard, I went out with her.
Rich as he is, his isn't ever happy.
Even if my watch is right, we will be too late.
NOT WITH STANDING THAT
He is poor not with standing that he works very hard
*EXERCISES - CONJUNCTIONS
EXI. Fill in the blanks with these words: although, and, because, but, or, since, so, unless, until, when.
1. Things were different _____ I was young.
2. I do it _____ I like it.
3. Let us wait here _____ the rain stops.
4. You cannot be a lawyer _____ you have a law degree.
5. That was years _____ years ago.
6. She has not called _____ she left last week.
7. I saw him leaving an hour _____ two ago.
8. This is an expensive _____ very useful book.
9. We were getting tired _____ we stopped for a rest.
10. He was angry _____ he heard what happened.
11. Walk quickly _____ you will be late.
12. He had to retire _____ of ill health.
13. We will go swimming next Sunday _____ it's raining.
14. I heard a noise _____ I turned the light on.
15. Would you like a coffee _____ tea?
16. Do you know _____ she will arrive?
17 ._____ the car is old, it still runs well.
18. Do you want a pen _____ a bit of paper?
19. I would like to go _____ I am too busy.
20. She will die _____ the doctors operate immediately.
1. I want to work as an interpreter in the future, ________, I am studying Russian at university.
2. I am going shopping for food this evening ________ I do not have to go at the weekend.
3. When she got the news from her family, she could not do anything, ________ cry.
4. We live in the same building ________ we have hardly seen each other
5. I went to buy a Rolling Stones CD ________ the shop didn't have it.
6. Anna needed some money, ________, she took a part-time job.
a. furthermore b. moreover
7. Julie has a guitar ________ she plays it really well.
8. My fingers were injured ________ my sister had to write the note for me.
9. The concert was cancelled ________ we went to a nightclub instead.
c. so on
10. This is an expensive ________ very useful book.
11. ________ long it takes, I will wait for you.
12. I must say that you have done very well. ________, you should be aware that you still have a lot of thing to learn.
13. He is only sixteen, and ________, he is not eligible to drive a car.
a. nevertheless b. but
14. Maria tried to read a novel in French ________ the book was too difficult for her to understand.
a. so that
15. To get from Vancouver to Victoria, you can fly, ________ you can ride the ferry.
16. I bought a bottle of wine ________ we drank it together.
17. The waiter was not very nice, _____, the food was delicious.
d. and so
18. ___ hard he worked, he could earn enough money to support the family.
19. I wanted to give him some money after he helped me with the car _____ he absolutely refused to accept it.
d. and so
20. Everyone is ready for the discussion, ________ him.
21. The first part of the test was easy; the second, ________, took hours.
22. He has done nothing to prepare for the final examination, ______ played.
23. He told me not to do it; ________, I did it.
24. We have not yet won; ________, we will keep trying.
d. so as
25. I am afraid that the company is in deep trouble. ________, we are going to make some people redundant.
EX II. Choose the best answer.
1. Receptionists must be able to relay information ______ pass messages accurately.
2. I did not go to the show ______ I had already seen it.
3. Mary is a member of the Historical Society ______ the Literary Society.
4. Read over your answers ______ correct all mistakes before you pass them up.
5. Keep the food covered ______ the flies will contaminate it.
6. ______ he is thin, he is strong.
7. Susie ______ phoned ______ wrote after she left home.
(A) either, or
(C) while, and
(D) though, or
8. She had an unpleasant experience ______ she was in Thailand.
9. The committee rejected the proposal ______ they did not think it was practical.
10. John welcomed his guests ______ offered them drinks.
11 You can come to the meeting ______ you don't say anything.
A. so that
B. as long as
12 I'm not leaving ______ I get an apology from you.
A. so that
D. as if
13 I came here ______ you could give me an explanation.
B. as long as
D. so that
14 Bob is very tall ______ Bill is very short.
A.as long as
B. so that
15. I refuse to pay anything ______ you do the work properly.
A. so that
C. as long as
16. I'm going shopping for food this evening ______ I don't have to go at the weekend.
as long as
17.These rooms are very comfortable _____ they have a good view of the city.
18. _____ the teacher explained the lesson several times, some of the students still did not
(B) Even if
19. He did not join us for the movie _____ he had already seen it.
20. She could not find the book she wanted _____ she borrowed a magazine instead.
(D) so that
21. I tried to make her realize the consequences _____ she refused to listen.
22. He will show us around himself _____ send someone else.
23. _____ he was not interested in music, he agreed to go to the concert.
(B) as long as
( D) as if
EX III. Paying attention to the meanings of the sentences, and to the presence of inverted word order, fill
in the blanks with the correct coordinate conjunctions chosen from the pairs given in brackets. For
1. I opened the door _________ looked out. (and, yet)
2. She was not in the back yard, _________ was she upstairs. (or, nor)
3. The sun had set, _________ it was still light outside. (or, yet)
4. Do you know his address _________ telephone number? (but, or)
5. He has not arrived yet, _________ have they. (and, nor)
6. I read the book, _________ did not understand it. (but, or)
7. We searched diligently, ________ found nothing. (or, yet)
8. I invited him _________ his friends. (and, but)
EX IV. Paying attention to the expressions used in the following sentences, fill in the blanks with the
words and, but also, nor, or, than, then and when, as appropriate. For example:
1. I have both respect _________ admiration for them.
2. Hardly had I finished reading over the problem, _________ the answer leapt to my mind.
3. It will rain either today _________ tomorrow.
4. He could not decide whether to tell the truth _________ keep silent.
5. It was not only a beautiful day, ___________ the first day of Spring.
6. If you follow the instructions, __________ you should have no difficulty.
7. He is neither proud _________ condescending.(hạ mình)
8. What with one thing _________ another, it was very late by the time we left the house.
9. No sooner had I opened my eyes _________ I remembered where I was.
10. Scarcely had I heard the news, _________ my friend arrived.
11. I do not know whether he has seen the movie before ________ not.
12. I would rather wait here _________ risk missing the bus.
13. She could find the book neither at the Library, _________ at the bookstore.
14. No sooner had I opened the window, _________ a butterfly flew into the room.
15. The crowd was both large _________ enthusiastic.
Ex V. Fill in the blanks with the correct subordinate conjunctions or similar expressions chosen from the
pairs given in brackets. For example:
1. We recognized her at once, ____________ we had not seen her for years. (although, in case)
2. He kept reading ___________ he fell asleep. (for, until)
3. The moon will rise ____________ the sun sets. (as soon as, than)
4. It looks ____________ the train will be late. (while, as though)
5. ____________ she got her degree, she became a teacher. (After, Than)
6. We will not go skiing ____________ the weather is good. (as if, unless)
7. ____________ he left, he made sure he had his keys with him. (Before, For)
8. ____________ I told the truth, you would not believe me. (Even if, So that)
9. They have known her ___________ she was a child. (until, since)
10. I must leave now, ____________ I have a great deal of work to do. (as, than)
11. What shall we do ____________ it rains? (or else, supposing)
12. ____________ you read this book, you would be sure to enjoy it. (If, Until)
13. The door was open, ____________ we could hear everything. (in case, so)
14. I studied more ____________ he did. (than, whereas)
15. We packed a lunch, ____________ we knew we would soon be hungry. (lest, for)
16. I will join you, ____________ the weather is fine. (providing, than)
17. ____________ he is very busy, he is seldom at home. (Or else, Because)
18. We must hurry, ___________ we will be late. (so that, or else)
Ex VI . For each of the following sentences, paying attention to the structure of the sentence, fill in the
blank with either the conjunction or the preposition given in brackets. For example:
1. We stayed up late, ____________ we were tired. (although, despite)
2. They went swimming, ____________ the coldness of the water. (although, despite)
3. I enjoy the course, ____________ the professor is a good teacher. (because, because of)
4. She looks ___________ your sister. (as if, like)
5. Please wait ___________ I make a phone call. (during, while)
6. Did you hear any noises ____________ the night? (during, while)
7. It looked ____________ we would not be able to leave until the next day. (as if, like)
8. We all felt tired ____________ the hot weather. (because, because of)
9. I read a book ___________ I was waiting. (during, while)
10. Her eyes shone _____________ stars. (as if, like)
11. They managed to work together, ___________ their differences of opinion. (although, despite)
12. I left home early, ____________ I had to do several errands. (because, because of)
13. He speaks about the subject ____________ he were an expert. (as if, like)
14. We rested ____________ the hottest part of the day. (during, while)
15. ____________ she lost her way twice, she arrived safely. (Although, Despite)
16. ____________ their interest in comets, they decided to study astronomy. (Because, Because of)
Ex VII. fill in the blanks with the correct connecting adverbs chosen from the pairs given in brackets.
1. The work was new to me. ____________, it did not seem difficult. (Consequently, Nevertheless)
2. Continue along Queen Street. ____________ turn left. (Then, Therefore)
3. It was very misty. ______________, we could not get a clear view of the mountain. (Hence, However)
4. We had walked several miles. ____________, we did not feel tired. (Accordingly, Still)
5. She is a talented actress. ____________, she is very beautiful. (Moreover, Thus)
6. We take the bus every day. __________, we are familiar with the bus route. (Nevertheless, Thus)
7. The child was sleepy. ______________, we went home early. (Otherwise, Therefore)
8. The food was delicious. _____________, the service was excellent. (Likewise, Nevertheless)
9. We looked everywhere. _____________, we could not find the keys. (However, Thus)
10. The book is long. _____________, the vocabulary is difficult. (Consequently, Furthermore)
11. Luckily, the moon was bright. ______________, we could not have seen the path. (Accordingly, Otherwise)
12. He is old. _____________, his mind is still active. (Nonetheless, Therefore)
Ex VIII. fill in the blanks with the conjunctions or connecting adverbs given in brackets. Make sure that
the sentences confirm to the rules of correct formal English. For example:
1. I have invited him. ____________, I have invited his sister. (Also, And)
2. He walked up to the door ____________ knocked. (and, likewise)
3. The bus fare is expensive; ____________, I prefer to walk. (so, therefore)
4. She is well-educated. ____________, she has very good manners. (And, Besides)
5. I would rather travel by train, ___________ the bus leaves earlier. (but, however)
6. We were born in this village; ____________, we know everyone here. (hence, so that)
7. Put less wood on the fire, ___________ it will be too smoky. (or, otherwise)
8. They got off the train. __________ they began to search for a hotel. (And, Then)
9. She studied for many months; ____________, she knew the material thoroughly. (consequently, so that)
10. The weather was hot; ____________, the air was humid. (and, moreover)
11. Please come with us, ____________ I can introduce you to my friends. (thus, so that)
12. The sun was warm, ____________ a cool breeze blew in from the sea. (but, however)
13. I have read this book before; ____________, I do not remember the plot. (but, however)
14. They were hot ____________ tired. (also, and)
15. The door was locked; ____________, we would have waited inside. (or, otherwise)
16. I have known her for many years; ____________, I understand her character well. (so that, thus)
17. We opened the window ____________ fresh air would blow into the room. (consequently, so that)
18. He is ignorant; ____________, he is lazy. (and, furthermore)
19. They visited many stores; ___________, they could not find what they were looking for. (but, however)
20. You should go to sleep now, ____________ you will be tired tomorrow. (or, otherwise)
21. I was worried; ___________, I was determined not to show it. (but, nevertheless)
Ex IX. The following sentences are incorrect, because they contain correlative conjunctions, but do not
use parallel construction. Rewrite the sentences correctly, using parallel construction. For example:
1. The train proceeded neither quickly nor was it smooth.
2. They will leave either today or they will go tomorrow.
3. The child hates both getting up in the morning and to go to bed at night.
4. She is neither kind nor has patience.
5. He is not only talented, but also he has charm.
6. The street is lined with both oak trees and there are elm trees.
7. The lecture was not only very long but also it was very dull.
8. You should either eat less, or should exercise more.
9. I am not only proud to be here, but also feel happy to meet you.
10. The town is both historical and it is picturesque.
Ex X. The following sentences are incorrect, because they present lists of ideas, but do not use parallel
construction. Rewrite the sentences correctly, using parallel construction. For example:
1. We walked out of the door, down the steps and went across the street.
2. She loves singing, dancing and to play the piano.
3. The wind moaned, shrieked and was howling.
4. The music was fast, brilliant and sounded exciting.
5. He proposes to borrow money, open a store and going into business.
6. The town boasts four libraries, two theaters and there are many schools.
7. The clouds were thick, black and looked threatening.
8. He likes running, jumping and to ride a bicycle.
9. They worked carefully, quickly and were quiet.
10. The vegetables were fresh, tender and tasted delicious.